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Encyclopedia > Languages of France
Languages of France
Official languages French
Regional languages Alsatian; Basque; Breton; Franco-Provençal; Catalan; Corsican; Flemish; Occitan; Oïl languages (except French)
Main immigrant languages Arabic; Portuguese; Italian; Spanish
Main foreign languages English 36%, Spanish 13%, German 8% Source: [1]

There are a number of languages of France. The French language is by far the most widely spoken and the only official language of France. Several regional languages are also spoken to varying degrees. Other languages are spoken by a substantial percentage of the population due to immigration. This inscription in Alsatian on a window in Eguisheim, Alsace, reads: Dis Hausz sted in Godes Hand - God bewar es vor Feyru (This house stands in Gods hand - God beware it for fire) Alsatian (French Alsacien, German Elsässisch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in Alsace, a... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... West Flemish (in West Flemish, Vlaemsch) is a group of dialects, spoken in parts of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ...

Contents

Status

The official language of the French Republic is French (art. 2 of the French Constitution), and the French government is, by law, compelled to communicate primarily in French. The government, furthermore, mandates that commercial advertising should be available in French (though it can also use other languages); see Toubon Law. The French government, however, does not mandate the usage of French in non-commercial publications by private individuals or corporations. This is an article about language policy in France. ... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ... The Toubon Law (full name: law 94-665 of 4 August 1994 relating to usage of the French language), is a law of the French government mandating the use of the French language in official government publications, advertisements, and some other contexts. ...


The 1999 Report written for the government by Bernard Cerquiglini identified 75 languages that would qualify for recognition under the government's proposed ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. 24 of those languages are indigenous to the European territory of the state while all the others are from overseas areas of the French Republic (in the Caribbean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean and South America). This article is about the year. ... Bernard Cerquiglini,born in 1947 in Lyon, is a French linguist. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ...


Although ratification was blocked by the Constitutional Council as contradicting the Fifth Republic's constitutional provision enshrining French as the language of the Republic, the government continues to recognise regional and minority languages to a limited extent (i.e. without granting them official status) and the Délégation générale à la langue française has acquired the additional function of observing and studying the languages of France and has had et aux langues de France added to its title. The category of languages of France (in French: langues de France) is thus administratively recognised even if this does not go as far as providing any official status. A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ...


Some of the languages of France are sometimes called patois, but this term (roughly meaning dialect) is often considered derogatory. Patois is used to refer to supposedly purely oral, syntactically loose and inferior languages but this Francocentric perception does not, for instance, take into account that Occitan was already written when French was not and its literature has been thriving throughout the last thousand years, with even a Nobel Prize for Frédéric Mistral in 1904. Patois, although without a formal definition in linguistics, can be used to describe a language considered as nonstandard. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Frédéric Mistral (September 8, 1830 - March 25, 1914) was a French poet who led the 19th century revival of Occitan (Provençal) language and literature. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Education

In April 2001, the Minister of Education, Jack Lang [2], admitted formally that for more than two centuries, the political powers of the French government had repressed regional languages, and announced that bilingual education would, for the first time, be recognized, and bilingual teachers recruited in French public schools. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Jack Lang in Belém (Brazil) Jack Mathieu Emile Lang (born 2 September 1939) is a French politician and a member of the French Socialist Party. ...


The topic of the teaching of regional languages in public primary and secondary schools is controversial. Proponents of the measure state that it would be necessary for the preservation of those languages and to show respect to the local culture. Opponents contend that local languages are often non-standardized (thus making curricula difficult), of dubious practical usefulness (since most are spoken by a small number of people, without any sizable corpus of publications) and that the curriculum and funding of public schools are already too strained. The topic also leads to wider controversial questions of autonomy of the régions. France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common...


===Cross-border languages=***


Certain of the languages of France are also cross-border languages (for example, Basque, Catalan, Picard, Norman, Franco-Provençal, Dutch, Occitan and others), some of which enjoy a recognised or official status in the respective neighbouring state or territory. Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ...


List of languages

Geographical distribution

The languages of metropolitan France include: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (654x650, 45 KB) A map showing the languages and dialects of France Une carte des langues et dialectes de la France Eine Karte der Sprachen und Dialekte Frankreichs Taken from Lexilogos. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (654x650, 45 KB) A map showing the languages and dialects of France Une carte des langues et dialectes de la France Eine Karte der Sprachen und Dialekte Frankreichs Taken from Lexilogos. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ...

There are migrant languages spoken by large minority groups (North Africans) and/or smaller communities, including groups from former French colonies. A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... This inscription in Alsatian on a window in Eguisheim, Alsace, reads: Dis Hausz sted in Godes Hand - God bewar es vor Feyru (This house stands in Gods hand - God beware it for fire) Alsatian (French Alsacien, German Elsässisch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in Alsace, a... West Flemish (in West Flemish, Vlaemsch) is a group of dialects, spoken in parts of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. ... Lorraine Franconian is a Germanic dialect spoken in parts of the French region of Lorraine. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Bressan is a dialect of the Franco-Provençal language, which is spoken in and around Bresse in France. ... Dauphinois is a dialect of the Franco-Provençal language, which is spoken in Isère departement, roughly formerly Bas-Dauphiné. This is in France. ... Forézien is a dialect of the Franco-Provençal language, which is spoken in Forez region of France. ... Jurassien is a dialect of the Franco-Provençal language, which is spoken in the Jura (department) and surrounding region in France. ... Lyonnais is a dialect of the Franco-Provençal language, which is spoken in the Lyonnais region of France. ... Savoyard is a dialect of the Franco-Provençal (Arpitan) language. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Vivaro-Alpine (English name) or Vivaroalpenc, Vivaroaupenc (native name) is the northeastern dialect of the Occitan language. ... Auvergnat or Auvernhat (native name) is one of several dialects of the Occitan language spoken in Auvergne, which is a historical province in the northern part of Occitania. ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Landese (parlar negre) is a subdialect of the Gascon language spoken in maritime Aquitaine in South-Western metropolitan France. ... Languedocien is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc. ... The Limousin dialect is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken or understood by about 400 000 people in the part of southern France known as Limousin. ... Nicard (Niçois - French, Nissart - Niçard) is a distinct dialect of the Provençal language spoken in and around the city of Nice, or Nissa in Niçard, and the historical region Le Comté de Nice/Lou Coumtat de Nissa which is almost equivalent to the current French d... Provençal (Provençau in Provençal language) is one of several dialects spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ... Burgundian is either of the following; An extinct language of the Germanic language group spoken by the Burgundians. ... Champenois is a language spoken by a minority of people in France and in Belgium. ... Franc-Comtois is a language spoken by a minority of people in Franche-Comté. It is one of the langues doïl and is a regional language of France. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Lorrain is a language spoken by a minority of people in Lorraine in France and in Gaume in Belgium. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Poitevin (Poetevin) is a language spoken by the people in Poitou. ... Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ...

There are also several languages spoken in France's overseas areas (see Administrative divisions of France for details) Arabic redirects here. ... ... Western Armenian is one of the two modern dialects of Armenian, an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian diaspora, mainly in North America, Europe and most of the Middle East except for Iran. ... Eastern Armenian is one of the two modern dialects of Armenian (an Indo-European language), spoken in the Caucasus mountains (particularly in the Armenian Republic). ... Bambara, also known as Bamanankan in the language itself, is a language spoken in Mali by as many as six million people (including second language users). ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Hindustani redirects here. ... Gheg Albanian test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Gheg (or Geg) is one of the two major dialects of the Albanian language. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Wolof is a language spoken in Senegal, the Gambia, and Mauritania, and it is the native language of the ethnic group of the Wolof people. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla...

French Sign Language is also recognised as a language of France. Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... A creole is a language descended from a pidgin that has become the native language of a group of people. ... The term French West Indies (see also Antilles françaises) refers to the two French overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... St. ... Melanesia (from Greek black islands) is a region extending from the west Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and north-east of Australia. ... The Polynesian languages are a language family spoken in the region known as Polynesia. ... The Collectivity of Wallis and Futuna (French: Collectivité de Wallis et Futuna) is a group of mainly three volcanic tropical islands (Wallis, Futuna, and Alofi) with fringing reefs located in the South Pacific Ocean. ... Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of the French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... Introduction Shimaore is one of the two indigeneous languages spoken on the island of Mayotte; Shimaore being the Comorian language, while Shibushi clearly descends from languages spoken on Madagascar. ... Shibushi can refer to: Shibushi, Kagoshima, a city in Kagoshima, Japan Shibushi, another name for the Bushi language Category: ... French Sign Language (Langue des Signes Français or LSF) is the language of the deaf in the nation of France. ...


Statistics

At the 1999 census, INSEE sampled 380,000 adult people all across Metropolitan France, and asked them questions about their family situation. One of the questions was about the languages that their parents spoke with them before the age of 5. This is the first time serious statistics were computed about the proportion of mother tongues in France. The results were published in Enquête familiale, Insee, 1999. This article is about the year. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ...


Here is a list of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France based on Enquête familiale.

Rank Language Mother tongue of
(in thousands of adults)
Percentage of adult population
1 French 39,360 86%
(note that this figure is an underestimate because people under 18-years-old were not surveyed; see note #2 below the table)
2 German and German dialects
(Alsatian, Lorraine Franconian, etc.)
970
(of whom Alsatian: 660;
standard German: 210;
Lorraine Franconian: 100)
2.12%
(of whom Alsatian: 1.44%;
standard German: 0.46%;
Lorraine Franconian: 0.22%)
3 Arabic
(especially Maghrebi Arabic)
940 2.05%
4 Occitan language
(Languedocian, Gascon, Provençal, etc.)
610
(another 1,060 had some exposure)
1.33%
(another 2.32% had some exposure, see notes)
5 Portuguese 580 1.27%
6 Oïl languages
(Picard, Gallo, Poitevin-Saintongeais, etc.)
570
(another 850 had some exposure)
1.25%
(another 1.86% had some exposure, see notes)
7 Italian (and dialects) 540 1.19%
8 Spanish 485 1.06%
9 Breton 280
(another 405 had some exposure)
0.61%
(another 0.87% had some exposure, see notes)
10 About 400 other languages
(Polish, Berber languages, East Asian languages, Catalan, Franco-Provençal, Corsican, Basque, etc.)
as well as no answers
2,350
(of whom English: 115)
5.12%
(of whom English: 0.25% of total adult population)
Total 45,762
(46,680 including those with two mother tongues who were counted twice)
102%
(2% of people have both French and another language as their mother tongue, thus, they are counted twice)

If we add up people with mother tongue and people with some exposure to the language before the age of 5 (see note #3 below), then the five most important languages in metropolitan France are (note that the percentages add up to more than 100, because many people are now counted twice): Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This inscription in Alsatian on a window in Eguisheim, Alsace, reads: Dis Hausz sted in Godes Hand - God bewar es vor Feyru (This house stands in Gods hand - God beware it for fire) Alsatian (French Alsacien, German Elsässisch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in Alsace, a... Lorraine Franconian is a Germanic dialect spoken in parts of the French region of Lorraine. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Maghrebi Arabic is a cover term for the dialects of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Languedocien is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc. ... The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... Provençal (Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Poitevin (Poetevin) is a language spoken by the people in Poitou. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... East Asian languages or the East Asian sprachbund describe two notional groupings of languages in East and Southeast Asia, either (1) languages which have been greatly influenced by Classical Chinese, or the CJKV Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese) area or (2) a larger grouping including the CJKV area as well... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...

  • French: 42,100,000 (92%)
  • Oc languages: 1,670,000 (3.65%)
  • German and German dialects: 1,440,000 (3.15%)
  • Oïl languages (excl. French): 1,420,000 (3.10%)
  • Arabic: 1,170,000 (2.55%)

Notes on the table

1- The data in the table are about mother tongues, and not about actual language practice. It states that 14% of the adult people living in France in 1999 were born and raised up to the age of 5 in families that spoke only (or predominantly) some other languages than French. It does not mean that 14% of adult people in France spoke some other languages than French in 1999. First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ...


2- Only adults (i.e. 18-years-old and above) were surveyed. This means that French people born between 1981 and 1999 are not included in the survey. The mother tongue of the younger generations is more predominantly French than is the case with the older generations, because as the Enquête familiale survey explains, regional and immigrant language transmission decreases dramatically with each new generation, as French replaces the regional and immigrant languages. In the Enquête familiale survey, only 35% of parents whose mother tongue was a regional or immigrant language reported they spoke that language to their children. Thus, the 86% figure of people with French as their mother tongue is an underestimate because the younger generations whose predominant mother tongue is French are not counted.


3- The concept of "mother tongue" may not give a complete idea of the phenomenon of minority languages in France. This is because there are many people who were born and raised in families in which parents spoke to them only (or predominantly) French, but in which some regional or immigration languages were also occasionally used. One example: while the data tell us that 610,000 adults in 1999 had one of the languages of Oc as their mother tongue, the survey also found out that another 1,060,000 adults were born and raised in families in which one of the languages of Oc was occasionally spoken. Some of these 1,060,000 people may speak Occitan as fluently as the 610,000 people who have it as a mother tongue, while some other (the majority, probably) have only a limited knowledge of Occitan. We cannot infer from this that 1,670,000 adults are speakers of Occitan, but it may be the case that the total number of people with some form of exposure to Occitan is higher than the 610,000 figure, though some of this number may have abandoned the language since then.


See also

Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... Meeting of the Félibrige in 1854: Frédéric Mistral, Joseph Roumanille, Théodore Aubanel, Jean Brunet, Paul Giéra, Anselme Mathieu, Alphonse Tavan The Félibrige is a literary and cultural association founded by Frédéric Mistral and other Provençal writers to defend and promote the... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts expanded the central control of the French state The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by François I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ... La vergonha (Occitan for shame/shaming, humiliation, IPA [berguɲo]) — sometimes lo vergonhament [berguɲomen], — is what Occitans call the nefarious effects of various governmental policies in France on French children and citizens whose mother tongue was one of so-called patois — better referred to as unofficial languages...

External links


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