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Encyclopedia > Laptop
An ultraportable IBM X31 with 12" screen on an IBM T43 Thin & Light laptop with a 14" screen
An ultraportable IBM X31 with 12" screen on an IBM T43 Thin & Light laptop with a 14" screen

A laptop computer, or simply laptop (also notebook computer, notebook and notepad) is a small mobile computer, typically weighing 3-12 pounds (around 1.3 to 5.4 kilograms), although older laptops may weigh more. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 546 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1959 × 2151 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 546 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1959 × 2151 pixel, file size: 5. ... A subnotebook (also known as a kneetop or an ultraportable) is an extremely small and lightweight portable computer, with all features of a standard laptop computer and running all its applications. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... A mobile computer is any computing device intended to frequently move location while maintaining operation. ...


Laptops usually run on a single main battery or from an external AC/DC adapter that charges the battery while also supplying power to the computer itself. Many computers also have a 3 volt cell to run the clock and other processes in the event of a power failure. For other uses, see Battery. ... An electronic power supply, often referred to somewhat incorrectly as an AC adaptor, is an electronic device that produces direct current of a particular voltage and current from a source of electricity such as a battery or wall-socket power. ...


Laptops contain components that are similar to their desktop counterparts and perform the same functions, but are miniaturized and optimized for mobile use and efficient power consumption, although typically less powerful for the same price. Laptops usually have liquid crystal displays and most of them use different memory modules for their random access memory (RAM), for instance, SO-DIMM in lieu of the larger DIMMs. In addition to a built-in keyboard, they may utilize a touchpad (also known as a trackpad) or a pointing stick for input, though an external keyboard or mouse can usually be attached. Miniaturization is a continuing trend in technology toward ever-smaller scales for first mechanical, then optical and most recently electronic devices. ... LCD redirects here. ... RAM redirects here. ... SO DIMM is an abbreviation for Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Module, and is a smaller form of DIMM used most often in notebook/portable computers, small form-factor computers (Such as those with a Mini ITX motherboard) and high-end upgradable office printers. ... Two types of DIMMs: a 168-pin SDRAM module (top) and a 184-pin DDR SDRAM module (bottom). ... A 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and QWERTY. A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... Touchpad and a pointing stick on an IBM Laptop Low resolution close up of a touchpad with a locking button. ... This article is about a computer input device. ... A contemporary computer mouse, with the most common standard features: two buttons and a scroll wheel. ...

Contents

History

A Compaq luggable PC.
A Compaq luggable PC.
Main article: History of laptops

Laptops began from a desire to have a full-featured computer that could be easily used anywhere. Their predecessor was called the luggable. These all-in-one systems could be easily transported, but were heavy and usually were not battery powered. The CRT was one of the major reasons luggables were so large and heavy, but the use of a full-size desktop motherboard with room for ISA expansion cards was another size factor. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 678 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1086 × 960 pixel, file size: 204 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Compaq Portable el primer Compatible PC portable. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 678 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1086 × 960 pixel, file size: 204 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Compaq Portable el primer Compatible PC portable. ... The Compaq Portable; the first portable IBM PC compatible. ... The Compaq Portable; the first portable IBM PC compatible. ... CRT can mean: Cathode Ray Tube, in electronics, a display device (such as those used in one type of television) C Run-Time, in computing Charitable Remainder Trust, in Law Chinese Remainder Theorem, in mathematics Corneal Refractive Therapy, in medicine Criterion-referenced test, in U.S. schools Critical race theory...


It was the transition to LCD and plasma displays that permitted the luggable to shrink in size and become the first real laptop, though at first still without internal batteries. Battery technology improvements and the introduction of smaller devices such as the 3.5-inch floppy disk permitted a gradually more compact and sophisticated complete portable system. LCD redirects here. ... An example of a plasma display A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display now commonly used for large TV displays (typically above 37-inch or 940 mm). ...


Types

Mainstream

Laptops weighing between 5 and 7 lb (2.3–3.2 kg) with a screen size of 14.1 or 15.4 inches (35 or 39 cm) diagonally.


Desktop replacement

An Apple PowerBook G4 17" often used as a desktop replacement.
An Apple PowerBook G4 17" often used as a desktop replacement.

A desktop replacement computer is a personal computer that provides the full capabilities of a desktop computer while remaining portable. They are often a larger, bulkier laptop. Because of their increased size, this class of computer usually includes more powerful components and a larger display than generally used in smaller portable computers and can have a relatively limited battery capacity (or none at all). Some use a limited range of desktop components to provide better performance per dollar at the expense of battery life. These are sometimes called desknotes, a portmanteau of the words "desktop" and "notebook," though the term is also applied to desktop replacement computers in general.[1] Image File history File links PowerBook_G4_17. ... Image File history File links PowerBook_G4_17. ... The PowerBook G4 is a series of notebook computers that was manufactured, marketed, and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. ... Desktop replacement computers are personal computers that are designed to provide the full capabilities of a desktop computer while remaining portable. ... Bold text Desktop computer with several common peripherals (Monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, microphone and a printer) A desktop computer is a gay electronic machine computer which convert raw data into meaningful information, made for use on a desk in an office or home and is distinguished from portable computers such... A Portable computer is a computer that is designed to be moved from one place to another (in other words, it is a computer that is portable). ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ...


Powerful laptops meant to be mainly used for fun and infrequently carried out due to their weight and size; the latter provides more space for powerful components and a big screen, usually measuring 17–20 inches (43–51 cm). Desktop replacements tend to have limited battery life, rarely exceeding three hours, because the hardware is not optimized for efficient power usage. Sometimes called a luggable laptop. An example of a desktop replacement computers are gaming notebooks, which are designed to handle 3D graphic-intensive processing for gamers. The Compaq Portable; the first portable IBM PC compatible. ...


Subnotebook

Sony VAIO C1 subnotebook.
Sony VAIO C1 subnotebook.
Main article: Subnotebook

Laptops weighing typically between 4.6 and 6 lb (1.8–2.7 kg) and a screen of 14.1 to 15.4 inches (35.81–39.12 cm) diagonally. A subnotebook is a small and lightweight portable computer, with most of the features of a standard laptop computer but smaller. The term is often applied to systems that run full versions of desktop operating systems such as Windows or Linux, rather than specialized software such as Windows CE, Palm OS or Internet Tablet OS. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x699, 48 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x699, 48 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... VAIO logo VAIO, an acronym for Video Audio Integrated Operation, is a sub-brand for many of Sonys computer products. ... Sony VAIO model C1 subnotebook A subnotebook is a small and lightweight portable computer, with most of the features of a standard notebook computer but smaller. ... This article is about the machine. ... 1. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Windows CE (sometimes abbreviated WinCE) is a variation of Microsofts Windows operating system for minimalistic computers and embedded systems. ... Palm OS is an embedded operating system initially developed by U.S. Robotics owned Palm Computing, Inc. ...


Subnotebooks are smaller than laptops but larger than handheld computers and UMPCs. They often have screens that are 26.92 cm (10.6") (diagonal) or more, and a weight less than 1 up to about 2 kg; as opposed to full-size laptops with 35.81 cm (14.1") or 39.12 cm (15.4") screens and weighing 2 kg or more. The savings in size and weight are usually achieved partly by omitting ports or having removable media/optical drives; subnotebooks are often paired with docking stations to compensate. Sharp Mobilon PRO PV5000A, one of the many Handheld PCs produced. ... Leaked prototype photos of Origami Project. ... Ports on the Apple iBook (Early 2003) In computer hardware, a port serves as an interface between the computer and other computers or devices. ... Docking station. ...


Subnotebooks have been something of a niche computing product and have rarely sold in large numbers until the 2007 introduction of the Asus Eee PC and the OLPC XO-1.[2] The ASUS Eee PC (pronounced as the letter e, IPA /iː/) is a subnotebook computer designed by ASUS and Intel. ... The XO-1, previously known as the $100 Laptop or Childrens Machine, is an inexpensive laptop computer intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world [1], to provide them with access to knowledge. ...


Parts

Most modern laptops feature 12 inch (30 cm) or larger active matrix displays with resolutions of 1024×768 pixels and above, and have a PC Card (formerly PCMCIA) or ExpressCard expansion bay for expansion cards. Internal hard disks are physically smaller—2.5 inch (60 mm)—compared to the standard desktop 3.5 inch (90 mm) drive, and usually have lower performance and power consumption. Video and sound chips are usually integrated. This tends to limit the use of laptops for gaming and entertainment, two fields which have constantly escalating hardware demands.[3] However, higher end laptops can come with dedicated graphics processors, such as the Dell Inspiron E1505 and E1705, which can be bought with an ATI Mobility Radeon X1300 or similar or the MacBook Pro which comes standard with an nVidia 8600M GT. These mobile graphics processors tend to have less performance than their desktop counterparts, but this is because they have been optimized for lower power usage. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1630x1020, 100 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Laptop ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1630x1020, 100 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Laptop ... A hard disk drive (HDD), commonly referred to as a hard drive, hard disk or fixed disk drive,[1] is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. ... An active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) is a type of flat panel display, currently the overwhelming choice of notebook computer manufacturers, due to light weight, very good image quality, wide color gamut, and response time. ... The PCMCIA is the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, an industry trade association that creates standards for notebook computer peripheral devices. ... Portable Computer Cards (PC cards) are interchangeable peripherals designed to be inserted into laptop computers in order to enable extra hardware functions. ... ExpressCard is a hardware standard replacing PC cards (also known as PCMCIA cards), both developed by the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA). ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ...


There is a wide range of laptop specific processors available from Intel (Pentium M, Celeron, Intel Core and Intel Core 2), AMD (Athlon, Turion 64, and Sempron) and from VIA (C3 and C7-M). Motorola and IBM developed and manufactured the chips for the former PowerPC-based Apple laptops (iBook and PowerBook). Generally, laptop processors are less powerful than their desktop counterparts, due to the need to save energy and reduce heat dissipation. However, the PowerPC G3 and G4 processor generations were able to offer almost the same performance as their desktop versions, limited mostly by other factors, such as the system bus bandwidth; recently, though, with the introduction of the G5s, they have been far outstripped. At one point, the Pismo G3, at up to 500 MHz, was faster than the fastest desktop G3 (then the B&W G3), which ran at 450 MHz. A notebook processor is a CPU optimized for notebook computers. ... Introduced in March 2003, the Pentium M is an x86 architecture microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Celeron brand refers to a range of Intels x86 CPUs for budget/value personal computers. ... This article is about the Intel mobile processor family. ... The Core 2 brand refers to a range of Intels consumer 64-bit dual-core and MCM quad-core CPUs with the x86-64 instruction set, and based on the Intel Core microarchitecture, which derived from the 32-bit dual-core Yonah laptop processor. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... For other uses, see Turion. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... VIA Technologies logo VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ... The VIA C3 is an x86 central processing unit for personal computers produced by VIA Technologies. ... The VIA C3 is an x86 central processing unit for personal computers produced by VIA Technologies. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... The original Blueberry iBook Clamshell The iBook is a line of laptop computer that was developed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. ... The PowerBook was a line of Macintosh laptop computers that was designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. ... Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum, and is typically measured in hertz. ...


Some parts for a modern laptop have no corresponding part in a desktop computer. For example, current models use lithium ion and more recently lithium polymer batteries, which have largely replaced the older nickel metal-hydride technology. Typical battery life for most laptops is two to five hours with light-duty use, but may drop to as little as one hour with intensive use. Batteries gradually deteriorate over time and eventually need to be replaced in one to five years, depending on the charging and discharging pattern. Li-Ion Camera Battery Lithium ion batteries (or Li-ion) have become very common and dropped in price recently. ... Lithium polymer batteries (Li-Poly or LiPo) are rechargeable batteries which have technologically evolved from lithium ion batteries. ... Modern, high capacity NiMH rechargeable batteries A nickel metal hydride (or NiMH) battery is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium (NiCad) battery but which does not contain expensive (and environmentally risky) cadmium. ...

Laptops typically use SODIMMs, as shown here.
Laptops typically use SODIMMs, as shown here.

Docking stations became another common laptop accessories in the early 1990s. They typically were quite large and offered 3.5" and 5.25" storage bays, one to three expansion slots (typically AT style), and a host of connectors. The mating between the laptop and docking station was typically through a large, high-speed, proprietary connector. The most common use was in a corporate computing environment where the company had standardized on a common network card and this same card was placed into the docking station. These stations were very large and quite expensive. As the need to additional storage and expansion slots became less critical because of the high integration inside the laptop itself, the emergence of the Port Replicator as a major accessory commenced. The Port Replicator was often a passive device that simply mated to the connectors on the back of the notebook and allowed the user to quickly connect their laptop so VGA, PS/2, RS-232, etc. devices were instantly attached. As higher speed ports like USB and Firewire became commonplace, the Port Replication was accomplished by a small cable connected to one of the USB 2.0 or FireWire ports on the notebooks. Wireless Port Replicators followed. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A type of computer memory integrated circuit, a SO-DIMM (from Small Outline DIMM) is a smaller alternative to a DIMM. As a result of being roughly half the size of regular DIMMs, SO-DIMMs are often utilised in laptop computers. ... Docking station. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... The 6-pin and 4-pin FireWire 400 Connectors The alternative ethernet-style cabling used by 1394c FireWire is Apple Inc. ...


Virtually all laptops can be powered from an external AC converter. This device typically adds half a kilogram (1 lb) to the overall "transport weight" of the equipment.


A pointing stick or touchpad is used to control the position of the cursor on the screen. The pointing stick is usually a rubber dot that is located between the G, H and B keys on the laptop keyboard. To navigate the cursor, pressure is applied in the direction intended to move. The touchpad is touch-sensitive and the cursor can be navigated by moving the finger on the pad. This article is about a computer input device. ... Touchpad and a pointing stick on an IBM Laptop Low resolution close up of a touchpad with a locking button. ... A cursor is a movable marker that indicates a position. ... A touch panel is a display device that accepts user input by means of a touch sensitive screen. ...


Intel, Asus, Compal, Quanta and other laptop manufacturers have created Common Building Block standard for laptop parts. ASUSTeK Computer Incorporated (Asus) (TSE: 2357) (traditional Chinese: ) is a Taiwan-based company that produces motherboards, graphics cards, optical drives, PDAs, notebook computers, servers, networking products, mobile phones, computer cases, computer components and computer cooling systems. ... Compal Electronics (Chinese: 仁寶電腦股份有限公司) is a Taiwanese Original design manufacturer, handling the production of notebook computers and monitors for a variety of clients around the world, including Dell. ... Common Building Block is a set of standards for laptop components introduced by Intel in 2005, slowly being adopted by some manufacturers in 2006 (e. ...


Disadvantages

Parts standardization and compatibility issues

Current compatibility problems in the laptop trade are reflective of the early era of personal computer hardware, when there were many different manufacturers, each and every one of them having their own connectivity and mounting systems and incompatibility was the norm. While there are accepted world standards of form factors for all the peripherals and add-in PC cards used in the desktop computers, there are still no firm worldwide standards relating to today's laptops' internal form factors, such as supply of electric voltage, motherboard layouts, internal adapters used in connecting the optical drive, LCD cable, keyboard and floppy drive to the main board. Most affected by this are users uneducated in the relevant fields, especially if they attempt to connect their laptops with incompatible hardware or power adapters.


Some parts, such as hard drives and memory are commodity items and are interchangeable. However, other parts such as motherboards, keyboards, and batteries are proprietary in design and are only interchangeable within a manufactures brand and/or model line.


A significant point to note is that the vast majority of laptops on the market are manufactured by a small handful of Original Design Manufacturers (ODM).[4] The ODM matters more than the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). Major relationships include: An Original Design Manufacturer (ODM) is a company which manufactures a product which ultimately will be branded by another firm for sale. ... Original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, is a term that refers to containment-based re-branding, namely where one company uses a component of another company within its product, or sells the product of another company under its own brand. ...

  • Quanta sells to (among others) HP/Compaq, Dell, Toshiba, Sony, Fujitsu, Acer, NEC, Gateway and Lenovo/IBM - note that Quanta is currently (as of August, 2007) the largest manufacturer of notebook computers in the world.
  • Compal sells to Toshiba, HP/Compaq, Acer, and Dell.
  • Wistron (former manufacturing & design division of Acer) sells to HP/Compaq, Dell, IBM, NEC, Acer, and Lenovo/IBM.
  • Flextronics (former Arima Computer Corporation notebook division) sells to HP/Compaq, NEC, and Dell.
  • ECS sells to IBM, Fujitsu, and Dell.
  • Asus sells to Apple (iBook), Sony, and Samsung.
  • Inventec sells to HP/Compaq, Toshiba, and BenQ.
  • Uniwill sells to Lenovo/IBM and Fujitsu.

Quanta Computer Incorporated is a large Taiwan-based manufacturer of notebook computers and other electronic hardware. ... Compal Electronics (Chinese: 仁寶電腦股份有限公司) is a Taiwanese Original design manufacturer, handling the production of notebook computers and monitors for a variety of clients around the world, including Dell. ... Flextronics International Ltd. ... Elitegroup Computer Systems (or ECS) is a Taiwan-based electronics firm. ... ASUSTeK Computer Incorporated (Asus) (TSE: 2357) (traditional Chinese: ) is a Taiwan-based company that produces motherboards, graphics cards, optical drives, PDAs, notebook computers, servers, networking products, mobile phones, computer cases, computer components and computer cooling systems. ... Inventec is a Taiwanese OEM who makes i-mate JAQ4 communicators. ... Elitegroup Computer Systems (or ECS) is a Taiwan-based electronics firm. ...

Durability issues

Example of how laptop performance slowly declines after several years, due to dust and lint buildup on internal heatsinks. Simply blowing air into the vents is not enough to remove this buildup. Instead, laptop disassembly is required to properly clean the heatsink.
Example of how laptop performance slowly declines after several years, due to dust and lint buildup on internal heatsinks. Simply blowing air into the vents is not enough to remove this buildup. Instead, laptop disassembly is required to properly clean the heatsink.

Due to their portability and tight integration, laptops are more subject to wear and physical damage than desktops. Components such as batteries, screen hinges, power jacks, and power cords are commonly subject to deterioration due to ordinary use. These components are usually expensive to replace, with a typical laptop battery costing US$130, the AC Adapter US$75. Other parts are inexpensive such as a power jack costing perhaps US$20, but replacement may require extensive disassembly and reassembly of layers of internal components. Other inexpensive but fragile parts often cannot be purchased separate from larger more expensive components. For example, the video display cable and backlight power cable that passes through the lid hinges to operate the screen will eventually break from opening and closing the lid hundreds of times over many years, and usually these tiny cables cannot be purchased separate from an entire US$400 LCD panel.


A liquid spill onto the keyboard, which is rather a minor mishap with a desktop system can damage costly components such as the motherboard or LCD panel. Dropping a laptop can damage the LCD screen if not break apart its body. The repair costs of a failed motherboard or LCD panel may exceed the purchase value of the laptop.


Laptops must also rely on extremely compact cooling systems involving a fan and heatsink that eventually fails due to filling with airborne dust and debris. Most laptops do not have any sort of removable dust collection filter over the air intake for these cooling systems, resulting in a system that gradually runs hotter and louder as the years pass. Eventually the laptop cooling is so choked with dust that it starts to overheat just from minor operational load. This dust is usually deeply buried inside where casual cleaning and vacuuming cannot remove it, and instead complete disassembly is needed to clean the laptop.


Ruggedized Laptops

Some manufacturers have mitigated some of these problems by selling "ruggedized" laptops. These often have a rubberized sheeting under the keyboard keys and special drain that safely routes all of the water out through a hole in the bottom of the case.


Additionally, the bodies of these laptops are typically made of a stiffer magnesium alloy instead of plastic, since it is the flexing of the circuit boards and fragile mechanical devices that causes the most damage. Hard drives are often mounted in soft shock-absorbing silicone mounts to greatly increase their chances of surviving a waist-high fall.


When a laptop hits the floor, the free-floating hard drive heads can slap against the spinning platter, scratching it and cause an irrepairable head crash that renders the hard drive unusable. Recently hard drives have been constructed which can move the read heads completely off the spinning platters, known as unloading. With the use of an accelerometer, the hardware can detect the sudden fall and park the heads off-platter before the laptop hits the ground. (See Sudden Motion Sensor.) A head crash occurs when the read-write head of a hard disk drive touches its rotating platter. ... A depiction of an accelerometer designed at Sandia National Laboratories. ... The Sudden Motion Sensor is a patent-pending data protection feature introduced by Apple Computer into its refreshed PowerBook and iBook lines on January 1, 2005 and July 26, 2005 respectively. ...


Advantages

Laptop computers are very comfortable & useful on vacation.


The main advantage of laptops over their larger desktop counterparts is the inherent portability. Another advantage is the laptop's ability to operate on battery power in the case of a power outage and less energy consumption.


Upgradeability

Laptops' upgradeability is severely limited, both for technical and economic reasons. As of 2006, there is no industry-wide standard form factor for laptops. Each major laptop vendor pursues its own proprietary design and construction, with the result that laptops are difficult to upgrade and exhibit high repair costs. With few exceptions, laptop components can rarely be swapped between laptops of competing manufacturers, or even between laptops from the different product-lines of the same manufacturer. Standard feature peripherals (such as audio, video, USB, 1394, WiFi, Bluetooth) are generally integrated on the main PCB (motherboard), and thus upgrades often require using external ports, card slots, or wireless peripherals. Other components, such as RAM modules, hard drives, and batteries are typically user-upgradeable. Look up Upgrade on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Upgrading is the process of replacing an older thing with a newer thing. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Form factor refers to the linear dimensions and configuration of a device as distinguished from other measures of size (for example Gigabytes; a measure of storage size): in computing, form factor is used to describe the size and format of PC motherboards (see AT, ATX, BTX), but also of hard... Proprietary indicates that a party, or proprietor, exercises private ownership, control or use over an item of property, usually to the exclusion of other parties. ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ... Look up RAM, Ram, ram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ...


Many laptops have removable CPUs, although support for other CPUs is restricted to the specific models supported by the laptop motherboard. The socketed CPUs are perhaps for the manufacturer's convenience, rather than the end-user, as few manufacturers try new CPUs in last year's laptop model with an eye toward selling upgrades rather than new laptops. In many other laptops, the CPU is soldered and non-replaceable.[5] A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ...


Many laptops also include an internal MiniPCI slot, often occupied by a Wi-Fi or Bluetooth card, but as with the CPU, the internal slot is often restricted in the range of cards that can be installed. The widespread adoption of USB mitigates I/O connectivity to a great degree, although the user must carry the USB peripheral as a separate item. Mini PCI is an adaptation of the Peripheral Component Interconnect bus. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ...


NVidia and ATI have proposed a standardized interface for laptop GPU upgrades (such as an MXM), but again, choices are limited compared to the desktop PCIe/AGP after-market. The American multinational Nvidia Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) specializes in the manufacture of graphics-processor technologies for workstations, desktop computers, and handheld devices. ... ATI may stand for: ATI Technologies Inc. ... GPU may stand for: Graphics processing unit, a special stream processor used in computer graphics hardware Gosudarstvennoye Politicheskoye Upravlenie (Главное Политическое Управление, or Main Political Directorate) of the Red Army, responsible for troops morale and propaganda. ... A Mobile PCI Express Module (MXM) is an interconnect standard for GPUs in laptops using PCI Express. ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ... this page has been deleted, by the inconspicuous Headline text booooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooobz Headline text ...


In January 2007, Asus announced XG Station external video card for laptops. XG Station is connected to the laptops using USB-2 and Express card interface. ASUSTeK Computer Incorporated (Asus) (TSE: 2357) (traditional Chinese: ) is a Taiwan-based company that produces motherboards, graphics cards, optical drives, PDAs, notebook computers, servers, networking products, mobile phones, computer cases, computer components and computer cooling systems. ... The ASUS XG Station is a device designed to provide external graphics processing power to laptops. ...


In February 2007, a new standard for external PCI Express cables and connectors was announced. Future laptops can be expanded using external PCI Express backplane and chassis.


Performance

A modern mid-range HP Laptop.
A modern mid-range HP Laptop.

For a given price range (and manufacturing base), laptop computational power has traditionally trailed that of desktops. This is partly due to most laptops sharing RAM between the program memory and the graphics adapter. By virtue of their usage goals, laptops prioritize energy efficiency and compactness over absolute performance. Desktop computers and their modular components are built to fit much bigger standard enclosures, along with the expectation of AC line power. As such, energy efficiency and portability for desktops are secondary design goals compared to absolute performance. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 401 KB) Summary Taken myself, with my Sony Ericsson K750i mobile phone. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 401 KB) Summary Taken myself, with my Sony Ericsson K750i mobile phone. ... Type F mains power plug & socket The term mains usually refers to the general purpose alternating current (AC) electrical power supply (as in “Ive connected the appliance to the mains”). The term is not usually used in the United States and Canada. ...


For typical home (personal use) applications, where the computer spends the majority of its time sitting idle for the next user input, laptops of the thin-client type or larger are generally fast enough to achieve the required performance. 3D gaming, multimedia (video) encoding and playback, and analysis-packages (database, math, engineering, financial, etc.) are areas where desktops still offer the casual user a compelling advantage.


With the advent of dual-core processors and perpendicular recording, laptops are beginning to close the performance gap with desktops. Intel's Core 2 line of processors is efficient enough to be used in portable computers, and many manufacturers such as Apple, Lenovo and Dell are building Core 2 based laptops. Also, many high end laptop computers feature mobility versions of graphics cards, eliminating the performance losses associated with integrated graphics. A Dual-core CPU combines two independent processors and their respective caches and cache controllers onto a single silicon die, or integrated circuit. ... Perpendicular recording (or Perpendicular Magnetic Recording, PMR) is a recently implemented technology for data recording on hard disk. ... Core 2 Duo brand logo This article is about Intel processors branded as Intel Core 2. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Lenovo Group Limited, formerly known as Legend Group Limited, is the largest personal computer manufacturer in the Peoples Republic of China, and as of 2004 is the eighth largest in the world. ... This article is about the corporation Dell, Inc. ...


Health issues

Laptop coaster preventing heating of lap and improving laptop airflow.
Laptop coaster preventing heating of lap and improving laptop airflow.

A study by State University of New York researchers says heat generated from laptops can significantly elevate the temperature of the scrotum, potentially putting sperm count at risk. The small study, which included little more than two dozen men ages 13 to 35, found that the sitting position required to balance a laptop can raise scrotum temperature by as much as 2.1 °C (3.8 °F). Heat from the laptop itself can raise the temperature by another 0.7 °C (1.4 °F), bringing the potential total increase to 2.8 °C (5.2 °F). However, further research is needed to determine whether this directly affects sterility in men.[6] A common practical solution to this problem is to place the laptop on a table or desk. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with University of the State of New York. ... In some male mammals the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... The sperm count is a measure of fertility in a man. ... In some male mammals the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ...


Heat from using laptop on lap can also cause skin discoloration on the thighs.[7]


Because of their small keyboard and trackpad pointing devices, the use of laptops can cause RSI, and for this reason laptops have docks that are used with ergonomic keyboards to prevent injury. The integrated screen often causes users to hunch over for a better view, which can cause neck or spinal injuries. Some health standards require that ergonomic keyboards be used in workplaces. A repetitive strain injury (RSI), also called cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), occupational overuse syndrome, or work related upper limb disorder (WRULD), is any of a loose group of conditions resulting from overuse of a tool, eg. ... Docking station. ... Some computer keyboards are designed with ergonomic considerations to minimize muscle strain and a host of related problems[1]. Some of these are simply a single board, with the keys separated into two or three groups, allowing the user to type at a different angle than the typical straight keyboard. ...


Security

Laptops are generally prized targets of theft, and theft of laptops can lead to more serious problems such as identity theft from stolen credit card numbers.[8] Most laptops have a Kensington security slot to chain the computer to a desk with a third party security cable. In addition to this, modern operating systems and software may have disk encryption functionality that renders the data on the laptop's hard drive unreadable without a key. Identity theft is a term used to refer to fraud that involves stealing money or getting other benefits by pretending to be someone else. ... A Kensington Security Slot (sometimes called a K-Slot) is that small hole found on almost every small or portable computer and electronics equipment nowadays. ... Disk encryption is a special case of data at rest protection when the storage media is a sector-addressable device (e. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A key is a piece of information that controls the operation of a cryptography algorithm. ...


Related devices

A laptop can use the same software as a desktop machine but is small enough to support mobile computing and operate on battery power. Devices that are similar to a laptop include: Mobile Computing is a generic term describing your ability to use technology untethered, that is not physically connected, or in remote or mobile (non static) environments. ...

Transportable, also called portable computers
Computers which can easily be moved from place to place, but cannot be used while in transit, usually because they require AC power. The most famous example is the Osborne 1. A transportable, like a laptop, can run desktop software; but it does not support mobile computing.
Tablets
Computers shaped like slates or (paper) notebooks featuring touchscreen interfaces and a stylus, plus handwriting recognition software. As of 2007, the most common subcategory is the Tablet PC, which is essentially a laptop with a touchscreen. Some tablets have no keyboard, while others called "convertibles" have a screen that can be rotated 180 degrees and folded on top of the keyboard. Tablets may have limited functionality and not be best suited for applications requiring a physical keyboard for typing, but are otherwise capable of carrying out most tasks that an ordinary laptop would be able to perform.
Internet tablets
Internet appliances in tablet form. An internet tablet supports mobile computing. Internet tablets usually use Linux and they are able to run some applications, but they cannot replace a general purpose computer. Internet tablets typically feature an MP3 and video player, web browser, chat application, and picture viewer.
Personal digital assistants (PDAs)
Small computers, usually pocket-sized, usually with limited functionality. A PDA supports mobile computing, but almost never runs any desktop software.
Handheld computers
A high-end PDA or small tablet.
Smart phone
A hand held or PDA with an integrated cellphone.

Boundaries that separate these categories are blurry at times. For example, the OQO UPC is a PDA-sized tablet PC; the Apple eMate had the clamshell form factor of a laptop, but ran PDA software. The HP Omnibook line of laptops included some devices small enough to be called handheld computers. The hardware of the Nokia 770 internet tablet is essentially the same as that of a PDA such as the Zaurus 6000; the only reason it's not called a PDA is that it doesn't have PIM software. On the other hand, both the 770 and the Zaurus can run some desktop Linux software, usually with modifications. A Portable computer is a computer that is designed to be moved from one place to another (in other words, it is a computer that is portable). ... An opened Osborne 1 computer, ready for use. ... HP Compaq tablet PC with rotating/removable keyboard A Tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile computer, first introduced by Pen Computing in the early 90s with their PenGo Tablet Computer and popularized by Microsoft. ... An Internet appliance is a product which accesses services on the Internet, such as the World Wide Web or Internet telephony. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... User with Treo (PDA with smartphone functionality) Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers, but have become much more versatile over the years. ... Handheld devices (also known as handhelds) are pocket-sized computing devices that are rapidly gaining popularity as the access to information in every walk of life becomes more and more mission critical. ... A smartphone is generally considered any handheld device that integrates personal information management and mobile phone capabilities in the same device. ... OQO is a U.S. computer hardware company, the manufacturer of subnotebook, handheld computers named the OQO model 02 and OQO model e2. ... Apple Newton eMate 300 open. ... HP Omnibook was a range of laptop personal computers created by Hewlett Packard. ... Press photo of the Nokia 770. ... Sharp Zaurus SL-5500 running OpenZaurus and OPIE, with docking cradle and stylus The Sharp Zaurus is the name of a series of Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) made by Sharp Corporation. ... A personal information manager (PIM) is a type of application software that functions as a personal organizer. ...


Major brands and manufacturers

Major brands Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ...


ODM brands Acer (LSE: ACID) (Traditional Chinese: ) is a Taiwanese multinational electronics manufacturer. ... TravelMate is a series of notebook computers made by Acer. ... Apple Inc. ... This article is about the Apple computer called MacBook. For the MacBook family as a whole, see MacBook family. ... The MacBook Pro is a line of Macintosh portable computers by Apple Inc. ... Compaq Computer Corporation is an American personal computer company founded in 1982, and now a brand name of Hewlett-Packard. ... The Compaq Evo was a series of business desktop and laptop PCs made by Compaq and Hewlett-Packard (following the 2002 merger). ... The Compaq LTE was a line of laptop computers made by Compaq, introduced in 1989. ... Presario is a series of desktop computers and notebooks from Compaq. ... Dell Inc. ... Dells Inspiron portable systems brand started as a range of computers targeted at the consumer market (as opposed to the Latitude range of laptops aimed at the business market). ... A Dell Latitude laptop Dell Computers Latitude laptop brand is specifically targeted at the business market which means that standardized parts are used throughout the line and available for several years for support purposes, as opposed to the Dell Inspiron which is aimed at the consumer market and whose... Dell Precision is a line of workstation computers produced by Dell, Inc. ... The Dell XPS is a high-end line of gaming computers sold by Dell. ... Gateway, Inc. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... A modern High-end HP Consumer Laptop; the HP Pavilion dv9500t. ... HP Omnibook was a range of laptop personal computers created by Hewlett Packard. ... Lenovo Group Limited (Simplified Chinese:联想集团有限公司;Traditional Chinese:聯想集團有限公司;Pinyin:LiánxiÇŽng Jítuán YÇ’uxiàn GōngsÄ«. SEHK: 0992,OTCBB: LNVGY) is today the fourth largest personal computer manufacturer in the world, after Hewlett-Packard and Dell of the US, and Acer of Taiwan. ... ThinkPad is a brand of portable laptop and notebook personal computers originally designed, manufactured and sold by IBM. Since early 2005, the ThinkPad range has been manufactured and marketed by Lenovo, which purchased the IBM PC division. ... Panasonic (パナソニック Panasonikku) is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Panasonic Toughbook in use by U.S. Navy Toughbook is the trademarked brand name owned by Matsushita Electric Industrial and marketed by their international brand name Panasonic. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... VAIO logo VAIO, an acronym for Video Audio Integrated Operation, is a sub-brand for many of Sonys computer products. ... A Sony VAIO FJ76 Notebook The Sony Vaio FJ series is a 14. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Dynabook mockup The Dynabook was a conceptual system proposed by Xerox PARC in the late-1960s and early-1970s. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Qosmio Series is Toshibas consumer-marketed line of high end desktop replacement laptops. ... The Libretto 70ct with a Japanese keyboard The Libretto is a line of subnotebook computers designed and produced by Toshiba. ... An Original Design Manufacturer (ODM) is a company which manufactures a product which ultimately will be branded by another firm for sale. ...


Gaming ASUSTeK Computer Incorporated (Asus) (TSE: 2357) (traditional Chinese: ) is a Taiwan-based company that produces motherboards, graphics cards, optical drives, PDAs, notebook computers, servers, networking products, mobile phones, computer cases, computer components and computer cooling systems. ... The ASUS Eee PC is an upcoming series of ultra-portable laptops designed by Intel and ASUSTeK, aimed at the consumer market. ... Clevo is a laptop manufacturer in Taiwan and diversified into various technology interests, including computer peripherals, information appliances, communications and retail development. ... Compal Electronics (Chinese: 仁寶電腦股份有限公司) is a Taiwanese Original design manufacturer, handling the production of notebook computers and monitors for a variety of clients around the world, including Dell. ... Elitegroup Computer Systems (or ECS) is a Taiwan-based electronics firm. ... For information on interactive gaming in general, see video game. ...


educational laptops for children Alienware is an American computer hardware company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dell Computer Corporation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Dell XPS is a high-end line of gaming computers sold by Dell. ... Falcon Northwest is a personal computer manufacturing company located in Medford, Oregon, USA which was founded in 1992 by its current President Kelt Reeves. ... Vigor Gaming is a privately-held manufacturer of enthusiast level personal computers based in City of Industry, California, USA. The company was founded in 2004 by several former employees and the former owner of competing company, Vicious PC. Vigor Gaming Computers are designed specifically for gaming enthusiasts, and are broken... For other uses, see Atlantis (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Artorius was a Roman gens (gens Artoria). ... For other uses, see Aegis (disambiguation). ... VoodooPC is a privately-held personal computer manufacturer based in Calgary, Alberta, Canada founded in 1991. ... WidowPC, Inc. ...

Other brands The Digital Textbook program was announced by the Education Ministry of South Korea on March 8th 2007, the program intends to provide for all Korean schools by 2011. ... The InkMedia mobile computer (Ink MC) is a low cost mobile computer running Linux/FOSS being developed by a Canadian company called Ink-Media Inc. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The Classmate PC, formerly known as Eduwise, is Intels entry into the market for low-cost personal computers for children in the developing world. ... The XO-1, previously known as the $100 Laptop or Childrens Machine, is an inexpensive laptop computer intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world [1], to provide them with access to knowledge. ...

Look up desktop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the writing pad. ... Look up server in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about media centers in general. ... forever . ... Desknotes are crosses between desktop computers and notebook computers. ... AVADirect is a privately held custom computer manufacturing company located in Twinsburg, OH (USA). ... Averatec is a low-cost laptop computer manufacturer based in Orange County, California. ... BenQ Corporation (IPA: ; Chinese: ) is a Taiwanese company specializing in the manufacturing of computing, communications, and consumer electronics devices. ... Established in 1983 and headquartered in Fremont, California, Everex Systems, Inc. ... Fujitsu Siemens Computers is a Japanese and German IT vendor, selling consumer and business computing products in the markets of Europe, the Middle East and Africa (products marketed elsewhere are sold under the Fujitsu brand). ... Fujitsu Siemens Computers LIFEBOOK E7110 LIFEBOOK is a range of notebook computers. ... Gericom is an Austrian computer equipment manufacturer. ... Gigabyte (or Giga-byte) Technology is a Taiwan-based manufacturer of computer hardware products best known for its motherboards. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... High Tech Computer Corporation (TSEC: 2498), known by its acronym HTC, is a Taiwan-based manufacturer of Microsoft Windows CE portable devices. ... HTC Shift is an Ultra-Mobile PC by HTC. Communications Quad band GSM / GPRS / EDGE: GSM 850, GSM 900, GSM 1800, GSM 1900 Triband UMTS / HSDPA: UMTS 850, UMTS 1900, UMTS 2100 Categories: | | ... South Korean business tycoon Chung Ju-yung, founder and honorary chairman of Hyundai Group, 1998 Hyundai refers to a group of companies founded by Chung Ju-yung in South Korea, and related organizations. ... LG Electronics (KRXS: 066570, LSE:LGLD) is a South Korean multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest electronics companies. ... Xnote is a notebook computer series made by LG Electronics Ltd. ... MDG Computers Canada Inc. ... Medion is a German company which sells consumer electronics products. ... Micro-Star International (MSI) is a Taiwanese computer and components manufacturer. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... Look up neo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... OQO is a U.S. computer hardware company, the manufacturer of subnotebook, handheld computers named the OQO model 02 and OQO model e2. ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Two different consumer electronics companies have used the Packard Bell name. ... PC Club is a privately-owned, United States-based chain of computer hardware stores established in City of Industry, California in 1992. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Sager Midern Inc. ... The Samsung Group (Korean: 삼성그룹, Samseong Geurup) is South Koreas largest conglomerate (chaebol) and one of the largest super-multinationals in the world leading several major global industries. ... Sens is the notebook computer series made by Samsung Electronics Ltd. ... Seanix is a Canadian computer company running out or British Columbia. ... Seanix is a Canadian computer company running out or British Columbia. ... Sharp Corporation ) (TYO: 6753 , LuxSE: SRP) is a Japanese electronics manufacturer, founded in 1912. ... system76 is a computer hardware manufacturer. ... VIA Technologies logo VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ... The NanoBook is a base design for a small notebook computer (UMPC) produced by VIA Technologies. ... The VIA pc-1 Initiative is a project of VIA Technologies to help bridge the digital divide by developing innovative and sustainable information and communication technology (ICT) solutions to benefit one billion people who currently do not have access to computers or the Internet. ... Zenith Data Systems (ZDS) was a division of Zenith founded in 1979 after Zenith acquired Heathkit, who at that time had recently entered the personal computer market. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Bold text Desktop computer with several common peripherals (Monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, microphone and a printer) A desktop computer is a gay electronic machine computer which convert raw data into meaningful information, made for use on a desk in an office or home and is distinguished from portable computers such... Desktop replacement computers are personal computers that are designed to provide the full capabilities of a desktop computer while remaining portable. ... This List of computer size categories attempts to list commonly used categories of computer by size. ... Open Design is a term that applies to the investigation and potential of open source and the collaborative nature of the internet to create physical objects. ... Palm IIIxe PDA Personal digital assistants (PDAs or palmtops) are handheld devices that were originally designed as personal organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. ... User with Treo (PDA with smartphone functionality) Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers, but have become much more versatile over the years. ... A Portable computer is a computer that is designed to be moved from one place to another (in other words, it is a computer that is portable). ... Sony VAIO model C1 subnotebook A subnotebook is a small and lightweight portable computer, with most of the features of a standard notebook computer but smaller. ... HP Compaq tablet PC with rotating/removable keyboard A Tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile computer, first introduced by Pen Computing in the early 90s with their PenGo Tablet Computer and popularized by Microsoft. ... Samsung Q1 Ultra UMPC The Ultra-Mobile PC (abbreviated UMPC), previously known by its codename Project Origami, is a specification for a small form factor tablet PC. It was developed as a joint development exercise by Microsoft, Intel, and Samsung, among others. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  1. ^ Desktop notebooks stake their claim, accessed October 19, 2007
  2. ^ One million OLPC laptop orders confirmed. ITworld.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-10.
  3. ^ Game Hardware. Retrieved on 2008-05-10.
  4. ^ Notebook OEM/ODM relationships. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
  5. ^ Thus, there is no practical way to update it on models which already feature the latest processor for their motherboard.
  6. ^ Sheynkin, Y.; Jung M;Yoo P;Schulsinger D;Komaroff E (2004-12-9). "Increase in scrotal temperature in laptop computer users". Human Reproduction 20 (2): 452-5. Epub. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. 
  7. ^ Levinbook, WS.; Mallet J; Grant-Kels JM (2007 Oct). "Laptop computer--associated erythema ab igne.". Cutis 80 (4): 319-20. Quadrant HealthCom. Retrieved on 2008-02-19. 
  8. ^ TuxMobil's page with a list of information and protection devices

is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

HowStuffWorks is a website created by Marshall Brain but now owned by the Convex Group. ... HowStuffWorks is a website created by Marshall Brain but now owned by the Convex Group. ... This List of computer size categories attempts to list commonly used categories of computer by size. ... For other uses, see Supercomputer (disambiguation). ... Minisupercomputers constituted a class of computers that emerged in the mid-1980s. ... For other uses, see Mainframe. ... Minicomputer (colloquially, mini) is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (traditionally, mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2110 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Supercomputer Cray-2 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (966x1280, 101 KB) Summary Sony Ericsson P910i with Opera web browser. ... Bold text Desktop computer with several common peripherals (Monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, microphone and a printer) A desktop computer is a gay electronic machine computer which convert raw data into meaningful information, made for use on a desk in an office or home and is distinguished from portable computers such... The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling model of home computer of all time. ... This article is primarily about a certain class of Personal computers from the late 1970s to mid 1980s, see Domotics or Home servers for home computers used in home automation. ... A stylised illustration of a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. ... The Apple iMac, an All-in-One PC. An All-in-One PC is a PC built into hardware which is usually a separate peripheral, such as a monitor or keyboard. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... In information technology, a server is an application or device that performs services for connected clients as part of a client-server architecture. ... Mobile Computing is a generic term describing your ability to use technology untethered, that is not physically connected, or in remote or mobile (non static) environments. ... Mobile, full size computers - cart computers - allow high mobility for a full size computer. ... A Portable computer is a computer that is designed to be moved from one place to another (in other words, it is a computer that is portable). ... Desktop replacement computers are personal computers that are designed to provide the full capabilities of a desktop computer while remaining portable. ... Sony VAIO model C1 subnotebook A subnotebook is a small and lightweight portable computer, with most of the features of a standard notebook computer but smaller. ... HP Compaq tablet PC with rotating/removable keyboard A Tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile computer, first introduced by Pen Computing in the early 90s with their PenGo Tablet Computer and popularized by Microsoft. ... Samsung Q1 Ultra UMPC The Ultra-Mobile PC (abbreviated UMPC), previously known by its codename Project Origami, is a specification for a small form factor tablet PC. It was developed as a joint development exercise by Microsoft, Intel, and Samsung, among others. ... An electronic organizer is a small calculator-sized computer, often with an in-built diary application but few other functions such as an address book and calendar. ... A pocket computer is a small calculator-sized computer programmable in BASIC. This specific category of computers existed primarily in the 1980s. ... A handheld game console is a lightweight, portable electronic machine for playing video games. ... A typical PDT A portable data terminal, or PDT, is an electronic device that is used to enter or retrieve data via wireless transmission (WLAN or WWAN). ... A mobile data terminal (MDT) is a computerized device used in police cars, taxicabs, courier vehicles, service trucks, commercial trucking fleets, military logistics, fishing fleets, warehouse inventory control, and emergency vehicles to communicate with a central dispatch office. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... User with Treo (PDA with smartphone functionality) Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers, but have become much more versatile over the years. ... An information appliance (IA) is any device that can process information, signals, graphics, animation, video and audio; and can exchange such information with another IA device. ... Sharp Mobilon PRO PV5000A, one of the many Handheld PCs produced. ... An O2 Pocket PC phone A Pocket PC, abbreviated P/PC or PPC, is a hardware specification for a handheld-sized computer (Personal digital assistant) that runs the Microsoft Windows Mobile operating system. ... A Sony Ericsson Smartphone (Model P910i) with touch screen and QWERTY keyboard Look up smartphone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // Definition A PDA Phone is a combination of mobile phone (cellular phone) and personal digital assistant functionality in one device. ... For other uses, see Calculator (disambiguation). ... A router, an example of an embedded system. ... “WSN” redirects here. ... Smartdust is a hypothetical network of tiny wireless microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, robots, or devices, installed with wireless communications, that can detect anything from light and temperature, to vibrations, etc. ... Nanocomputer is the logical name for a computer smaller than the microcomputer, which is smaller than the minicomputer. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
PC World - Laptop and Notebook Computers,Reviews, Ratings Pricing and Buying Advice From PC World (806 words)
Laptop screens traditionally have been lit by fluorescent lamp technology, but LED backlighting promises better readability and lower power consumption.
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Laptop - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4284 words)
Powerful laptops meant to be mainly used in a fixed location and infrequently carried out due to their weight and size; the latter provides more space for powerful components and a big screen, usually measuring 15 inches or more.
While laptops in 1991 were limited to the 80286 processor because of the energy demands of the more powerful 80386, the introduction of the Intel 386SL processor, designed for the specific power needs of laptops, marked the point at which laptop needs were included in CPU design.
Laptops are generally prized targets of theft, and theft of laptops can lead to serious problems such as identity theft.
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