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Encyclopedia > Lapis lazuli
Lapis lazuli

General
Category Rock
Chemical formula mixture of minerals
Identification
Color Blue, mottled with white calcite and brassy pyrite
Crystal habit Compact, massive
Crystal system None, as lapis is a rock. Lazurite, the main constituent, frequently occurs as dodecahedra
Cleavage None
Fracture Uneven-Conciodal
Mohs Scale hardness 5 - 5.5
Luster dull
Refractive index 1.5
Streak light blue
Specific gravity 2.7 - 2.9
Other Characteristics The variations in composition cause a wide variation in the above values.

Lapis lazuli, also known as just lapis, is a stone with one of the longest traditions of being considered a gem, with a history stretching back to 7000 BC in Mehrgarh in the Indian subcontinent, situated in between modern day Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Deep blue in color and opaque, this gemstone was highly prized by the pharaohs of ancient Egypt, as can be seen by its prominent use in many of the treasures recovered from pharaonic tombs. It is still extremely popular today. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (673x1197, 161 KB) From fr, uploaded by fr:User:Luna04 under GFDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Lapis lazuli ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... YOU SUCK!!!!! ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... This article is about the mineral Pyrite or Fools Gold. ... In mineralogy, shape and size give rise to descriptive terms applied to the typical appearance, or habit of crystals. ... A crystal system is a category of space groups, which characterize symmetry of structures in three dimensions with translational symmetry in three directions, having a discrete class of point groups. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... A dodecahedron is a Platonic solid composed of twelve pentagonal faces, with three meeting at each vertex. ... Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces, of which there are several named types: Basal cleavage: cleavage parallel to the base of a crystal, or to the plane of the lateral axes. ... For fractures in geologic formations, see Rock fracture. ... Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer. ... Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The streak (also called powder color) of a mineral is the color of the powder produced when it is dragged across a unweathered surface. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... A selection of gemstone pebbles made by tumbling rough rock with abrasive grit, in a rotating drum. ... (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) Events circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia circa 6500 BC – English Channel formed circa 6100 BC – The Storegga Slide, causing a megatsunami in the Norwegian Sea circa 6000... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... YOU SUCK!!!!! ... This article refers to the historical Pharaoh. ...


Lapis is a rock and not a mineral because it is made up from various other minerals. To be a mineral it would have one constituent only.[1] The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. ...


The first part of the name is the Latin lapis, meaning stone. The second part, lazuli, is the genitive form of the medieval Latin lazulum, which came from Arabic (al-)lazward, which came from Persian لاژورد lāzhward, which came from Sanskrit Raja Warta meaning Ring/Life of the King. This was originally a place-name, but soon came to mean blue because of its association with the stone. The English word azure, the Spanish and Portuguese azul, and the Italian azzurro are cognates. Taken as a whole, lapis lazuli means "stone of azure". Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Description

The main component of lapis lazuli is lazurite (25% to 40%), a feldspathoid silicate mineral composed of sodium, aluminium, silicon, oxygen, sulfur, and chlorine. Its formula is (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(S,SO4,Cl)1-2.[2] Most lapis lazuli also contains calcite (white), sodalite (blue) and pyrite (metallic yellow). Other possible constituents are augite, diopside, enstatite, mica, hauynite, hornblende and nosean. Some contain trace amounts of the sulfur rich lollingite variety geyerite. A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... The feldspathoids are a group of tectosilicate minerals which resemble feldspars but have a different structure and much lower silica content. ... The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ... It has been suggested that Silicons ranking be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Sodalite is a rare, rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental stone. ... This article is about the mineral Pyrite or Fools Gold. ... Augite is a single chain inosilicate mineral described chemically as (Ca,Mg,Fe)SiO3 or calcium magnesium iron silicate. ... Diopside Diopside is a monoclinic pyroxene mineral with composition MgCaSi2O6. ... The pyroxene silicate minerals enstatite (MgSiO3) and ferrosilite (FeSiO3) form a complete solid solution series and are common rock-forming minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks and meteorites. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... Hauyne, haüyne or hauynite is a tectosilicate mineral with sulfate and chloride with formula: (Na,Ca)4-8Al6Si6(O,S)24(SO4,Cl)1-2. ... Amphibole (Hornblende) Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals. ... Nosean, also known as Noselite, is a form of sodalite. ... Lollingite, also known as Löllingite is an iron arsenide mineral with formula FeAs2. ...


Lapis lazuli usually occurs in crystalline marble as a result of contact metamorphism. Venus de Milo, front. ... Metamorphism can be defined as the mineralogical, chemical and crystallographic changes in a solid-state rock, i. ...


The finest color is intense blue, lightly dusted with small flecks of golden pyrite. There should be no white calcite veins and the pyrite inclusions should be small. Stones that contain too much calcite or pyrite are not as valuable. Patches of pyrite are an important help in identifying the stone as genuine and do not detract from its value. Often, inferior lapis is dyed to improve its color, but this is often a very dark blue with a noticeable grey cast. This article is about the mineral Pyrite or Fools Gold. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ...


Sources

The finest lapis comes from the Badakshan area of Afghanistan. Shortugai, an Indus Valley Civilization site on the Oxus river in northern Afghanistan, was a mining centre for lapis lazuli. This source of lapis may be the oldest continually worked set of mines in the world, the same mines operating today having supplied the lapis of the pharaohs and ancient Sumerians. Using this ancient source, the Indus Valley Civilization's artists used to make beautiful carvings and traders used to trade them to distant places. More recently, during the 1980s conflict with the USSR, Afghanistan resistance fighters disassembled unexploded Soviet landmines and ordnance and used the scavenged explosive to help mine lapis to further fund their resistance efforts.[citation needed] Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Shortugai is an Indus Valley site on the Oxus river in northern Afghanistan [1]. It was a lapis lazuli mining center. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ...


In addition to the Afghan deposits, lapis has been found in the Andes near Ovalle, Chile, where it is usually pale rather than deep blue. Other less important sources are the Lake Baikal region of Russia, Siberia, Angola, Burma, Pakistan, USA (California and Colorado), Canada and India. Planes view of the Andes, Peru. ... In 1831 the city of Ovalle was founded. ... Lake Baikal (Russian: Байка́л, pronounced ; Buryat and Mongol: Dalai-Nor) lies in Southern Siberia in Russia between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and Buryatia to the southeast near the city of Irkutsk. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


Uses

Lapis takes an excellent polish and has been made into jewellery, carvings, boxes, mosaics, ornaments and vases. In architecture it has been used for cladding the walls and columns of palaces and churches.


It was also ground and processed to make the pigment Ultramarine for tempera paint and, more rarely, oil paint. Its usage as a pigment in oil paint ended in the early 19th century as a chemically identical synthetic variety, often called French Ultramarine, became available. Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Natural ultramarine. ... A 1367 tempera on wood by Niccolò Semitecolo. ... View of Delft in oil paint, by Johannes Vermeer. ... Natural ultramarine. ...


Cultural and historical/mythical usage

A Mesopotamian lapis lazuli pendant circa 2900 BC.
A Mesopotamian lapis lazuli pendant circa 2900 BC.
A 4.5 inch long lapis lazuli dove is studded with gold pegs. Dated 1200BCE from Susa, Iran.
A 4.5 inch long lapis lazuli dove is studded with gold pegs. Dated 1200BCE from Susa, Iran.
An Elephant carving in high quality lapis lazuli, showing gold-colored inclusions of pyrite. These inclusions are common in lapis and are an important help in identifying the stone. The carving is 8 cm (3 inches) long.
An Elephant carving in high quality lapis lazuli, showing gold-colored inclusions of pyrite. These inclusions are common in lapis and are an important help in identifying the stone. The carving is 8 cm (3 inches) long.

In ancient Egypt lapis lazuli was a favorite stone for amulets and ornaments such as scarabs; it was also used by the Assyrians and Babylonians for seals. Egyptian burial sites dating before 3000 B.C. contained thousands of jewellery items, many of lapis. Powdered lapis was used by Egyptian ladies as a cosmetic eye shadow. ImageMetadata File history File links Mesolapis. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Mesolapis. ... This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Download high resolution version (800x617, 97 KB)Elephant carved from high quality Lapis Lazuli. ... Download high resolution version (800x617, 97 KB)Elephant carved from high quality Lapis Lazuli. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... This article is about the mineral Pyrite or Fools Gold. ... A scarab or scarab beetle may refer to: A beetle which belong to the family Scarabaeidae, or A dung beetle, especially the Scarabaeus sacer worshipped by the ancient Egyptians (an amulet made by that people in the shape of the species is also called a scarab). ... Gilgamesh and Enkidu, cylinder seal impression from Ur III, with oldest type of pictographic cuneiform The Cylinder seals in ancient times, were used to put an impression in clay. ...


As inscribed in the 140th chapter of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, lapis lazuli, in the shape of an eye set in gold, was considered an amulet of great power. On the last day of the month, an offering was made before this symbolic eye, for it was believed that, on that day, the supreme being placed such an image on his head. The Book of the Dead comd A Section of Plate 3 from the Papyrus of Ani. ...


The ancient royal Sumerian tombs of Ur, located near the Euphrates River in lower Iraq, contained more than 6000 beautifully executed lapis lazuli statuettes of birds, deer, and rodents as well as dishes, beads, and cylinder seals. These carved artifacts undoubtedly came from material mined in Badakhshan in northern Afghanistan. The word lazuli itself originates from the Persian dialect of Badakhshan. Much Sumerian and Akkadian poetry makes reference to lapis lazuli as a gem befitting royal splendor. Badakhshan is a region comprising parts of northeastern Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ...


In ancient times, lapis lazuli was known as sapphire,[citation needed] which is the name that is used today for the blue corundum variety sapphire. It appears to have been the sapphire of ancient writers because Pliny refers to sapphirus as a stone sprinkled with specks of gold. A similar reference can be found in the Hebrew Bible in Job 28:6. Sapphire (from Hebrew: ספיר Sapir) is the single-crystal form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3), a mineral known as corundum. ...


The Romans believed that lapis was a powerful aphrodisiac. In the Middle Ages, it was thought to keep the limbs healthy, and free the soul from error, envy and fear. An aphrodisiac is an agent which increases sexual desire. ...


It was once believed that lapis had medicinal properties. It was ground down, mixed with milk and applied as a dressing for boils and ulcers.


Many of the blues in painting from medieval Illuminated manuscripts to Renaissance panels were derived from lapis lazuli. Ground to a powder and processed to remove impurities and isolate the component lazurite, it forms the pigment ultramarine. This clear, bright blue, which was one of the few available to painters before the 19th century, cost a princely sum. As tempera painting was superseded by the advent of oil paint in the Renaissance, painters found that the brilliance of ultramarine was greatly diminished when it was ground in oil and this, along with its cost, led to a steady decline in usage. Since the synthetic version of ultramarine was discovered in the 19th century (along with other 19th century blues, such as cobalt blue), production and use of the natural variety has almost ceased, though several pigment companies still produce it and some painters are still attracted to its brilliance and its romantic history. An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript, often of a religious nature, in which the text is supplemented by the addition of colourful ornamentation, such as decorated initials, borders and the like. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Natural ultramarine. ... A 1367 tempera on wood by Niccolò Semitecolo. ... View of Delft in oil paint, by Johannes Vermeer. ... wikipedia sucks big balls For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ...


Poetry/Literature

Lapis Lazuli is a poem written by William Butler Yeats. Text available at Readprint.com William Butler Yeats, 1933 photograph, author unknown. ...


As noted above, lapis lazuli is also repeatedly mentioned in the Sumerian and Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh. For instance, the Bull of Heaven's horns are composed of Lapis lazuli. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... The Bull of Heaven is the constellation we call Taurus. ...


Lapis Lazuli is also mentioned in Browning's 'The Bishop Orders His Tomb at Saint Praxed's Church'.


Lapis lazuli also makes an appearance in Marianne Moore's poem, "A Talisman" - which is quoted by T. S. Eliot in his "Introduction to Selected Poems [of Marianne Moore]." The stanza of Moore's poem reads: "Of lapis-lazuli,/A scarab of the sea,/With wings spread-". Eliot, in the next paragraph, raises the question: "I cannot see what a bird carved of lapis-lazuli should be doing with coral feet; but even here the cadence, the use of rhyme, and a certain authoritativeness of manner distinguish the poem." Marianne Moore photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1948 Marianne Moore (December 11, 1887 - February 5, 1972) was a Modernist American poet and writer. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ...


In Lorna Crozier's poem "The Memorial Wall", "a young man who'd come/ from Montana to find his brother's name,/paints the side door lapis lazuli". Lorna Crozier (1948-2006) was a Canadian poet who lived in Saanichton, British Columbia. ...


In Robert A. Heinlein's novel, Time Enough for Love, the centuries old main character, Lazarus Long, names one of his two twin cloned daughters Lapis Lazuli. Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1973. ... Spoiler warning: Lazarus Long is a fictional character featured in a number of science fiction novels by Robert A. Heinlein. ...


David Foster Wallace's essay "A Supposedly Fun Thing I'll Never Do Again" makes repeated reference to what author Frank Conroy, in a brochure for Caribbean Cruise Lines, dubbed "the lapis lazuli dome of the sky." The more Wallace considers the phrase, the more disingenuous, inexpressive and manufactured it seems to him.


In Katherine Roberts' novel The Babylon Game (the second novel in the series The Seven Fabulous Wonders), the royal seal found by Tiamat in the Princess' Garden is made out of lapis lazuli - the material used for all royal seals. Katherine Roberts (born February 12, 1962) is an English author famous for her fantasy series, The Echorium Sequence. ... The Babylon Game is a fantasy novel by Katherine Roberts which is the second novel in the The Seven Fabulous Wonders series and the sequel to The Great Pyramid Robbery. ... The Seven Fabulous Wonders is a fantasy series by Katherine Roberts currently comprising of 7 novels. ...


In Emily Rodda's children's series Deltora Quest, the lapis lazuli, or "Heavenly Stone," is one of the seven lost gems of Deltora. Deltora Quest is a series of children’s fantasy books, written by Australian author Emily Rodda. ...


References

  1. ^ Mindat.org
  2. ^ Mindat - Lazurite

External links

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Gems and Crystals
Gems

Aquamarine · Emerald · Jasper · Lapis lazuli · Pearl · Peridot · Ruby · Sunstone · Tiger's eye Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Look up gem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Quartz crystal Synthetic bismuth hopper crystal Insulin crystals Gallium, a metal that easily forms large single crystals A huge monocrystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate grown from solution by Saint-Gobain for the megajoule laser of CEA. In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms... Aquamarine Aquamarine (Lat. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... Freshadama grade cultured freshwater pearls. ... Peridot (pronounced pear-uh-dot or pear-uh-doe, IPA: /pɛɹɪdɑːt/ or Fr. ... Ruby is a red gemstone. ... Sunstone, a feldspar exhibiting in certain directions a brilliant spangled appearance, which has led to its use as an ornamental stone. ... Polished tigers eye gemstone Tigers eye (also Tigers eye, Tiger eye) is a chatoyant gemstone that is usually yellow- to red-brown, with a silky luster. ...

Crystals

Agate · Amethyst · Chalcedony · Diamond · Pyrite · Quartz · Rhodochrosite · Sapphire · Topaz · Tourmaline Agate is a type of quartz (silica), chiefly chalcedony, characterised by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. ... Amethyst is a purple variety of quartz often used as an ornament. ... Chalcedony knife, AD 1000-1200 Bloodstone redirects here. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... This article is about the mineral Pyrite or Fools Gold. ... Quartz is one of the most common minerals in the Earths continental crust. ... Rhodochrosite from Sweet Home Mine, Alma, Colorado, USA Pink is the most common color of Rhodochrosite. ... Sapphire (from Hebrew: ספיר Sapir) is the single-crystal form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3), a mineral known as corundum. ... Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. ... The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lapis Lazuli (0 words)
Lapis lazuli is a gemstone of the kind that might have come straight out of the Arabian Nights: a deep blue with golden inclusions of pyrites which shimmer like little stars.
Lapis lazuli is an opaque rock that mainly consists of diopside and lazurite.
Lapis lazuli is a versatile and popular gemstone which has shown extraordinary stability in the turbulent tides of fashion.
Lapis lazuli - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (1464 words)
Lapis lazuli, also known as just lapis, is a stone with one of the longest traditions of being considered a gem, with a history stretching back to 5000 BC.
The main component of lapis lazuli is lazurite (25% to 40%), a feldspathoid silicate mineral composed of sodium, aluminium, silicon, oxygen, sulfur, and chlorine.
In ancient Egypt lapis lazuli was a favorite stone for amulets and ornaments such as scarabs; it was also used by the Assyrians and Babylonians for seals.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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