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Encyclopedia > Langue d'oïl

The langue d'oïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages or New Latin Languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Latin dialects spoken by the common people in what is known as Latin Europe (Italian/Portuguese/Spanish Europa latina, French Europe latine) as Vulgar Latin later evolved... Alternative meaning: Channel Islands of California The Channel Islands are a group of islands off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. ...


Care should be taken to differentiate these two uses of the term:

  1. Langue d'oïl is an Old French term meaning language of oïl. Modern-day languages of this family are also referred to in English as Oïl languages. Since the latter half of the 20th century the tendency in French has been to refer to the languages in the plural as langues d'oïl to clearly distinguish one language taken in isolation or the linguistic grouping as a whole.
  2. The term langue d'oïl is also used in a historical sense to refer to Old French, which was distinguished from another Gallo-Romance variety, the langue d'oc, by the word meaning "yes" in those languages. Vulgar Latin developed different methods of signifying assent: hoc ille for Langue d'oil and hoc for Langue d'oc. the subsequent development of "oïl" into "oui" can be seen in modern French.
Contents

1.1 The Francien theory
1.2 The Lingua franca theory
Old French is a term sometimes used to refer to the langue doïl, the continuum of varieties of Romance language spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland during the period roughly from 1000 to 1300 A.D... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... OC redirects here. ... Vulgar Latin (in Latin, sermo vulgaris) is a blanket term covering the vernacular dialects of the Latin language spoken mostly in the western provinces of the Roman Empire until those dialects, diverging still further, evolved into the early Romance languages — a distinction usually assigned to about the ninth century. ...

History

The language generally referred to as French is an Oïl language, but the territories of France have for centuries included large groups of speakers of Oïl languages other than French, as well as speakers of languages outside the Oïl language family (see Languages of France) There are a number of languages of France, although the French language is by far the most widely spoken and the only official language of the country. ...


Although there were competing literary standards among the Oïl languages in the mediaeval period, the centralisation of the French kingdom and its influence even outside its formal borders sent most of the Oïl languages into comparative obscurity for several centuries.


Two main theories have been put forward to explain the rise of French language:


The Francien theory

It is claimed that Francien, the Oïl language of the Paris region and therefore of the French court, was simply imposed as the official language in all the territory of the kingdom because it was the language the king spoke. This Francien, it is claimed, became the modern French language. The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... An official language is something that is given a unique status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Francien is a term applied to the langue doïl spoken in the Paris region (Île-de-France) before the establishment of the French language as a standard language. ...


Current linguistic thinking mostly discounts the Francien theory, although it is still often quoted in popular textbooks.


The Lingua franca theory

Most linguists working in the field tend to advance variations on the theory that the "French" language, imposed by the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts to replace Latin, was not a particular variety of Oïl language, but rather a generalised administrative language, shorn of distinguishing regional features and equally comprehensible to all - a lingua franca. The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by François I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


It is argued that this language was not intended to become a national language, merely a chancery language for law and administration. However, the development of literature in this new language encouraged writers to use French rather than their own regional languages. This led to the decline of vernacular literature. A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country - it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... The vernacular is the stupid. ...


Until the First World War, French was not primarily the language of the French people - the regional languages of France were still the languages most used in the home and in the fields. This was also generally the case with the Oïl languages. Missing image Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country - it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ...


Literature

Besides the influence of French literature, small-scale literature has survived in the other Oïl languages. Theatrical writing is most notable in Picard and Poitevin-Saintongeais. Oral performance (story-telling) is a feature of Gallo, for example, while Norman and Walloon literature, especially from the early 19th century tends to focus on written texts and poetry (see, for example, Wace and Jèrriais literature). French literature is literature written in the French language; and especially, literature written in French by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written in other languages of France. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wace (c. ... Jèrriais literature is literature in Jèrriais. ...


Status

Apart from French, an official language in many countries, the Oïl languages have enjoyed little status.


Currently Walloon, Lorrain (under the local name of Gaumais) and Champenois have the status of regional languages of Wallonia. National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ...


The languages of the Channel Islands enjoy a certain status under the governments of their Bailiwicks and within the regional and lesser-used language framework of the British-Irish Council. A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff. ... The British–Irish Council (sometimes known as the Council of the Isles) is a body created by the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ...


The French government recognises the Oïl languages as Languages of France but has been constitutionally barred from ratifying the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. There are a number of languages of France, although the French language is by far the most widely spoken and the only official language of the country. ... An organizations constitution defines its form, structure, activities, character, and fundamental rules. ... The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages is a European convention (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ...


Influence

The English language was heavily influenced by contact with Norman following the Norman Conquest and much of the adopted vocabulary shows typically Norman features. See Anglo-Norman language The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... The Anglo-Norman language is the name given to the language spoken by the Anglo-Normans, the descendents of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ...


The French spoken in Belgium shows some influence from Walloon.


The langue d'oïl languages were more or less influenced by the native languages of the conquering Germanic tribes, notably Franks. The Franks were one of several west Germanic tribes who entered the late Roman Empire from Frisia as foederati and established a lasting realm in an area that covers most of modern-day France and the region of Franconia in Germany, forming the historic kernel of both these two modern...


The development of French in North America was influenced by the speech of settlers originating from north-western France, many of whom introduced features of their Oïl varieties into the French they spoke.


Oïl languages

This list follows the Francien theory, as explained above.

Burgundian is either of the following; An extinct language of the Germanic language group spoken by the Burgundians. ... Champenois is a language spoken by a minority of people in France and in Belgium. ... Franc-Comtois is a language spoken by a minority of people in Franche-Comté. It is one of the langues doïl and is a regional language of France. ... Francien is a term applied to the langue doïl spoken in the Paris region (Île-de-France) before the establishment of the French language as a standard language. ... French is one of Canadas two official languages; the other is English and is the language of the majority (see Canadian English). ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Joual is the name given by some to a working-class sociolect of Quebec French spoken in Montreal, after its pronunciation of the word cheval (horse). ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Cajun French is a dialect of the French language, spoken primarily in the American state of Louisiana. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Traditional coat of arms This article is about the historical duchy and French province, as well as the cultural area of Brittany. ... Lorrain is a language spoken by a minority of people in Lorraine in France and in Gaume in Belgium. ... The Norman language is a Romance language, one of the Oïl languages. ... The Anglo-Norman language is the name given to the language spoken by the Anglo-Normans, the descendents of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... Dgèrnésiais tops this list of welcome messages at Guernseys tourism office in St. ... Jèrriais is a form of Norman language spoken in Jersey in the Channel Islands. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Poitevin-Saintongeais is a language spoken by a minority of people in Poitou-Charentes. ... Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken in Belgium. ...

Creoles derived from French

Creoles and pidgins developed from a basis of French are sometimes included among the Oïl languages. The term Creole is used with different meanings in different contexts, which can generate confusion. ... A Pidgin, or contact language, is the name given to any language created, usually spontaneously, out of a mixture of other languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues. ...


 
 

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