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Encyclopedia > Lard
Lard
Lard

Wet-rendered lard, from pork fatback. // Lard is a hardcore punk/Industrial band founded in 1989 as a side project by Jello Biafra (vocals), Al Jourgensen (guitar), Paul Barker (bass), and Jeff Ward (drums). ... Marc Lard Riley is a musician, alternative rock critic and DJ on BBC 6 Music where he presents Rocket Science on Saturday afternoons and Mint on Sunday evenings. ... Barding and larding consist of adding fat on or in a piece of meat for roasting, to keep it juicy. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 548 pixelsFull resolution (1496 × 1024 pixel, file size: 486 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Homemade lard, wet-rendered from pork fatback. ...


Fat composition
Saturated fats 38–43 %:
Palmitic acid: 25–28 %
Stearic acid: 12–14 %
Myristic acid: 1 %
Unsaturated fats 56–62 %
    Monounsaturated fats 47–50%:
Oleic acid: 44–47 %
Palmitoleic acid: 3 %
    Polyunsaturated fats Linoleic acid: 6–10 % [1] [2]

Properties
Food energy per 100g 3770 kJ (900 kcal)
Melting point backfat: 30–40 °C (86–104 °F)
leaf fat: 43–48 °C (110–118 °F)
mixed fat: 36–45 °C (97–113 °F)
Smoke point 121-218 °C (250–425 °F)
Specific gravity at 20 °C 0.917–0.938
Iodine value 45–75
Acid value 3.4
Saponification value 190–205
Unsaponifiable 0.8 % [2]

Lard refers to pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms. Lard was commonly used in many cuisines as a cooking fat or shortening, or as a spread similar to butter. Its use in contemporary cuisine has diminished because of health concerns posed by its saturated fat content and its often negative image; however, many contemporary cooks and bakers favor it over other fats for select uses. The culinary qualities of lard vary somewhat depending on the part of the pig from which the fat was taken and how the lard was processed. Lard is still commonly used to manufacture soap. A saturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are no double bonds between the carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in animals and plants. ... A spacefilling model of the Stearic Acid molecule A diagram of the Stearic Acid molecule Stearic acid (IUPAC systematic name: octadecanoic acid) is one of the useful types of saturated fatty acids that comes from many animal and vegetable fats and oils. ... Myristic acid, also called Tetradecanoic acid, is a common saturated fatty acid found in dairy products. ... An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. ... In nutrition, monounsaturated fats are dietary fats with one double-bonded carbon in the molecule, with all of the others single-bonded carbons. ... Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... Palmitoleic acid, or (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid, is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is a common constituent of the glycerides of human adipose tissue. ... // In nutrition, polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ... Linoleic acid (LA) is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The smoke point refers to the point in which a cooking fat or oil is heated until it breaks down. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... The iodine value (or iodine adsorption value or iodine number) in chemistry is the mass of iodine in grams that is consumed by 100 grams of a chemical substance. ... In chemistry, acid value (or neutralization number or acid number or acidity) is the mass of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in milligrams that is required to neutralize one gram of chemical substance. ... Saponification value (or saponification number, also referred to as sap in short) represents the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide required to saponify 1g of fat under the conditions specified. ... Unsaponifiables are components of an oil, fat, wax, etc. ... Trinomial name Sus scrofa domestica Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Sus domestica The domestic pig (or in some areas hog) is normally given the scientific name Sus scrofa domestica, though some taxonomists use the term , reserving for the wild boar. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Rendering is a process that converts waste animal tissue into stable, value-added materials. ... Cooking oil is purified fat of plant or animal origin, which is liquid at room temperature. ... Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it inhibits the formation of long gluten strands in wheat-based doughs, giving them a short texture (as in shortbread). ... Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured) or small blocks, and often served using a butterknife. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Lard production

Lard can be obtained from any part of the pig as long as there is a high concentration of fatty tissue. The highest grade of lard, known as leaf lard, is obtained from the "flare" fat deposit surrounding the kidneys and inside the loin. The next highest grade of lard is obtained from fatback, the hard fat between the back skin and flesh of the pig. The lowest grade (for purposes of rendering into lard) is obtained from the soft caul fat surrounding digestive organs, such as small intestines, though caul fat is often used directly as a wrapping for roasting lean meats or in the manufacture of pâtés.[3] [4] [5] Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... A loincloth is one-piece garment, sometimes kept in place by a belt, that is used: in societies where there is no more advanced clothing as an undergarment to express soberness Mohandas Gandhi wore a dhoti, a Hindu loincloth, as a way of identifying with the poorest Indians, even though... Fatback is the layer of fat along the back of a pig, used as a cut of meat. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Diagram showing the small intestine In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine (colon). ... This article is about the food. ...


Lard may be rendered by either of two processes, wet rendering or dry rendering. In wet rendering, pig fat is boiled in water or steamed at a high temperature and the lard, which is insoluble in water, is skimmed off of the surface of the mixture, or it is separated in an industrial centrifuge. In dry rendering, the fat is exposed to high heat in a pan or oven without the presence of water (a process similar to frying bacon). The two processes yield somewhat differing products. Wet-rendered lard has a more neutral flavor, a lighter color, and a high smoke point. Dry-rendered lard is somewhat more browned in color and flavor and has relatively lower smoke point.[6] [7] Rendering is an industrial process that converts waste animal tissue into stable, value-added materials. ... This article is about the scientific device. ... The smoke point refers to the point in which a cooking fat or oil is heated until it breaks down. ...


Industrially-produced lard, including much of the lard sold in supermarkets, is rendered from a mixture of high and low quality fat sources from throughout the pig.[8] It is typically hydrogenated (which produces trans fats as a byproduct), and often treated with bleaching and deodorizing agents, emulsifiers, and antioxidants, such as BHT.[4] [9] Such treatment makes lard shelf stable. (Untreated lard must be refrigerated or frozen to prevent rancidity.)[10] [11] Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... An antioxidant is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of other chemicals. ... Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is the organic compound with the formula MeC6H2(CMe3)2OH (Me = methyl). ... In the food processing industry, shelf stable refers to a version of a product that typically requires refrigeration, that has been altered so it can be safely stored and sold in sealed container at room temperature while still having a useful shelf life (for instance, the first shelf stable formalation...


Consumers seeking a higher-quality source of lard typically seek out artisanal producers of rendered lard, or render it themselves from leaf lard or fatback.[8] [11] [12] [13] [14]


A byproduct of dry-rendering lard is deep-fried meat, skin and membrane tissue known as cracklings.[4] A Deep-fried Twinkie Deep-frying is a cooking method whereby food is submerged in hot oil or fat. ... Pork rinds in bags, from the central United States 99g Pork rind is the cooked skin of a pig. ...


History and cultural use

Unrendered lard, being diced to prepare tourtière.
Unrendered lard, being diced to prepare tourtière.

Lard has always been an important cooking and baking staple in cultures where pork is an important dietary item, the fat of pigs often being as valuable a product as their meat.[4] Similarly, it is also prohibited by dietary laws that forbid the consumption of pork, such as kashrut and halal. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 140 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lard Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 140 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lard Metadata This file contains additional... A tourtière is a meat pie originating from Quebec, usually made with ground pork and/or veal, or beef. ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ...


During the 19th century, lard was used in a similar fashion as butter in North America and many European nations. Lard was also held at the same level of popularity as butter in the early 20th century and was widely used as a substitute for butter during World War II. As a readily available by-product of modern pork production, lard had been cheaper and more flavorful than most vegetable oils, and it was common in many people's diet until the industrial revolution made vegetable oils more common and more affordable. Vegetable shortenings were developed in the early 1900s, which made it possible to use vegetable-based fats in baking and in other uses where solid fats were called for. For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it inhibits the formation of long gluten strands in wheat-based doughs, giving them a short texture (as in shortbread). ...


Toward the late 20th century, lard began to be regarded as less healthy than vegetable oils (such as olive and sunflower oil) because of its high saturated fatty acid and cholesterol content. However, despite its reputation, lard has less saturated fat, more unsaturated fat, and less cholesterol than an equal amount of butter by weight.[2] Unlike many margarines and vegetable shortenings, unhydrogenated lard contains no trans fat. Despite its similar chemical constituency and lower saturated fat content than butter, lard typically incites much consternation and disapproval from many people in the English-speaking world. This may stem from attitudes and the perceived nature of the source animal for lard, or the methods required to obtain the fat from its source.[citation needed] It is also based on the image of lard as a "poverty food".[4] A vegetable oil or vegoil is an oil extracted from oilseeds or another plant source. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary...


Many restaurants in the western nations have eliminated the use of lard in their kitchens because of the religious and health-related dietary restrictions of many of their customers. Many industrial bakers substitute beef tallow for lard in order to compensate for the lack of mouthfeel in many baked goods and free their food products from pork-based dietary restrictions. Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... In many areas related to the testing and evaluating of foodstuffs,such as wine-tasting and rheology, mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth from initial perception on the palate, to first bite, through mastication to swallowing. ...


However, in the 1990s and early 2000s, the unique culinary properties of lard became widely recognized by chefs and bakers, leading to a partial rehabilitation of this fat among "foodies". This trend has been partially driven by negative publicity about the trans fat content of the partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in vegetable shortening. Chef and food writer Rick Bayless is a prominent proponent of the virtues of lard for certain types of cooking.[12] [13] [14] [15] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... Rick Bayless Rick Bayless is a chef who specializes in traditional Mexican food with modern interpretations. ...


It is also again becoming popular in the United Kingdom among aficionados of traditional British cuisine. This led to a "lard crisis" in early 2006 in which British demand for lard was not met due to demand by Poland and Hungary (who had recently joined the European Union) for fatty cuts of pork that had served as an important source of lard.[16] [17]


Culinary use

A slice of bread spread with lard was a typical staple in traditional rural cuisine of many countries.
A slice of bread spread with lard was a typical staple in traditional rural cuisine of many countries.

Lard is one of the few edible oils with a relatively high smoke point, attributable to its high saturated fatty acids content. Pure lard is especially useful for cooking since it produces little smoke when heated and has a distinct taste when combined with other foods. Many chefs and bakers deem lard a superior cooking fat or shortening because of lard's range of applications and taste. Image File history File links Chleb_ze_smalcem. ... Image File history File links Chleb_ze_smalcem. ... The smoke point refers to the point in which a cooking fat or oil is heated until it breaks down. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... A chef (also executive chef or chef de cuisine), from the French for chief or head person, is the executive in charge of a kitchen, responsible for recipe and menu creation, staff training, and overseeing all cooking. ... Bakery foods A baker is someone who bakes and sells bread, cakes and similar foods. ...

Lard
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 900 kcal   3770 kJ
Carbohydrates     0 g
Fat 100 g
- saturated  39 g
- monounsaturated  45 g  
- polyunsaturated  11 g  
Protein 0 g
Cholesterol 95 mg
Zinc 0.1 mg
Selenium 0.2 mg
Fat percentage can vary.
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Because of the relatively large fat crystals found in lard, it is extremely effective as a shortening in baking. Pie crusts made with lard tend to be more flaky than those made with butter. Many cooks employ both types of fat in their pastries to combine the shortening properties of lard with the flavor of butter.[4] [18] [19] Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health, see Diet and heart disease. ... // In nutrition, polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Some examples of baked food. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... Pastry the name given to various kinds of dough made from ingredients such as flour, butter and eggs, that are rolled out thinly and used as the base for baked goods. ...


Lard was once widely used in the cuisines of Europe, China, and the New World and still plays a significant role in British, Central European, Mexican, and Chinese cuisines. In British cuisine, lard is used as a traditional ingredient in mince pies and Christmas puddings, lardy cake and for frying fish and chips, as well as many other uses.[16] [17] See the individual entries for: // Belarusian cuisine Bulgarian cuisine Czech cuisine Hungarian cuisine Jewish cuisine Polish cuisine Romanian cuisine Russian cuisine Slovak cuisine Slovenian cuisine Ukrainian cuisine British cuisine English cuisine Scottish cuisine Welsh cuisine Anglo-Indian cuisine Modern British cuisine Nordic cuisine Danish cuisine Finnish cuisine Icelandic cuisine Lappish... Lardy Cake, also known as Lardy Bread, Lardy Johns, Dough Cake or Fourses Cake is a traditional bread from England. ... A serving of fish and chips Fish and chips (sometimes written fish n chips), a popular take-away food with British origins, consists of deep-fried fish in batter or breadcrumbs with deep-fried chipped (slab-cut) potatoes. ...


Lard consumed as a spread on bread was once very common in Europe and North America, especially those areas where dairy fats and vegetable oils were rare.[4] Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured) or small blocks, and often served using a butterknife. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ...


Lard generally refers to wet-rendered lard in English, which is has a very mild, neutral flavor, as opposed to the more noticeably pork flavored dry rendered lard, which is also referred to as dripping or schmalz. Dripping (or "schmalz") sandwiches are still popular in several European countries - in Hungary they're known as "Zsíroskenyér" or "Zsírosdeszka", and in Germany pork fat is seasoned to make "Schmalzbrot". Similar snacks are sometimes served with beer in Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia. They are generally topped with onions, served with salt and paprika, and eaten as a side-dish with beer. All of these are commonly translated on menus as "lard" sandwiches, perhaps due to the lack of familiarity of of most contemporary English native speakers with dripping. Attempts to use Hungarian "Zsir" or Polish "Smalec" in British recipes calling for lard will soon reveal the difference between the wet-rendered lard and dripping.[20] [21] In Taiwan, Hong Kong as well as many parts of China, lard was often consumed mixed into cooked rice along with soy sauce to make "lard rice" (豬油拌飯 or 豬油撈飯). This is less commonly served in modern times due to concerns with saturated fats.[citation needed] For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ...


Other uses

Rendered lard can be used to produce biofuel [22] and soap. Lard is also useful as a cutting fluid in machining. Its use in machining has declined since the mid-20th century as other specially engineered cutting fluids became prominent. However, it is still a viable option. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... Cutting fluid or coolant is liquid used to cool and lubricate the cutting edges of machine tools and the pieces they are shaping. ... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ...


Nutritional and chemical properties

(See infoboxes for exact values.)


Pigs that have been fed different diets will have lard with a significantly different fatty acid content and iodine number. Peanut-fed hogs or the acorn-fed pigs raised for Jamón ibérico therefore produce a somewhat different kind of lard compared to pigs raised in North American farms that are fed corn.[2] [23] Not to be confused with fats. ... The iodine number in chemistry is the mass of iodine in grams that is consumed by 100 grams of a chemical substance. ... Black leg Jamón Ibérico . ...


Similar fats

Cooking fat obtained from cattle or sheep is known as suet or tallow. The fat of chickens, ducks, or geese has no special English name, except in Jewish cuisine, where it is known as schmaltz. Bacon grease is sometimes also used in a culinary capacity. For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Species See text. ... Suet is raw beef or mutton fat, especially that found around the loins and kidneys. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... Alternate uses: Chicken (disambiguation) Binomial name Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758) A chicken is a type of domesticated bird which is usually raised as a type of poultry. ... The word duck was also used as slang for the WWII amphibious vehicle called a DUKW. It is also a cricketing term denoting a batsman being dismissed with a score of zero; see golden duck. ... Other uses: Goose (disambiguation) Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ... Jewish cuisine is a collection of international cookery traditions linked by Jewish dietary laws (kashrut) and Jewish holiday traditions. ... Fat percentage can vary. ... Bacon grease, also known as the drippings. ...


See also

Look up Lard in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Lardy cake, an English bread with heavy lard content
  • Isterband ("Lard-ribbon"), a Swedish-style sausage that doesn't contain lard

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Lardy Cake, also known as Lardy Bread, Lardy Johns, Dough Cake or Fourses Cake is a traditional bread from England. ... Isterband (Swedish: lard-ribbon) is a coarsely ground, lightly smoked sausage from Sweden. ...

References

  1. ^ National Research Council. (1976). Fat Content and Composition of Animal Products.; p. 203. Washington, DC: Printing and Publishing Office, National Academy of Science. ISBN 0-309-02440-4
  2. ^ a b c d Ockerman, Herbert W. (1991). Source book for food scientists (Second Edition). Westport, CN: AVI Publishing Company.
  3. ^ Davidson, Alan. (2002). The Penguin Companion to Food. New York: Penguin Books. "Caul"; p 176–177. ISBN 0-14-20-0163-5
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Davidson, Alan. (2002). The Penguin Companion to Food. New York: Penguin Books. "Lard"; p 530–531. ISBN 0-14-20-0163-5
  5. ^ Ockerman, Herbert W. and Basu, Lopa. (2006). Edible rendering – rendered products for human use. In: Meeker DL (ed). Essential Rendering: All About The Animal By-Products Industry. Arlington, VA: National Renderers Association. p 95–110. ISBN 0-9654660-3-5 (Warning: large document).
  6. ^ Moustafa, Ahmad and Stauffer, Clyde. (1997). Bakery Fats. Brussels: American Soybean Association.
  7. ^ Rombaur, Irma S, et al. (1997). Joy of Cooking (revised ed). New York: Scribner. "About lard and other animal fats"; p 1069. ISBN 0-684-81870-1
  8. ^ a b "Ask Cook's: Is Lard an Acceptable Shortening?", Cook's Illustrated, November 2004.
  9. ^ "Put Lard Back in Your Larder" by Linda Joyce Forristal, Mother Linda's Olde World Cafe and Travel Emporium.
  10. ^ Matz, Samuel A. (1991). Bakery Technology and Engineering. New York: Springer. "Lard"; p 81. ISBN 0442308558
  11. ^ a b "Make Your Own Lard: Believe it or not, it's good for you" by Lynn Siprelle, The New Homemaker, Winter 2006.
  12. ^ a b "The Real Thing: nothing beats lard for old-fashioned flavor" by Matthew Amster-Burton, The Seattle Times, September 10, 2006.
  13. ^ a b "Don't let lard throw you into a tizzy" by Jacqueline Higuera-McMahan, San Francisco Chronicle, March 12, 2003.
  14. ^ a b "Light, Fluffy – Believe It, It's Not Butter" by Matt Lee and Ted Lee, New York Times, October 11, 2000.
  15. ^ "Heart-stopping moment for doctors as we're falling in love again with lard" by Sally Williams, Western Mail, January 5, 2006.
  16. ^ a b "Lard crisis – mince pies threatened as supplies dwindle" by Helen Carter, The Guardian, November 16, 2004.
  17. ^ a b "Chefs prize it. The French love it. The Poles are hogging it. And now Britain's running out of it." by Christopher Hirst, The Independent, November 20, 2004.
  18. ^ "Heaven in a Pie Pan – The Perfect Crust" by Melissa Clark, New York Times, November 15, 2006.
  19. ^ King Arthur Flour. (2003). King Arthur Flour Baker's Companion: The All-Purpose Baking Cookbook. Woodstock, VT: Countryman Press. "Lard"; p. 550. ISBN 0-88150-581-1
  20. ^ IMG_2116 by chrys, Flickr.com, September 16, 2006.
  21. ^ "Austrian Restaurant Guide" by Keith Waclena, February 18, 2000.
  22. ^ "Biofuels" by Keith Anderson, Journey to Forever: Hong Kong to Cape Town Overland (website).
  23. ^ Kaminsky, Peter. (2005). Pig Perfect: Encounters with Remarkable Swine and Some Great Ways to Cook Them. Hyperion. 304 p. ISBN 1401300367

The Joy of Cooking is one of the worlds most-published cookbooks, having been in print continuously since 1936. ... Bimonthly American cooking magazine, founded and edited by Christopher Kimball. ... The Seattle Times is the leading daily newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The Western Mail is a daily newspaper published by Western Mail and Echo Ltd in Cardiff, Wales. ... Helen Myrl Carter Jones better known as Helen Carter (September 19, 1927-June 2, 1998). ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... The King Arthur Flour Company, formerly the Sands, Taylor & Wood Company, is an American miller and retailer of specialty flours, cookbooks, and baked goods. ... Flickr is a photo sharing website and web services suite, and an online community platform, which is generally considered an example of a Web 2. ...

External links

  • "High on the Hog" by Corby Kummer, New York Times, August 12, 2005.
  • "Praise the lard" by Ed Murrieta, The News Tribune, September 7, 2005.
  • "Rendering Lard 2.0" by Derrick Schneider, An Obsession With Food (blog), January 12, 2006.
  • "Lard", Food Resource, College of Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, February 20, 2007. – Bibliography of food science articles on lard.
The Tacoma News Tribune is a newspaper in Tacoma, Washington. ... Oregon State University (OSU) is a coeducational, public research university located in Corvallis, Oregon, United States. ... Food science is a discipline concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption. ... ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Bacon grease, also known as the drippings. ... Cocoa butter Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow, pure edible vegetable fat of the cacao bean. ... Dripping, beef dripping is an animal fat produced from the fatty or otherwise unusable parts of cow carcasses. ... Ghee in a jar Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu گھی, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit घृत sprinkled; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning ghee or fat) is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... Niter kibbeh or niter qibe (Geez ንጥር ቅቤ niṭer ḳibē) is a seasoned clarified butter used in Ethiopian cooking. ... A slab of słonina aged in paprika, popular in Central and East Europe Salo (Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Hungarian: Polish: , Macedonian: , Romanian slănínă or slánă, Serbo-Croatian, Czech and Slovak: slanina) is a traditional Central and Eastern European food: slabs of pork underskin fat, with or... Fat percentage can vary. ... Karite redirects here. ... Smen (also called sman or semneh) is a traditional cooking oil most commonly found in Moroccan cuisine. ... Suet is raw beef or mutton fat, especially that found around the loins and kidneys. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it inhibits the formation of long gluten strands in wheat-based doughs, giving them a short texture (as in shortbread). ... Oil painting is done on surfaces with pigment ground into a medium of oil - especially in early modern Europe, linseed oil. ... For other uses, see Almond (disambiguation). ... Argan oil is an oil produced from the fruits of the Argan (Argania spinosa) a species of tree endemic to the calcareous semi-desert of southwestern Morocco. ... In agriculture, Canola is a trademarked cultivar of genetically engineered rapeseed variants from which rapeseed oil is obtained. ... Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil extracted from copra (the dried inner flesh of coconuts) with many applications. ... Colza oil is a non-drying oil obtained from the seeds of Brassica campestris, var. ... Corn oil is oil extracted from the germ of corn. ... Cottonseed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the cotton plant after the cotton lint has been removed. ... Grape oil (also grapeseed oil) is a vegetable oil pressed from the seeds of various varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes, an abundant by-product of wine making. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ... A bottle of peanut oil Peanut oil is an organic oil derived from peanuts, noted to have the slight aroma and taste of its parent legume. ... Pumpkin seed oil (Kernöl or Kürbiskernöl in German, bučno olje in Slovenian, bučino ulje or bundevino ulje in Croatian) is a culinary specialty of south eastern Austria (Styria), eastern Slovenia (Styria and Prekmurje), north western Croatia (esp. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Safflower oil is an oil extracted from the safflower seed. ... Chinese Sesame Oil White sesame seeds Sesame oil (also known as gingelly oil or til oil) is an organic oil derived from sesame seedss, noted to have the distinctive aroma and taste of its parent seed. ... Soy redirects here. ... Sunflower Oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. ... Walnut oil was one of the most important and vital oils of the Renaissance. ... Olive oil The following is intended to be a comprehensive list of oils that are extracted from plants. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Put Lard Back in Your Larder (915 words)
Lard, although commonly misidentified as a saturated fat, should really be classified as a monounsaturated fat.
Lard is better suited for pastries because it forms crystals so large they impart a noticeably grainy texture to the dough--which produces wonderful flakiness.
Add lard and use a pastry cutter or fork to cut the lard into pea-sized pieces until the mixture resembles a coarse meal.
Lard - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (650 words)
Lard was a commonly used cooking oil though its use in contemporary cuisine has diminished because of health concerns posed by saturated fat and cholesterol.
Lard was also held at the same level of popularity as butter in the early 20th century, and was widely used as a substitute for the butter during World War II.
Lard was the commonly used solid fat in the United States prior to the introduction and popularization of Crisco, which is made from hydrogenated cottonseed oil.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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