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Encyclopedia > Lapland
Sápmi
Sameland, Lappland, Lappi, Лапландия
Sami flag Norway Sweden Finland Russia
(In Detail)
Location Lapland
National anthem Sámi soga lávlla
Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian
Area ca. 388,350 km²; (150,000 sq. mi)
Population
 - Sami
 - Kvens
 - Finns
 - Norwegians
 - Russians
 - Swedes
 - Total

About 70,000
About 10,000
About 185,000
?
?
?
2, 317,159
Independence None¹
Time zone UTC +1 to +3
¹ Integrated parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia respectively, but with varying degrees of autonomy for the Sami population.

Lapland or Sápmi (also Lappia, and Saamiland) is the name of the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sami people. The cultural region includes the Lappi (Lapland in English) province in Finland and the Lappland province in Sweden. Image File history File links Sami_flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... The Sami flag is the flag of the Sami people. ... The border is indicated by hand from a map at http://www. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The anthem Sámi soga lávlla (Song of the Sami Night) is a national anthem of Saamiland instituted on August of 1986. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Finno-Ugric languages spoken in parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps and Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps and Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... The Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ... Swedish Lappland is a Swedish province in northernmost Sweden. ...


Lapland is located in Northern Europe and includes the northern parts of Fennoscandia. It spans over four countries: Finland, Norway, Russia and Sweden. With the fall of the Soviet Union and increasing internationalization, co-operation across borders is becoming more important and existing county and national borders less important both for the Sami aboriginal population and the non-Sami population. A majority of the current population of this region has at least some Sami ancestry, yet most identify with their respective nation-state ethnicities. Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Internationalization and localization are means of adapting products such as publications or software for non-native environments, especially other nations and cultures. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...

Contents

Name

For more details on this topic, see Sami people.

Lapland is the common English spelling for the region. The choice of words for the people and language is becoming a matter of political correctness. Sápmi is the name for the area in the Northern Sami language and usually used in official Sami contexts, but provinces and counties carry the "Lapp" based names in most languages. The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps and Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Northern Saami (also, Sámi or Sami, formerly Lapp) is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages. ...


The name in Swedish is Lappland. In earlier times a common Swedish name was Lappmarken, which in addition to the present-day Swedish Lapland covered also Västerbotten, Jämtland and Härjedalen, as well as the Finnish Lapland (the so-called "Kemi Lappmark"). Today, the name "Lappland" is not in administrative usage anymore in Sweden. Swedish Lappland is a Swedish province in northernmost Sweden. ... Västerbotten is the name of a geographical region in Sweden and Finland which can refer to: Westrobothnia, or Västerbotten - a historical Province of the Swedish Realm Laponia, or Lappland - a historical Province of the Swedish Realm Part of Västerbotten County, or Västerbottens län - a current... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... â–¶ (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ...


The traditional Norwegian name for the area is Finnmark,[1] which today is officially used only for the northernmost fylke, based on the same Germanic word "finn" which today is used about Finns and in earlier times also about the Sami people. The present-day Finnmark is sometimes titled as the "Norwegian Lapland", especially by the travel industry.[2] Parallel to other names, Sameland is a recent name in Norwegian and Swedish indicating the entire area where the majority of the Sami people live, overlapping with most of Lapland. County NO-20 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Vadsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 1 48,618 km² 15. ... National anthem Sámi soga lávlla Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area ca. ...


The Russian language uses the Лапландия ("Laplandia") form. Russian ( , tr. ...


Finns living in the Lapland Province, covering an area much larger than the Finnish Sami area, use the name Lappi for the land. This name is also used for the Swedish Lapland. Noteworthy is that in Finland the official Sami name for the province is also Lappi.[3] The word Lappi- appears as a common component of place-names throughout central and southern Finland as well; in many cases it probably refers to earlier Sami presence, even though in some cases the underlying meaning may be merely 'periphery' or 'outlying district'. The northernmost part of the province where the Sami people are the most numerous, is officially called Saamelaisten kotiseutualue (Sami Domicile Area) and protected by special minority laws. Furthermore, the Finnish name for the Norwegian Finnmark is Ruija. Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ... Location of the Sami Domicile Area in Finland. ...


Flag

Main article: Sami flag

The Sami flag was inaugurated during the Sami Conference in Åre, Sweden on August 15, 1986. It was the result of a competition for which many suggestions were entered. The winning design was submitted by the artist Astrid Båhl from Skibotn, Norway. The Sami flag is the flag of the Sami people. ... Ã…re is a Municipality in Jämtland County, in North West Sweden. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Skibotn is a small community (a village) on the eastern shore of the Lyngen Fjord - Storfjorden in the Norwegian language - in the Northern Norwegian province of Finnmark. ...


The motif was derived from the shaman's drum and the poem "Paiven parneh" ("Sons of the Sun") by the south Sami Anders Fjellner (1795-1876). Fjellner described the Sami as sons and daughters of the sun. The flag's circle represents the sun (red) and the moon (blue). The flag has the Sami colours, red, green, yellow and blue. Pantone colour formula is: red 485C, green 356C, yellow 116C and blue 286C. 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Pantone Inc. ...


Area

The area covered by Lapland lies mostly north of the Arctic Circle. The western portion is an area of fjords, deep valleys, glaciers, and mountains, the highest point being Mount Kebnekaise (2,111 m/6,926 ft), in Swedish Lapland. Farther east, the terrain is that of a low plateau, containing many marshes and lakes, the largest and most important of which is Lake Inari, in Finnish Lapland. The extreme eastern section lies within the tundra region. World map showing the Arctic Circle in red A sign along the Dalton Highway marking the location of the Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ... Kebnekaise (from Sami Giebmegáisi or Giebnegáisi), Cauldron Crest) is the highest mountain in Sweden. ... Lake Inari (Finnish: Inarijärvi, Northern Sami: Anárjávri, Inari Sami: Aanaarjävri, Swedish: Enare träsk) is the third largest lake in Finland, and the sixth largest lake in Europe. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ...


Administrative divisions

Sápmi spans four countries, where the main territories lie in the following counties or provinces.

The Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ... County NO-20 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Vadsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 1 48,618 km² 15. ... County NO-18 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Bodø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 2 38,456 km² 11. ... County NO-17 Region Trøndelag Administrative centre Steinkjer County mayor Inger Lise Gjørv Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 6 22,412 km² 6. ... County NO-19 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Tromsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 4 25,877 km² 8. ... Murmansk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Jämtland County, or Jämtlands län, is a County or län in the north of Sweden. ... Norrbotten County (Norrbottens län) is a Swedish county or län in the extreme north of Sweden. ... Västerbotten County, or Västerbottens län is a county or län in the north of Sweden. ...

Climate

The climate is subarctic and vegetation is sparse, except in the densely forested southern portion. The mountainous west coast has significantly milder winters and more precipitation than the large areas east of the mountain chain. Lapland contains valuable mineral deposits, particularly iron ore in Sweden, copper in Norway, and nickel and apatite in Russia. Reindeer, wolf, bear, and sea and land birds are the main forms of animal life. Sea and river fisheries abound in the region. Steamers are operated on some of the lakes, and many ports are ice-free throughout the year. All ports along the Norwegian Sea in the west and the Barents Sea in the north east to Murmansk are ice-free all year. The Gulf of Bothnia usually freezes over in winter. Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... The Norwegian Sea (Norwegian: Norskehavet) is part of the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of Norway, located between the North Sea (i. ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ) is a city in the extreme northwest of Russia (north of the Arctic circle) with a seaport on the Kola Gulf, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Bothnia (Fin. ...


People

The Sami (Saami or Lapps), who speak a Finno-Ugric language also known as Sami inhabit Lapland. In the geographical area composing Lapland the Sami are a small minority. According to the Swedish Sami parliament the total Sami population is about 70 000. Other Sami live permanently in scattered settlements on the coast and fjords, and many are established in villages at the heads of valleys or on well-stocked lakes. The Sami live mostly in Norway, where they are called Samer. Their principal traditional occupations were hunting, fishing and herding reindeer, from which both food and clothing were derived. Still some 10% of Samis practise reindeer herding, which is seen as a fundamental part of a Sami culture and in some parts of Nordic countries can only be practised by Samis. No Sami today have a nomadic livestyle though. The Sami were conquered by the Norsemen in the 9th century AD and by the Russians in the 11th century. The municipalities of Gällivare, Jokkmokk and Arjeplog in Swedish Lappland were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996 as a "Laponian Area". The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps and Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... For other uses of the term Norse, see Norse. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Gällivare Municipality is a Municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern Sweden where Gällivare is seat. ... Jokkmokk is a Municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern Sweden. ... Arjeplog is a Municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern population density of the community is 0 inhabitants per km². See also Arjeplog Lapland Court District External links Arjeplog - Official site Categories: Municipalities of Sweden | Municipalities of Norrbotten County | Sami language municipalities ...


Norway

According to the Swedish Sami parliament the Sami population of Norway is 40 000. If all people who speak Sami or have a parent, grandparent, or great-grandparent who speaks or spoke Sami are included the number reaches 70 000. As of 2005 12 538 people were registered to vote in the election for the Sami parliament in Norway.[4] The bulk of the Sami live in Finnmark and Northern Troms, but there are also Sami populations in Southern Troms, Nordland and Trøndelag. Due to recent migration it has also been claimed that Oslo is the municipality with the largest Sami population. The Sami are in a majority only in the municipalities of Guovdageaidnu-Kautokeino, Karasjohka-Karasjok, Porsanger, Deatnu-Tana and Unjargga-Nesseby in Finnmark, and Kåfjord in Northern Troms. This area is also know as the Sami core area. Sami and Norwegian are equal as administrative languages in this area. County NO-19 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Tromsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 4 25,877 km² 8. ... County NO-18 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Bodø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 2 38,456 km² 11. ... Trøndelag is the name of a geographical region in the middle of Norway, consisting of the two counties Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag. ... County Oslo NO-03 District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... County Finnmark District Municipality NO-2011 Administrative centre Kautokeino Mayor (2004) Klemet Erland Hætta (Samefolkets liste - Sámi Peoples Party) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 1 9,708 km² 8,964 km² 3. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2021 Administrative centre Karasjok Mayor (2004) Kjell H. Sæther (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 2 5,453 km² 5,205 km² 1. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2020 Administrative centre Lakselv Mayor (2004) Bjørn KÃ¥re Søderholm (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 3 4,874 km² 4,643 km² 1. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2025 Administrative centre Tana Mayor (2003) Ingrid Smuk Rolstad (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Northern Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 5 4,049 km² 3,833 km² 1. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2027 Administrative centre Nyborg Mayor (2003) Ann Jorid Henriksen (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 57 1,436 km² 1,367 km² 0. ... County Troms District Municipality NO-1940 Administrative centre Olderdalen Mayor (2003) Idar Lilleberg(NSD-AP) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 106 991 km² 950 km² 0. ...


Sweden

Main article: Lapland, Sweden (province)

According to the Swedish Sami parliament the Sami population of Sweden is about 20 000. Laponia, or Lappland, was a historical Province or landskap in the extreme north of Sweden. ...


Finland

Main article: Lapland Province, Finland

According to the Swedish Sami parliament the Sami population of Finland is about 6 000. Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ...


Russia

According to the 2002 census the Sami population of Russia was 1,991.


Since 1926 the number of Sami in Russia has gradually increased:

  • census 1926: 1,720 (this number refers to the total Soviet Union)
  • census 1939: 1,829
  • census 1959: 1,760
  • census 1970: 1,836
  • census 1979: 1,775
  • census 1989: 1,835
  • census 2002: 1,991

Conflicts

There is a border, and some state that the rights (for reindeer herding and in some parts even for fishing and hunting) would include a larger part than of Sápmi. However, today's "border" originates from the 14-16th centuries when land-owning conflicts occurred. The establishment of more stable dwelling places and larger towns originates from the 16th century, and was performed for strategic defence and economic reasons, both by peoples from Sami groups themselves and more southern immigrants.


Owning land within the borders or being a member of a siidas (="corporation villages") gives rights. A different law enacted in Sweden in the mid-90s gave the right to anyone to fish and hunt in the region, something that was met with large scepticism and anger amongst the siidas. A Sami village, or Siida, Sita, Kite in Sami language, is at the same time both a Sami village community, and a corporation working for the economic benefit of their members. ...


Court proceedings have been common throughout history, and the aim from the Samic viewpoint is to reclaim territories used earlier in history. Due to a larger defeat in 1996, one siidas has introduced a sponsorship "Reindeer Godfather" concept to raise funds for further battles in courts. These "internal conflicts" are usually conflicts between non-Sami land owners and Reindeer owners. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


The question whether the Fjeld's territory is owned by the governments or the Sami population is not answered. In geography a fell is a treeless mountain landscape that has been shaped by glacier ice earlier in history. ...


Sami Parliaments

Lapland demonstrates a distinct semi-national identity that transcends the borders between Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. However, there is no movement for complete autonomy. The Sami Parliaments, founded in Norway (1989), Sweden (1993), and Finland (1996) have very weak political influence, far from autonomy. They are formally public authorities, ruled by the Scandinavian governments, but have democratically elected parliamentarians. Their mission is to work for the Sami culture. The candidates' election promises often get in conflict with the institutions' submission under their governments. But as authorities, they have some influence over the government. The Sami Parliament is a representative body for peoples of Sami heritage in several Scandinavian countries. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


Russia is not actively taking part of this recognition of the minority of Samis. Sweden has taken this active part for two reasons:

Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Majoritarianism is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society. ...

Trivia

For the 1973 childrens picture book by Raymond Briggs, see Raymond Briggs. ... Saint Nicholas (Greek: , Nikolaos, victory of the people) is the common name for Saint Nicholas, Bishop of Myra, who had a reputation for secret gift-giving, but is now commonly identified with Santa Claus. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... Korvatunturi is a fell in Lapland, on the border of Finland (in the municipality of Savukoski) and Russia. ...

See also

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References

  • A Norwegian Government report
  • Swedish sami parliament web page
  1. ^ Egil's Saga, Chapter XIV
  2. ^ Presentation of Finnmark by Norway's Ministry of Trade and Industry in their official travel guide to Norway.
  3. ^ Official pages of the Province of Lapland in Sami.
  4. ^ Norwegian Sami parliament web page on registered voters

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