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Encyclopedia > Laos
ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ
Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Flag of Laos
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
ສັນຕິພາບ ເອກະລາດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ເອກະພາບ ວັດທະນາຖາວອນ
"Peace, Independence, Democracy, Unity and Prosperity"
Anthem
Pheng Xat Lao
Capital
(and largest city)
Vientiane
17°58′N, 102°36′E
Official languages Lao
Demonym Laotian, Lao
Government Socialist Republic
 -  President Lt. Gen. Choummaly Sayasone
 -  Prime Minister Bouasone Bouphavanh
Independence from France 
 -  Date 19 July 1949 
Area
 -  Total 236,800 km² (83rd)
91,429 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2
Population
 -  2007 estimate 6,521,998 (106th)
 -  1995 census 4,574,848 
 -  Density 25/km² (177th)
65/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $13.74 billion (129th)
 -  Per capita $2,200 (138th)
Gini? (2002) 34.6 (medium
HDI (2004) 0.553 (medium) (133rd)
Currency Kip (LAK)
Time zone (UTC+7)
Internet TLD .la
Calling code +856

Laos (IPA: [laʊs]), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a landlocked communist state in southeast Asia, bordered by Burma (Myanmar) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west. Laos traces its history to the Kingdom of Lan Xang or Land of a Million Elephants, which existed from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century. After a period as a French protectorate, it gained independence in 1949. A long civil war ended officially when the communist Pathet Lao movement came to power in 1975 but the fighting between factions continued for several years. The Popular Orthodox Rally (Greek: Λαϊκός Ορθόδοξος Συναγερμός, Laïkós Orthódoxos Synagermós), often abbreviated to ΛΑ.Ο.Σ. (LA.O.S.) as a pun on the Greek word for people, is a Greek nationalist/radical right-wing populist political party, founded and led by controversial journalist Georgios Karatzaferis. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ... Image File history File links Wappen_laos_sw. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Laos was adopted on December 2, 1975. ... The Laos coat of arms shows the national shrine Pha That Luang. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Pheng Xat Lao was composed by Dr. Thongdy Sounthonevichit (1905-1968) in 1941 and adopted as the national anthem of the Kingdom of Laos in 1947. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Laos population was estimated at about 5. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... The Lao are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ... The office of the President of Laos was created after the downfall of the monarchy of the country, and a member of the old ruling family was the first president. ... Lt. ... This is a list of prime ministers of Laos Luang Prabang 1941–1945: Prince Phetsarath Kingdom (1945–1975) 1945–1946: Prince Phaya Khammao (chair of the provisional government) 1946–1947: Prince Kindavong 1947–1948: Prince Souvannarath 1948–1950: Prince Boun Oum 1950–1951: Phoui Sananikone 1951–1954: Prince Souvanna Phouma... Bouasone Bouphavanh (born June 3, 1954 in Ban Tao Poun, Muang Salavan, Salavan Province) is the prime minister of Laos. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... Kip is the currency of Laos. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .la is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Laos. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Lao kingdom of Lan Xang or Lan Chang (Pali: Sisattanakhanahut, Lao: lâansâang, from Sinitic “vast number of elephants”) was established in 1354 by Somdetch Brhat-Anya Fa Ladhuraniya Sri Sadhana Kanayudha Maharaja Brhat Rajadharana Sri Chudhana Negara (otherwise known as Fa Ngum). ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... Combatants Kingdom of Laos, United States, Thailand, Republic of Vietnam Pathet Lao Democratic Republic of Vietnam The Secret War (1962-1975) also known as the Laotian Civil War was a term used to describe the Laotian front of the Vietnam War. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Pathet Lao (Laotian, Land of Laos) was a communist, nationalist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid 20th century. ...


Private enterprise has increased since the late-1990s when economic reforms including rapid business licensing were introduced. Laos is still ranked among the lowest countries in terms of economic and political freedom.[1] Despite this, the economy of Laos grew at 7.2% in 2006,[2] 35th fastest in the world. 80% of the employed practice subsistence agriculture.[3] The country's ethnic make-up is diverse, with around 70% belonging to the largest ethnic group, the Lao.[4] Capitalism generally refers to a combination of economic practices that became institutionalized in Europe between the 16th and 19th centuries, especially involving the right of individuals and groups of individuals acting as legal persons (or corporations) to buy and sell capital goods such as land, labor, and money (see finance... Laos is a landlocked country with an inadequate infrastructure and a largely unskilled work force. ... Data from The World Factbook. ... Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ...

Contents

Terminology

In the Lao language, the country's name is "Muang Lao". The Imperial French, who made the country part of French Indochina in 1893, spelled it with a final silent "s", i.e. "Laos". The usual adjectival form is "Lao", e.g. "the Lao economy", not the "Laotian" economy--although "Laotian" is used to describe the people of Muang Lao to avoid confusion with the Lao ethnic group. Lao (ພາສາລາວ phaasaa laao) also Laotian, is the official language of Laos. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Lao are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia. ...


History

Main article: History of Laos

Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang, founded in the fourteenth century, which lasted until the eighteenth century, when Siam invaded and assumed control of the separate principalities that remained. To avoid a costly war with the French, the Siamese king ceded lands now known as Laos to them, and these were incorporated into French Indochina in 1893. The French saw Laos as a useful buffer state between the two expanding empires of France and Britain. Under the French, the capital (Vieng Chan) was changed to Vientiane. Following a brief Japanese occupation during World War II, the country declared its independence in 1945, but the French re-asserted their control and only in 1950 was Laos granted semi-autonomy as an "associated state" within the French Union. Moreover, the French remained in de facto control until 1954, when Laos gained full independence as a constitutional monarchy. Under a special exemption to the Geneva Convention, a French military training mission continued to support the Royal Laos Army. In 1955, the U.S. Department of Defense created a special Programs Evaluation Office to replace French support of the Royal Laos Army against the communist Pathet Lao as part of the U.S. containment policy. // The earliest Lao legal document (and the earliest sociological evidence about the existence of the Lao people) is known as the laws of Khun Borom (also spelled Khun Bulom), still preserved in manuscript form. ... The Lao kingdom of Lan Xang or Lan Chang (Pali: Sisattanakhanahut, Lao: lâansâang, from Sinitic “vast number of elephants”) was established in 1354 by Somdetch Brhat-Anya Fa Ladhuraniya Sri Sadhana Kanayudha Maharaja Brhat Rajadharana Sri Chudhana Negara (otherwise known as Fa Ngum). ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Anthem Phleng Chat Royal anthem Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami Capital (and largest city) Bangkok Official languages Thai Demonym Thai Government Military Junta under Constitutional Monarchy  -  Monarch King Bhumibol Adulyadej  -  Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont  -  President of the Council for National Security Air Chief Marshal Chalit Pookpasuk (acting) Formation  -  Sukhothai Kingdom 1238... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... With the end of World War II, Laos was no longer under the French Union but entirely sovereign and was governed by the Royal Lao Government. ... Pathet Lao (Laotian, Land of Laos) was a communist, nationalist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid 20th century. ... This article is about foreign policy. ...


Political unrest in neighboring Vietnam dragged Laos into the Second Indochina War (see also Secret War and Vietnam War), a destabilizing factor that contributed to civil war and several coups d'état. The North Vietnamese Army invaded and occupied portions of eastern Laos. The North Vietnamese army, with its heavy weapons including heavy artillery and tanks, was the real power behind the Pathet Lao insurgency. In 1968, the North Vietnamese Army launched a multi-division attack against the Royal Lao Army. The attack resulted in the army largely demobilizing and leaving the conflict to irregular forces raised by the United States and Thailand. The Indochina War was an almost thirty year war in Vietnam between 1946 and 1975, affecting the three Indochinese nations, namely Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. ... Combatants Kingdom of Laos, United States, Thailand, Republic of Vietnam Pathet Lao Democratic Republic of Vietnam The Secret War (1962-1975) also known as the Laotian Civil War was a term used to describe the Laotian front of the Vietnam War. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Coup redirects here. ... knulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din mammaknulla din... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Massive aerial bombardment by the United States followed as it attempted to eliminate North Vietnamese bases in Laos in order to disrupt supply lines on the Trường Sơn Trail (known to Americans as the Hồ Chí Minh Trail). Between 1971 and 1973 the USAAF dropped more ordnance on Laos than was dropped worldwide during the war of 1939-1945. In total more than 2 million tonnes of bombs were dropped (almost 1/2 a tonne per head of population at the time), destroying the country's limited infrastructure and restricting much of its population to living in caves. [5][6] oooo lalala The Ho Chi Minh trail was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) through the neighboring kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia. ...

Pha That Luang in Vientiane, the national symbol of Laos.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane, the national symbol of Laos.

In 1975, the communist Pathet Lao, backed by the Soviet Union and the North Vietnamese Army (justified by the communist ideology of "proletarian internationalism"), overthrew the royalist government, forcing King Savang Vatthana to abdicate on December 2, 1975. He later died in captivity. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2240x1652, 689 KB) Summary Description: Laos, Vientiane, Pha That Luang, the national symbol of Laos Capture date: January 2006 Photographer: Oliver Spalt Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2240x1652, 689 KB) Summary Description: Laos, Vientiane, Pha That Luang, the national symbol of Laos Capture date: January 2006 Photographer: Oliver Spalt Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Pathet Lao (Laotian, Land of Laos) was a communist, nationalist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid 20th century. ... Savang Vatthana (full name Samdach Brhat Chao Maha Sri Vitha Lan Xang Hom Khao Phra Rajanachakra Lao Parama Sidha Khattiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri Savangsa Vadhana) (13 November 1907 - 13 May (?), 1978 or 1984) was the last king of the Kingdom of Laos. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After taking control of the country, Pathet Lao's government renamed the country as the "Lao People's Democratic Republic" and signed agreements giving Vietnam the right to station military forces and to appoint advisers to assist in overseeing the country. Laos was ordered in the late 1970s by Vietnam to end relations with the People's Republic of China which cut the country off from trade with any country but Vietnam.[citation needed] Control by Vietnam and socialization were slowly replaced by a relaxation of economic restrictions in the 1980s and admission into ASEAN in 1997. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


In 2005, the United States established Normal Trade Relations with Laos, ending a protracted period of punitive import taxes.[7] In the United States, Normal Trade Relations (NTR) status refers to what the World Trade Organization and much of the rest of the world still refer to (somewhat misleadingly) as most favoured nation status. ...


Geography

Map of Laos
Main article: Geography of Laos

Laos is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia and the thickly forested landscape consists mostly of rugged mountains, the highest of which is Phou Bia at 9,242 feet (2,817 m), with some plains and plateaus. The Mekong River forms a large part of the western boundary with Thailand, whereas the mountains of the Annamite Chain form most of the eastern border with Vietnam. CIA World Factbook map of Laos. ... CIA World Factbook map of Laos. ... Location: Southeastern Asia, northeast of Thailand, west of Vietnam Geographic coordinates: 18 00 N, 105 00 E Map references: Southeast Asia Area: total: 236,800 km2 land: 230,800 km2 water: 6,000 km2 Area - comparative: slightly larger than Utah Land boundaries: total: 5,083 km border countries: Burma 235... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Phou Bia is the tallest mountain in Laos and is located in the Annamese Cordillera. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Mekong is one of the worlds major rivers. ... The Annamite Range or Phou Luang is a range of mountains along the border between Laos and Vietnam. ...


The climate is tropical and monsoonal. There is a distinct rainy season from May to November, followed by a dry season from December to April. Local tradition holds that there are three seasons (rainy, cold and hot) as the latter two months of the climatologically defined dry season are noticeably hotter than the earlier four months. The capital and largest city of Laos is Vientiane, and other major cities include Luang Prabang, Savannakhet and Pakxe. Bold text[[ // [[Image:Media:Example. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Royal palace museum of Luang Prabang. ... The commercial centre of Savannakhet Savannakhet (population 120,000) is the capital of the Savannakhet Province in Laos. ... Pakxe (French Paksé) is a city in southern Laos, situated at the confluence of the Xedone and Mekong Rivers. ...


In 1993, the government set aside 21% of the nation's land area as National Biodiversity Conservation Areas (NBCA), which may be developed into a national park system. If completed, it is expected to be the most comprehensive and one of the finest national park systems in Southeast Asia.[citation needed] A National Biodiversity Conservation Area is an environmentally protected areas in Laos. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...

Laos is the home to some of the most spectacular animal species in the world, most notably the Indochinese tiger, the giant gaur, and the Asiatic elephant. A number of animal species have been discovered or re-discovered in Laos in recent years. These include the striped or Annamite rabbit, the saola, and most recently the Laotian rock rat or kha-nyou. Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris corbetti Mazák, 1968 Distribution map The Indochinese tiger or Corbetts tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) is a subspecies of tiger found in Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. ... Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 Range map The Gaur (IPA gauɹ) (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... The Annamite rabbit is a variety of rabbit native to the Annamite moutain range on the Laos-Vietnam border. ... Binomial name Pseudoryx nghetinhensis Dung, Giao, Chinh, Tuoc, Arctander, MacKinnon, 1993 The Saola or Vu Quang ox, also, infrequently, Vu Quang bovid (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), one of the worlds rarest mammals, is a forest-dwelling bovine found only in Vietnam (Vu Quang Nature Reserve) and in Laos, near the Vietnam... Binomial name Laonastes aenigmamus Jenkins, Kilpatrick, Robinson, Timmins, 2005 The Laotian rock rat or kha-nyou (Laonastes aenigmamus), sometimes called the rat-squirrel, is a rodent species of the Khammouan region of Laos. ...


The country is one of four in the opium poppy growing region known as the "Golden Triangle". According to the October 2007 UNODC fact book "Opium Poppy Cultivation in South East Asia", the poppy cultivation area was 1,500 ha., down from 1,800 ha. in 2005. The Golden Triangle is one of Asia’s two main illicit opium-producing areas. ...


Economy

Buses connect the major cities.
Buses connect the major cities.
Songthaews are pick-up trucks with benches. They are used for long-distance and local public transport.
Songthaews are pick-up trucks with benches. They are used for long-distance and local public transport.
Main article: Economy of Laos
See also: Tourism in Laos

The government of Laos — one of the few remaining official communist states — began decentralising control and encouraging private enterprise in 1986. [citation needed] The results, starting from an extremely low base, were striking: growth averaged 6% in 1988-2004 except during the short drop caused by the Asian financial crisis beginning in 1997. Major urban centers have experienced the most growth. The economies of Vientiane, Luang Prabang and Savannakhet in particular have experienced significant booms in recent years. The Lao economy is heavily dependent on investment and trade with its larger and richer neighbors, Thailand, Vietnam, and, especially in the north, China. Pakxe has also experienced growth based on cross-border trade with Thailand and Vietnam. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2000x1500, 562 KB) Summary Description: Phonsavan, Laos, Buses are connecting the major cities. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2000x1500, 562 KB) Summary Description: Phonsavan, Laos, Buses are connecting the major cities. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 645 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this in Udon Thani, Isaan Province, Thailand, in May 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 645 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this in Udon Thani, Isaan Province, Thailand, in May 2005. ... A city songthaew in Ubon Ratchathani A songthaew { Thai สองแถว, literally two rows, if pronounced wrong can sound like two feet), also known in English as a baht bus, is a passenger vehicle in Thailand adapted from a pick-up or a larger truck. ... Laos is a landlocked country with an inadequate infrastructure and a largely unskilled work force. ... Tourism is the fastest growing industry in Laos. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Royal palace museum of Luang Prabang. ... Savannakhét (Lao ສະຫວັນນະເຂດ) is a province of Laos, located in the south of the country. ... Pakxe (French Paksé) is a city in southern Laos, situated at the confluence of the Xedone and Mekong Rivers. ...


Much of the country, however, lacks adequate infrastructure. Laos has no railways, although a short link to connect Vientiane with Thailand over the Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge is currently under construction. The major roads connecting the major urban centres, in particular Route 13 South, have been significantly upgraded in recent years, but villages far from major roads are accessible only through unpaved roads that may not be accessible year-round. There is limited external and internal telecommunication, particularly of the wire line sort, but mobile cellular phone use has become widespread in urban centres. In many rural areas electricity is unavailable or offered only during scheduled periods. The Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge (Thai Saphan Mittaphap Thai-Lao) is a bridge over the river Mekong, connecting the provinces of Nong Khai in Thailand and Vientiane in Laos. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ...

A ferryboat on the Nam Ou river. Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
A ferryboat on the Nam Ou river. Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.

Subsistence agriculture still accounts for half of GDP and provides 80% of total employment. Laos has the lowest percentage of arable land and permanent crop land in the Greater Mekong Subregion.[8] Only 4.01% of Laos is arable land, and only 0.34% of the country is planted with permanent crops.[9] Rice dominates agriculture, with about 80% of the arable land area used for growing rice.[10] Approximately 77% of Lao farm households are self-sufficient in rice.[11] Through the development, release and widespread adoption of improved rice varieties, and through economic reforms, Lao PDR achieved a net balance of rice imports and exports for the first time in 1999.[12] Between 1990 and 2005, rice production increased from 1.5 million tons to 2.5 million tons [1][2]: an average annual growth rate of more than 5%.[13] This increase in production has been valued at $8 million to $19 million per year.[12] Lao PDR may have the greatest number of rice varieties in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Since 1995 the Lao government has been working with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to collect seed samples of each of the thousands of rice varieties found in Laos.[14] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 664 KB) Summary Description: The Nam Ou between Nong Khiaw and Luang Prabang - Laos Capture date: December 2005 Photographer: Oliver Spalt Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 664 KB) Summary Description: The Nam Ou between Nong Khiaw and Luang Prabang - Laos Capture date: December 2005 Photographer: Oliver Spalt Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... The Nam Ou (rice bowl river) is one of the most important rivers of Laos. ... Greater Mekong Subregion, abbreviation: GMS) is a geological region that includes nations and territories located in Mekong River basin, namely: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Burma and Yunnan Province of China. ... The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international NGO. Its headquarters are in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, and it has offices in ten countries. ...


The economy receives aid from the IMF and other international sources and from new foreign investment in food processing and mining, most notably of copper and gold. Tourism is the fastest-growing industry in the country. However, economic development in general is hampered by a serious case of brain drain. A 2005 World Bank study reported that 37% of educated Laotians lived abroad, putting the country in fifth place for worst brain drain. The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Tourist redirects here. ... This article is about the emigration term. ... This article is about the emigration term. ...


In late 2004, Laos gained Normal Trade Relations status with the US, allowing Laos-based producers to face lower tariffs on their exports; this may help spur growth.


Demographics

A street market in Luang Prabang.
A street market in Luang Prabang.
Main article: Demographics of Laos

69% of the country's people are ethnic Lao, the principal lowland inhabitants and the politically and culturally dominant group. The Lao belong to the Tai linguistic group who began migrating southward from China in the first millennium AD. A further 8% belong to other "lowland" groups, which together with the Lao people make up the Lao Loum. Hill people and minority cultures of Laos such as the Hmong (Miao), Yao (Mien), Tai dumm, Dao, Shan, and several Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples have lived in isolated regions of Laos for many years. Mountain/hill tribes of mixed ethno/cultural-linguistic heritage are found in northern Laos which include the Lua (Lua) and Khammu people who are indigenous to Laos. Today, the Lua people are considered endangered. Collectively, they are known as Lao Soung or highland Laotians. In the central and southern mountains, Mon-Khmer tribes, known as Lao Theung or mid-slope Laotians, predominate. Some Vietnamese and Chinese minorities remain, particularly in the towns, but many left in two waves; after independence in the late 1940s and again after 1975. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (840x1120, 576 KB) Täglicher Gemüsemarkt auf den Straßen von Luang Prabang Source: taken by user File links The following pages link to this file: Laos Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (840x1120, 576 KB) Täglicher Gemüsemarkt auf den Straßen von Luang Prabang Source: taken by user File links The following pages link to this file: Laos Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Royal palace museum of Luang Prabang. ... Laos population was estimated at about 5. ... The Tai languages are a subgroup of the Tai Kadai language family. ... This article is about the Lao ethnic group. ... Languages Hmong/Mong Religions Shamanism, Buddhism, Christianity, others The terms Hmong (IPA:) and Mong () both refer to an Asian ethnic group whose homeland was originally in the mountainous regions of southern China. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tai Dam is a Tai language spoken in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and China (mostly in Jinping 金平). It is called paːsaː tai dam ภาษาไทดำ (Black Tai) in Thai and Dǎidānyǔ 傣担语 in Chinese. ... Look up DAO, Dao, dao in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Shan (Burmese: ; IPA: ; Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia. ... The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Lao Sung or more commonly Lao Soung are an ethnic group in East and Southeast Asia. ... The Mon (Burmese: ) are an ethnic group in Southeast Asia. ... The Khmer people are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 13. ... The Lao Theung are a few related tribal ethnic groups living in Laos. ...


The term "Laotian" does not necessarily refer to the ethnic Lao language, ethnic Lao people, language or customs, but is a political term that also includes the non-ethnic Lao groups within Laos and identifies them as "Laotian" because of their political citizenship. In a similar vein the word "Lao" can also describe the people, cuisine, language and culture of the people of Northeast Thailand (Isan) who are ethnic Lao. Isan is the northeastern region of Thailand Pak Isan (also written as Isaan, Issan, or Esarn; Thai/Isan อีสาน) is the northeast region of Thailand. ... For other uses, see Isan (disambiguation). ...


The predominant religion is Theravada Buddhism which, along with the common Animism practiced among the mountain tribes, coexists peacefully with spirit worship. There also are a small number of Christians, mostly restricted to the Vientiane area, and Muslims, mostly restricted to the Myanmar border region. Christian missionary work is regulated by the government. Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


The official and dominant language is Lao, a tonal language of the Tai linguistic group. Midslope and highland Lao speak an assortment of tribal languages. French, still common in government and commerce, has declined in usage, while knowledge of English, the language of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), has increased in recent years. The Tai languages are a subgroup of the Tai Kadai language family. ... ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Laos
See also: Art of Laos, Cuisine of Laos, Dance and theater of Laos, Festivals of Laos, and Music of Laos
Wat Ho Pra Keo, Vientiane.
Wat Ho Pra Keo, Vientiane.

Theravada Buddhism is a dominant influence in Lao culture. It is reflected throughout the country from language to the temple and in art, literature, performing arts, etc. Many elements of Lao culture predate Buddhism, however. For example, Laotian music is dominated by its national instrument, the khaen, a type of bamboo pipe that has prehistoric origins. The khaen traditionally accompanied the singer in lam, the dominant style of folk music. Among the various lam styles, the lam saravane is probably the most popular. Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The art of Laos includes: Lao ceramics Lao Buddhist sculpture Lao music Categories: Stub | Art by nationality | Asian art | Laotian culture ... A Lao meal. ... The Dance and Theater of Laos are closely intertwined. ... Laotian Festival are usually based on Theravada Buddhism. ... Laos is dominated by the Lao, and includes minorities of Hmong and Mien, among others. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 404 KB) Summary Photo by User:Adam Carr, January 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 404 KB) Summary Photo by User:Adam Carr, January 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A khene player in Isan The khene (also spelled kaen) is a mouth-organ whose pipes are connected with a small, hollowed-out wooden reservoir into which air is blown. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Pan pipes (also known as the panflute or the syrinx or quills) is an ancient musical instrument based on the principle of the stopped pipe, consisting usually of ten or more pipes of gradually increasing length. ... A khene player in Isan Mor lam (Thai/Isan: หมอลำ) is an ancient Lao form of song in Laos and Isan (Northeastern Thailand). ... Folk music can have a number of different meanings, including: Traditional music: The original meaning of the term folk music was synonymous with the term Traditional music, also often including World Music and Roots music; the term Traditional music was given its more specific meaning to distinguish it from the... Lam Saravene is a popular Laotian genre of music with alternating rhythms. ...


The country has two World Heritage Sites: Luang Prabang and Wat Phou. The government is seeking the same status for the Plain of Jars. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Royal palace museum of Luang Prabang. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with :Vat Phou. ... Plain of Jars: Site 1 The Plain of Jars is a large group of historic cultural sites in Laos containing thousands of stone jars, which lie scattered throughout the Xieng Khouang plain in the Laotian Highlands at the northern end of the Annamese Cordillera, the principal mountain range of Indochina. ...

Buddha Park, near Vientiane along the "Mighty Mekong"
Buddha Park, near Vientiane along the "Mighty Mekong"

The People's Republic of China has recently allowed its citizens to travel more freely to Laos. As such, Chinese tourists are expected to account for 25% of the total number of visitors to Laos (up from only a few percent) in 2006. Pressures to modernize tourist infrastructure, particularly to cater to package tourism, are expected to significantly impact Luang Prabang and other culturally important Laotian cities. The people of Laos are very kind and welcoming to all visitors. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 983 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 983 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ...


Rice is the staple food and has cultural and religious significance. There are many traditions and rituals associated with rice production in different environments, and among many ethnic groups. For example, Khammu farmers in Luang Prabang plant the rice variety Khao Kam in small quantities near the hut in memory of dead parents, or at the edge of the rice field to indicate that parents are still alive.[15]


Media

All newspapers are published by the government, including two foreign language papers: the English-language Vientiane Times and the French-language Le Rénovateur. Additionally, the Khao San Pathet Lao, the country's official news agency, publishes English and French versions of its eponymous paper. Internet cafes, serving the tourist market, are now common in the major urban centres. However, the government strictly censors content and controls access. The Vientiane Times is a English language newspaper, published daily in Vientiane, Laos. ... Le Rénovateur is the only French-language newspaper in the Lao PDR (Laos). ...


Satellite television dishes, beaming content from Thailand, are common throughout Laos. Many Laotians access the outside world through Thai television programs.


International rankings

Organisation Survey Ranking
Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom 149 out of 157
Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 156 out of 167
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 111 out of 163
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 133 out of 177

The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ...

See also

Leaders of ethnic minorities in Laos This is a list of topics related to Laos. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 25,000 (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,915 (1997) Telephone system: service to general public is poor but improving, with over 20,000 telephones currently in service and an additional 48,000 expected by 2001; the government relies on a radiotelephone network to communicate with... From the official English language website of the National Assembly of the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (http://www. ... The new government that assumed power in Laos in December 1975 aligned itself with the Soviet bloc and adopted a hostile posture toward the West. ... There are several non-governmental organizations that publish and maintain assessments of the state of freedom in the world and rank countries as being free, partly free, or unfree using various measures of freedom, including political rights, economic rights, and civil liberties. ... An exhaustive directory of companies in Laos can be found at the website of the Lao Ministry of Industry and Commerce, Dept of Promotion and Trade Production [[1]]. List of Laotian newspapers Economy of Laos This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Organisation of the military of Laos. ... Membership badge of Scouting in Laos At the present time, there is no known Scouting program in Laos, one of only five of the worlds independent countries that do not have Scouting. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ...

Pa Chay Vue, (RPA: Paj Cai Vue or Puas Cai Vue), commonly referred to as Pa Chay or Batchai, led the Hmong people in the War of the Insane revolt against French rule in French Indochina from 1918 to 1921. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Ong Kommandam was the right hand man of Ong Keo. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Heritage Foundation
  2. ^ CIA World Factbook
  3. ^ CIA World Factbook
  4. ^ CIA World Factbook, May 2007
  5. ^ Stop Cluster Munitions
  6. ^ International Reporting Project
  7. ^ http://vientiane.usembassy.gov/dec_15_2005.html
  8. ^ About Greater Mekong Subregion at Asian Development Bank
  9. ^ CIA World Factbook
  10. ^ Rice, the fabric of life in Laos
  11. ^ Genuinely Lao
  12. ^ a b The Green Revolution comes to Laos
  13. ^ Genuinely Lao
  14. ^ A Race Against Time
  15. ^ An Evaluation of Synthesis of Rice
  • Fredenburg, P. and B. Hill. 2006. Sharing Rice for Peace and Prosperity in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Sid Harta Publishers, Victoria. ISBN 1-921206-08-X. pp271.
  • J. M. Schiller, M. B. Chanphengxay, B. Linquist and S. Appa Rao, editors. 2006. Rice in Laos. Los Banos, (Philippines). International Rice Research Institute. 457 p. ISBN 978-971-22-0211-7.
  • Stuart-Fox, M. 1999. A History of Laos. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59235-6.
  • Fifteen years of support for rice research in Lao PDR

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Laos - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2398 words)
Laos, officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a landlocked socialist republic communist state in southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west.
Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang, founded in the 14th century, which lasted until the 18th century, when Siam invaded and assumed control of the separate principalities that remained.
Laos is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia and the thickly forested landscape consists mostly of rugged mountains, the highest of which is Phou Bia at 9,242 feet (2,817 m), with some plains and plateaus.
History of Laos (1891 words)
Laos was a low-key French protectorate, known as the land of the lotus-eaters, where an indolent lifestyle prevailed.
Laos became a pawn of the superpowers, with Hmong tribesmen trained by CIA agents, Thai mercenaries fighting for the Royal Lao government, and the Pathet Lao receiving help from the Chinese, the Russians, and the Vietminh.
During the Vietnam War, Laos was effectively partitioned into four spheres of influence: the Chinese in the north, the Vietnamese along the Ho Chi Minh Trail in the east, the Thais in western areas controlled by the US-backed Royal Lao Government, and the Khmer Rouge operating from parts of the south.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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