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Encyclopedia > Large Group Awareness Training

The term Large Group Awareness Training (or LGAT) refers to training offered by some groups in what is often referred to as the human potential movement. By using the LGAT techniques, these providers claim to (among other things) increase self-awareness and manifest positive personal changes in individuals' lives.[1] Some commentators have compared LGAT programs with group therapy [citation needed] and/or with religious revival meetings[citation needed]. Michael Langone has referred to Large Group Awareness Training as new age trainings [2] and Philip Cushman referred to them as mass marathon trainings [3] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Self-consciousness. ... As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. ... Personal life (or everyday life or human existence) is an individual humans personal, private career (including, but not the same as, their employment career), and is a common notion in modern existence -- although more so in more prosperous parts of the world, such as Western Europe and North America... Group therapy is a form of psychotherapy during which one or several therapists treat a small group of clients together as a group. ... A revival meeting is a series of Christian religious services held with an eye to encourage active members of a religious body and to provoke those outside of it to become part of it. ... Michael Langone, Ph. ...


Large Group Awareness training programs often involve more than two hundred people at a time. Though early definitions cited LGATs as featuring unusually long durations, more recent texts describe the trainings as lasting from a few hours to a few days. About a million Americans have attended LGAT seminars.[4] 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Definitions of LGAT

An unrelated conference hall filled with clapping people. Large Group Awareness Training often takes place in conference-halls or hotels.
An unrelated conference hall filled with clapping people. Large Group Awareness Training often takes place in conference-halls or hotels.

DuMerton described Large Group Awareness Training as "teaching simple, but often overlooked wisdom, which takes place over the period of a few days, in which individuals receive intense, emotionally-focused instruction." [4] Rubinstein compared Large Group Awareness Training to certain principles of cognitive therapy, such as the idea that people can change their lives by interpreting the way they view external circumstances.[5] And in Consumer Research: Postcards from the edge, when discussing behavioral and economic studies, the authors contrasted the "enclosed locations" used with Large Group Awareness Trainings with the "relatively open" environment of a "variety store".[6] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Exhibition Hall of the Makaryev Fair. ... For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ... This article is about Becks Cognitive Therapy. ... Personal life (or everyday life or human existence) is an individual humans personal, private career (including, but not the same as, their employment career), and is a common notion in modern existence -- although more so in more prosperous parts of the world, such as Western Europe and North America... A 99 cent store A variety store or price-point retailer is a retail store that sells inexpensive items, usually with a single price point for all items in the store. ...


The Handbook of Group Psychotherapy described Large Group Awareness Training as focusing on "philosophical, psychological and ethical issues", as related to a desire to increase personal effectiveness in people's lives.[7] Personal life (or everyday life or human existence) is an individual humans personal, private career (including, but not the same as, their employment career), and is a common notion in modern existence -- although more so in more prosperous parts of the world, such as Western Europe and North America...


Psychologist Dennis Coon's textbook, Psychology: A Journey, defined the term "LGAT" as referring to: "programs that claim to increase self-awareness and facilitate constructive personal change."[1] Coon further defines Large Group Awareness Training in his book Introduction to Psychology.[8] A psychologist is a person who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ...


The evolution of LGAT-providers

Lou Kilzer, in The Rocky Mountain News, identified Leadership Dynamics as the first of the genre of what psychologists termed "Large Group Awareness Training"[9]. The Rocky Mountain News is a daily morning tabloid-format newspaper published in Denver, Colorado. ... Leadership Dynamics, also known as Leadership Dynamics Institute (LDI), was a private company, started by William Penn Patrick, that focused on executive training, personal development and self improvement. ...


Navarro described Mind Dynamics as the major forerunner of large group awareness trainings.[10] He went on to say that, although Mind Dynamics itself existed only briefly, it sparked an industry of similar trainings.[10]


Groups such as Lifespring, Erhard Seminars Training and The Forum claimed to have worked to improve people's overall level of satisfaction and interpersonal relations through group interaction.[11] [12][13] Lifespring can refer to a series of New Age/human potential training LGATs or to the organisation offering such trainings. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Large Group Awareness Training. ... Werner Erhard and Associates or WEA was (from February 1981 until 1991) a successor organization to est and precessor organization to Landmark Education (http://www. ... Italic text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Interaction (disambiguation). ...


Academic analyses, studies

"Large Group Awareness Training", a 1982 peer-reviewed article published in Annual Review of Psychology, sought to summarize literature on the subject of LGATs and to examine their efficacy and their relationship with more standard psychology. This article became one of the first[citation needed] academic works to analyze and describe large group awareness training from a psychological perspective. Influenced by the work of humanistic psychologists such as Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May and often considered part of the human potential movement, LGAT's are[citation needed] commercial trainings that took many techniques from encounter groups.[citation needed] Existing alongside but "outside the domains of academic psychology or psychiatry. Their measure of performance was consumer satisfaction and formal research was seldom pursued."[citation needed] Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology. ... Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. ... Rollo May (April 21, 1909, Ada, Ohio - October 22, 1994, Tiburon, California) was the best known American existential psychologist, authoring the influential book Love and Will in 1969. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The article describes an est training, and discusses the literature on the testimony of est graduates. It notes minor changes on psychological tests after the training and mentions anecdotal reports of psychiatric casualties among est trainees. The article considers how est compares to more standard psychotherapy techniques such as behavior therapy, group and existential psychotherapy before concluding with a call for "objective and rigorous research" and stating that unknown variables might have accounted for some of the positive accounts. Psychologists advised borderline or psychotic patients not to participate.[14] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Large Group Awareness Training. ... In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. ... Cognitive therapy or cognitive behavior therapy is a kind of psychotherapy used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias, and other forms of mental disorder. ... Group therapy is a form of psychotherapy during which one or several therapists treat a small group of clients together as a group. ... Existential psychotherapy is partly based on the existential belief that human beings are alone in the world. ... Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV Personality Disorders 301. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a loss of contact with reality. Stedmans Medical Dictionary defines psychosis as a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration...


Psychological factors cited by academics include emotional "flooding", catharsis, universality (identification with others), the instillation of hope, identification and what Sartre called "uncontested authorship."[14] Flooding is a psychotherapeutic technique used to help patients heal their traumatic memories. ... Catharsis is the Greek Katharsis word meaning purification or cleansing derived from the ancient Greek gerund καθαίρειν transliterated as kathairein to purify, purge, and adjective katharos pure or clean (ancient and modern Greek: καθαρός). // The term in drama refers to a sudden emotional breakdown or climax that constitutes overwhelming feelings of great... See also: universalism; Self-organization, Complexity General study of systems Universality is a meta-theory arguing that ostensibly discrete systems are part of a larger complex system that extends across several scales (spatially and temporally), and emerges in patterns during criticality. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ...


In 1989 researchers from the University of Connecticut received the "National Consultants to Management Award" from the American Psychological Association, for their study: Evaluating a Large Group Awareness Training.[15] The study concluded that participation in the LGAT studied had very little impact on participants. The University of Connecticut is the State of Connecticuts land-grant university. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... Evaluating a Large Group Awareness Training: A Longitudinal Study of Psychosocial Effects is a non-fiction psychology book on Large Group Awareness Training, published in 1990 by Springer-Verlag. ...


Psychologist Chris Mathe has written in the interests of consumer-protection, encouraging potential attendees of LGATs to discuss such trainings with any current therapist or counselor, to examine the principles underlying the program, and to determine pre-screening methods, the training of facilitators, the full cost of the training and of any suggested follow-up care.[16] Consumer protection is a form of government regulation which protects the interests of consumers. ...


LGAT Techniques

Finkelstein's 1982 article provides a detailed description of the structure and techniques of an Erhard Seminars Training event, noting an authoritarian demeanor of the trainer, physical strains of a long schedule on the participants and the similarity of many techniques to those used in some group therapy and encounter groups.[14] The academic textbook, Handbook of Group Psychotherapy regards Large Group Awareness Training organizations as "less open to leader differences", because they follow a "detailed written plan" that does not vary from one training to the next.[7] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Large Group Awareness Training. ... Group therapy is a form of psychotherapy during which one or several therapists treat a small group of clients together as a group. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ...


Specific techniques used in Large Group Awareness Trainings may include:

LGATs utilize such techniques during long sessions, sometimes called a marathon session when lasting for eight hours or more.[18] For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Biofeedback mechanism. ... Autosuggestion is a process by which an individual trains the subconscious mind to believe something, or systematically schematizes the persons own mental associations, usually for a given purpose. ... Relaxation techniques are used by people who wish to relax, for a wide variety of reasons. ... Visualization can refer to: Graphic Visualization as in any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate any message. ... This article is not about the academic discipline of neurolinguistics which investigates the brain mechanisms underlying language. ... For other senses of this word, see Marathon (disambiguation). ...


In his book Life 102, LGAT participant and former trainer Peter McWilliams describes the basic technique of marathon trainings as pressure/release and asserts that advertising uses pressure/release "all the time", as do "good cop/bad cop" police-interrogations and revival meetings. By spending approximately half the time making a person feel bad and then suddenly reversing the feeling through effusive praise, the programs cause participants to experience a stress-reaction and an "endorphin high." McWilliams gives examples of various LGAT activities called processes with names such as "love bomb," "lifeboat", "cocktail party" and "cradling" which take place over many hours and days, physically exhausting the participants to make them more susceptible to the trainer's message, whether in the participants' best interests or not.[19] Life 102: What to Do When Your Guru Sues You. ... Peter Alexander McWilliams (August 5, 1949 - June 14, 2000) was a writer and cannabis activist. ... Advert redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A revival meeting is a series of Christian religious services held with an eye to encourage active members of a religious body and to provoke those outside of it to become part of it. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... For other uses, see Endorphin (disambiguation). ...


Although extremely critical of some LGATs, McWilliams found positive value in others, asserting that they varied not in technique but in the application of technique.[19]


Evaluations of LGATs

Finkelstein noted the many difficulties in evaluating LGATs, from proponents' explicit rejection of certain study models to difficulty in establishing a rigorous control group.[14] In some cases, organizations under study have partially funded research into themselves.[20] From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ...


Not all professional researchers view LGATs favorably. Researchers such as psychologist Philip Cushman,[21] for example, found that the program he studied "consists of a pre-meditated attack on the self". A 1983 study on Lifespring[22] found that "although participants often experience a heightened sense of well-being as a consequence of the training, the phenomenon is essentially pathological", meaning that, in the program they studied, "the training systematically undermines ego functioning and promotes regression to the extent that reality testing is significantly impaired". Lieberman's 1987 study,[20] funded partially by Lifespring, noted that 5 out of a sample of 289 participants experienced "stress reactions" including one "transitory psychotic episode". He commented: "Whether [these five] would have experienced such stress under other conditions cannot be answered. The clinical evidence, however, is that the reactions were directly attributable to the large group awareness training." Lifespring can refer to a series of New Age/human potential training LGATs or to the organisation offering such trainings. ... eGO is a company that builds electric motor scooters which are becoming popular for urban transportation and vacation use. ... For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ... Lifespring can refer to a series of New Age/human potential training LGATs or to the organisation offering such trainings. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a loss of contact with reality. Stedmans Medical Dictionary defines psychosis as a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration...


In Coon's psychology textbook, Introduction to Psychology, the author references many other studies, which postulate that many of the "claimed benefits" of Large Group Awareness Training actually take the form of "a kind of therapy placebo effect"[8]. DuMerton writes that "... there is a lack of scientific evidence to quantify the longer-term positive outcomes and changes objectively ..."[4] Jarvis described Large Group Awareness Training as "educationally dubious" in the 2002 book The Theory & Practice of Teaching.[23]


Controversial tactics sometimes used by LGAT groups have included physical violence, isolation, entrapment, brainwashing, and sexual experiences.[24] Tapper mentions that "some [unspecified] large group-awareness training and psychotherapy groups" exemplify non-religious "cults".[25] Benjamin criticizes LGAT groups for their high prices and spiritual subtleties.[26] In an academic research-paper on "Choices", a type of LGAT, researchers credited LGAT programs with having had perhaps a million American attendees, many of whom gave positive testimonials of "healing effects" and "positive outcomes in their lives".[4] Brainwashing (also known as thought reform or re-education) consists of any systematic effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person against his/her will, usually beliefs in conflict with the persons prior beliefs and knowledge. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ...


LGATs in comparison with cults

The American Psychological Association commissioned and subsequently rejected[27] and strongly criticized [28] a report by the APA Task Force on Deceptive and Indirect Techniques of Persuasion and Control, in which the so-called "anti-cult" psychologist Margaret Singer included large group awareness trainings as one example of what she called "coercive persuasion". The APA characterized Singer's hypotheses as "uninformed speculations based on skewed data"[28] and stated that the report "lacked scientific rigor and an evenhanded critical approach to carry the imprimatur of the APA." The APA also claimed that "the specific methods by which Drs. Singer and Benson have arrived at their conclusions have also been rejected by all serious scholars in the field."[29] Singer sued the APA, and lost on June 17, 1994[30] After the APA spurned the report, Singer reworked much of the rejected material into the book Cults in our Midst: The Hidden Menace in Our Everyday Lives, which she co-authored with Janja Lalich. The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... The APA Task Force on Deceptive and Indirect Techniques of Persuasion and Control (DIMPAC) was formed at the request of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1983. ... It has been suggested that Opposition to cults and new religious movements be merged into this article or section. ... Margaret Thaler Singer (1921 - 2003) was a clinical psychologist and emeritus professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, USA. Dr. Singer was born in Denver and received her bachelors, masters and doctoral degrees from the University of Denver. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Brainwashing. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cults in Our Midst: The Hidden Menace in Our Everyday Lives is a nonfiction psychology book on cults, by Margaret Singer and Janja Lalich, Ph. ... Janja Lalich, Ph. ...


Singer and Lalich claimed "large group awareness trainings" tend to last at least four days and usually five. The book mentions Erhard Seminars Training and its derivatives such as the Forum, "Lifespring, Actualizations, MSIA/Insight and PSI World.[31] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Large Group Awareness Training. ... Lifespring can refer to a series of New Age/human potential training LGATs or to the organisation offering such trainings. ... The Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness (or MSIA, sometimes pronounced messiah) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit religious corporation, incorporated in California on June 25, 1971. ...


In her book, Singer differentiated between the usage of the terms cult and Large Group Awareness Training.[31] Singer also writes that employees taking part in a company-wide Large Group Awareness Training program not only complained about attempted religious conversion, but also objected to the specific techniques used.[31] Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ...


An article in Cult Observer by Michael Langone Ph.D. analysed Large Group Awareness Training.[2] Langone noted comparisons between Large Group Awareness Training and "brainwashing" and "cults", and posited that many LGAT groups have an implied or even explicit religious nature.[2] Langone concluded by stating that he knew of no specific academic research which showed that Large Group Awareness Trainings have positive behavioral effects.[2] Langone cited a study which showed no difference between the Large Group Awareness Training test-subjects and the control group. [2][32] Cultic Studies Review: An Internet Journal of Research, News & Opinion is the successor to the academic journal the Cultic Studies Journal. ... Michael Langone, Ph. ... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Brainwashing (also known as thought reform or re-education) consists of any systematic effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person against his/her will, usually beliefs in conflict with the persons prior beliefs and knowledge. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ...


The International Cultic Studies Association has grouped some Large Group Awareness Training organizations together with research about them.[33] The International Cultic Studies Association (ICSA) is: ... an interdisciplinary network of academicians, professionals, former group members, and families who study and educate the public about social-psychological influence and control, authoritarianism, and zealotry in cultic groups, alternative movements, and other environments. ...


Lorne Dawson stated in his book on cults and new religious movements that both cults and Large Group Awareness Training use similar thought-reform techniques.[34] This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... Thought reform is the alteration of a persons basic attitudes and beliefs by outside manipulation. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Coon, Dennis (2004). Psychology: A Journey. Thomson Wadsworth, 520, 528, 538. ISBN 0534632645. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Langone, Michael (1998). "Large Group Awareness Trainings". Cult Observer 15 (1). ISSN 1539-0152. 
  3. ^ Mass Marathon Trainings, excerpted, The Politics of Transformation: Recruitment - Indoctrination Processes in a Mass Marathon Psychology Organization, St. Martin's Press 1993, Philip Cushman, Ph.D.
  4. ^ a b c d DuMerton, M.A., C. (July 2004). "Tragic Optimism and Choices: The Life Attitudes Scale with a First Nations Sample". (Master's Thesis) (Master of Arts, Graduate Counseling Psychology Program). Trinity Western University (Hosted on University Web site). Retrieved on 2007-04-14. 
  5. ^ Rubinstein, Gidi (2005). "Characteristics of participants in the Forum, psychotherapy clients, and control participants: A comparative study". Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 78 (4): 481-492. British Psychological Society. doi:10.1348/147608305X42721. ISSN 1476-0835. 
  6. ^ Brown, Stephen I.; Darach Turley (1997). Consumer Research: Postcards from the edge. Routledge, 279. ISBN 041515684X. 
  7. ^ a b Burlingame, Gary M. (1994). Handbook of Group Psychotherapy: An Empirical and Clinical Synthesis. John Wiley and Sons, 528, 532, 535, 539, 549, 550, 555, 556, 581, 583.. ISBN 0471555924. 
  8. ^ a b Coon, Dennis (2003). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior. Thomson Wadsworth, Pp. 648, 649, 655.. ISBN 053461227X. 
  9. ^ Kilzer, Lou. "Desperate Measures Network of Behavior Modification Compounds Known as Teen Help Has Straightened Out Hundreds of Defiant Adolescents, But Its Methods Aren't For the Faint-hearted.", Rocky Mountain News, E. W. Scripps Company, July 18, 1999. 
    "The first of the genre psychologists call "large group awareness training" was the Leadership Dynamics Institute..."
  10. ^ a b Navarro,, Espy M.; Robert Navarro (2002). Self Realization: The Est and Forum Phenomena in American Society. Xlibris Corporation, 54. ISBN 1401042201. 
    Page. 54. :
    "Mind Dynamics, founded by Alexander Everett, was the major forerunner of large group awareness trainings. Although Mind Dynamics was only in existence for a few years, it sparked an entire industry of similar trainings."
  11. ^ Brewer, Maryilyn B.; Miles Hewstone (2004). Applied Social Psychology. Blackwell Publishing, Pp. 81.. ISBN 1405110678. 
  12. ^ Tindale, R. Scott (2001). Group Processes: Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology. Blackwell Publishing, 630. ISBN 1405106530. 
    "EST, FORUM and LIFESPRING are all examples of LGATs, for members seek to improve their overall level of satisfaction and interpersonal relations by carrying out such experiential exercises as role-playing, group singing and chanting, and guided group interaction."
  13. ^ Zeig, Jeffrey K. (1997). The Evolution of Psychotherapy: The Third Conference. Psychology Press, Pp. 352, 357.. ISBN 0876308132. 
    "Training or T-groups, sensitivity training, and encounter groups spread and were followed by commercially sold large group awareness training programs, such as est, Lifespring and other programs."
  14. ^ a b c d Finkelstein, P.; Wenegrat, B.; Yalom, I. (1982). "Large Group Awareness Training". Annual Review of Psychology 33: 515-539. Calvin Perry Stone. ISSN 0066-4308. 
  15. ^ Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Silver, Chinsky, Goff, Klar (1990). Evaluating a Large Group Awareness Training. Springer-Verlag, 142. ISBN 0387973206 , ISBN 978-0387973203. 
    Page. vii. -- "The research reported in this volume was awarded the American Psychological Association, Division 13, National Consultants to Management Award, August 13, 1989."
  16. ^ Choosing a Personal Growth Program: Ten questions to help you make an informed decision, Chris Mathe, Ph. D., 1999
  17. ^ Partridge, C. (2004). New Religions: A Guide; New Religious Movements, Sects and Alternative Spiritualities. Oxford University Press, 407. ISBN 0-19-522042-0. 
  18. ^ Paglia, Carmen (Winter 2003). "Cults and Cosmic Consciousness: Religious Vision in the American 1960s". Arion 10 (3). Boston University. 
  19. ^ a b Peter McWilliams, Life 102: What to Do When Your Guru Sues You (Prelude Press: Los Angeles, 1994). ISBN 0-931580-34-X., pp 6-7.
  20. ^ a b Lieberman, "Effects of Large Group Awareness Training on Participants' Psychiatric Status", American Journal of Psychiatry v 144 p 460-464, April 1987.
  21. ^ Cushman, "Iron Fists/Velvet Gloves: A Study of A Mass Marathon Psychology Training", Psychotherapy vol 26, Spring 1989.
  22. ^ Haaken, J. and Adams, R., "Pathology as 'Personal Growth': A Participant-Observation Study of Lifespring Training", Psychiatry, vol 46, August 1983.
  23. ^ Jarvis, Peter (2002). The Theory & Practice of Teaching. Routledge, 97. ISBN 0749434090. 
  24. ^ Weir, D., An Odyssey of Sexual/Gender Evolution: An Autoethnographical Study of the United States from the 1950s to the Present, April 2002, (available online)
  25. ^ Tapper, A (September 2002). "The Impact of Cults on Health". Nursing Spectrum. 
  26. ^ Benjamin, Ph.D., Elliot (June 2005). "Spirituality and Cults". Integral Science. 
  27. ^ http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/cultsect/mdtaskforce/bserp_loomis.htm
  28. ^ a b http://www.cesnur.org/testi/APA.htm
  29. ^ http://www.cesnur.org/testi/molko_brief.htm
  30. ^ http://www.cesnur.org/testi/singer.htm
  31. ^ a b c Intruding into the Workplace, Dr. Margaret Singer, excerpted from Cults in our Midst (book), 1995
  32. ^ Hosford, Ray, E., Moss, C. Scott, Cavior, Helene, & Kerish, Burton. Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 1982, Manuscript #2419, American Psychological Association
  33. ^ Large Group Awareness Trainings (LGAT). Cultic Studies Journal, International Cultic Studies Association. Archived from the original on 2006-01-28. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  34. ^ Dawson, Lorne L. (2003). Cults and New Religious Movements: A Reader. Blackwell Publishing, 149. ISBN 1405101814. 

Cultic Studies Review: An Internet Journal of Research, News & Opinion is the successor to the academic journal the Cultic Studies Journal. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Headquartered in the legendary Flatiron Building in New York City, St. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Trinity Western University (TWU) is a private, Christian liberal arts university located in Langley, British Columbia, Canada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... The British Psychological Society (BPS) is the representative body for psychologists and psychology in the United Kingdom. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Rocky Mountain News is a daily morning tabloid-format newspaper published in Denver, Colorado. ... The E.W. Scripps Company (NYSE: SSP) is an American media conglomerate founded by Edward W. Scripps on November 2, 1878, originally known as the Cleveland Penny Press. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Evaluating a Large Group Awareness Training: A Longitudinal Study of Psychosocial Effects is a non-fiction psychology book on Large Group Awareness Training, published in 1990 by Springer-Verlag. ... This article is about the year. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Margaret Thaler Singer (1921 - 2003) was a clinical psychologist and emeritus professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, USA. Dr. Singer was born in Denver and received her bachelors, masters and doctoral degrees from the University of Denver. ... Cults in Our Midst: The Hidden Menace in Our Everyday Lives is a nonfiction psychology book on cults, by Margaret Singer and Janja Lalich, Ph. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... Cultic Studies Review: An Internet Journal of Research, News & Opinion is the successor to the academic journal the Cultic Studies Journal. ... The International Cultic Studies Association (ICSA) is: ... an interdisciplinary network of academicians, professionals, former group members, and families who study and educate the public about social-psychological influence and control, authoritarianism, and zealotry in cultic groups, alternative movements, and other environments. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Margaret Thaler Singer (1921 - 2003) was a clinical psychologist and emeritus professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, USA. Dr. Singer was born in Denver and received her bachelors, masters and doctoral degrees from the University of Denver. ... Margaret Thaler Singer (1921 - 2003) was a clinical psychologist and emeritus professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, USA. Dr. Singer was born in Denver and received her bachelors, masters and doctoral degrees from the University of Denver. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... Peter Alexander McWilliams (August 5, 1949 - June 14, 2000) was a writer and cannabis activist. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Evaluating a Large Group Awareness Training: A Longitudinal Study of Psychosocial Effects is a non-fiction psychology book on Large Group Awareness Training, published in 1990 by Springer-Verlag. ... The Springer-Verlag (pronounced SHPRING er FAIR lahk) was a worldwide publishing company base in Germany. ... Robert Todd Carroll (1945-), Ph. ... The Skeptics Dictionary is a web site with a collection of cross-referenced skeptical essays by Robert Todd Carroll, PhD. It primarily exposes claims that its editors consider pseudoscientific (sometimes in a pseudoskeptical fashion though). ... The Wiley Building in Hoboken, New Jersey, located on the waterfront between River Street and Frank Sinatra Drive. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... San Francisco State University (commonly referred to as San Francisco State, SF State, State and SFSU) is a public university located in the southwestern San Francisco, California, bordering Lake Merced and Lowell High School, near Fort Funston and Daly City, near the San Mateo County line. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Headquartered in the legendary Flatiron Building in New York City, St. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The University of Denver (DU) is an independent, coeducational, four-year university in Denver, Colorado. ... Michael Langone, Ph. ... Cultic Studies Review: An Internet Journal of Research, News & Opinion is the successor to the academic journal the Cultic Studies Journal. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The University of Leeds is a major teaching and research university, one of the largest in the United Kingdom with over 32,000 full-time students. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Salon. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Large Group Awareness Training (1495 words)
A large group awareness training (LGAT) program is a personal development training program in which dozens to hundreds of people are given several hours to several days of intense instruction aimed at helping participants begin to discover what is hindering them from achieving their full potential and living more satisfied lives.
LGAT programs have also been developed for corporations and public agencies, where the focus is on improving management skills, conflict resolution, general institutional strengthening, and dealing with the eternal problem of employees who drink too much or use too many drugs.
LGAT gurus claim to know why their participants are not happy or why they are not living fulfilled lives.
Large Group Awareness Training - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (700 words)
Large Group Awareness Training or LGAT is a mechanism for promoting awareness change and rapid, thorough commitment to a cause or idea.
LGATs tend to be brief but intense sessions of a few hours or days in which, ideally, participants adopt the message of the 'training' promptly and enthusiastically.
Critics see the classic LGAT as utilizing peer pressure and group dynamics in a high-pressure sales environment that promotes uncritical psychobabbling togetherness and thus markets nebulous memes, and as fostering a propensity to recruit new participants into a participation-oriented pyramid scheme under the guise of providing useful training.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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