FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Languages in the United States

Contents

Life in the
United States
Arts and entertainment
Culture
Economy
Education
Health care
Holidays
Household income
Human rights
Languages
Passenger vehicle transport
Politics
Poverty
Religion
Standard of living
Social issues
Social structure

Although the United States currently has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language. English is spoken by about 82 percent of the population as a native language and nearly everyone in the United States uses it as a daily language. On May 18, 2006 the Senate voted on an amendment to an immigration reform bill that would declare English the national language of the United States.[1] The immigration reform bill itself, S. 2611, was passed in the Senate on May 25, 2006, and now has to go back to the House of Representatives in conference to make sure amendments are agreed upon. This article discusses the culture of the United States; for customs and way of life, see Culture of the United States. ... This article serves as an overview of the customs and culture of the United States; for the popular (pop) culture of the United States, see arts and entertainment in the United States. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... Holidays of the United States vary with local observance. ... The median household income in 2003 according to the US Census Bureau was determined to be $43,389 a year. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... A 1979 Lincoln Continental with Town Car trim option. ... The federal government of the United States was established by the United States Constitution. ... There has been significant disagreement about poverty in the United States; particularly over how poverty ought to be defined. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... Social issues in the United States as perceived by social justice advocates and other groups and commentators include an unequal educational system, poverty, high rates of crime and incarceration, and lack of access to quality health care. ... The contemporary United States has no legally-recognized social classes. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the Senate The Senate of the United States of America is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Senate Bill 2611 (Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act) (abbreviated CIRA), is a senate bill dealing with immigration reform. ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is, along with the United States Senate, one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States. ...


Approximately 336 languages are spoken by the population (spoken or signed) of which 176 are indigenous to the area. 52 languages formerly spoken in the country's territory are now extinct (Grimes 2000).


Spanish is taught as a second language to some extent, especially in areas with large Hispanic populations such as the states which border Mexico, as well as Florida, Chicago and New York. Younger generations of non-Hispanics seem to be learning Spanish in larger numbers, thanks to the growing Hispanic population and increasing popularity of Latin American movies and music performed in the Spanish language. Over 30 million Americans, roughly 12% of the population, speak Spanish as a first or second language, making the U.S. the fifth-largest Spanish speaking population in the world, after Mexico, Colombia, Spain, and Argentina. In the Southwestern United States bilingual signs in both English and Spanish are very common. [2] Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,794 sq mi (170,451 km²)  - Width 162 miles (260 km)  - Length 497 miles (800 km)  - % water 17. ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


Chinese, mostly of the Cantonese variety, is the third largest language spoken in the United States, almost completely spoken within Chinese-American populations and by immigrants or the descendants of immigrants, especially in California. Many young Americans not of Chinese descent have become interested in learning the language (mostly due to a perception of increased business opportunities available in China's growing economy), though it is Standard Mandarin, the official spoken language in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China on Taiwan, that is mostly taught. Over 2 million Americans speak some variety of Chinese, with the Mandarin variety becoming increasingly more prevalent due to the opening up of the PRC. Cantonese (Traditional Chinese: 粵語; Simplified Chinese: 粤语, Cantonese: Yuet6yue5; Mandarin pinyin: Yueyu, Yụet (Guangdong) language) is one of the major dialect groups or languages of the Chinese language or language family. ... Chinese Americans (Traditional Chinese: 美籍華人; Simplified Chinese: 美籍华人; pinyin: mÄ›i jí huá rén) are residents or citizens of the United States who are of Chinese descent and may include Taiwanese Americans and Japanese Americans[citation needed]. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and are a subgroup of Asian... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Motto: None Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared October... Chinese forms part of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Mandarin, or Beifanghua (Chinese: 北方話; Pinyin: BÄ›ifānghuà; literally Northern Dialect(s)), or Guanhua (Traditional Chinese: 官話; Simplified Chinese: 官话; Pinyin: Guānhuà; literally official speech) is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ...


French, the fourth largest foreign language, is spoken mainly by the small native French, Haitian or French-Canadian populations. It is widely spoken in Maine and in Louisiana, a former colony of France, where it is still used with English as the state's de facto official language. German, although not widely spoken, was the second official language of Pennsylvania until 1950, and Germans, if European Americans were to be divided by national origin, would make up the largest single ethnic group in the United States. Italian, Polish, and Greek are still widely spoken among populations descending from immigrants from those countries in the early 20th century, but the use of these languages is dwindling as older generations die out. Starting in the 1970's and continuing until the mid 1990's, many people from the Soviet Union and later its constituent republics such as Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Uzbekistan have immigrated to the United States, causing Russian to become one of the minority languages in the United States. French Canadian or Canadiens historically refers to inhabitants of Canada who can trace their ancestry to the original French settlers of what is now the Province of Quebec. ... Official language(s) None Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 39th 33,414 sq mi  86,542 km² 190 miles  305 km 320 miles  515 km 13. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ...


Tagalog and Vietnamese have over one million speakers in the United States, almost entirely within recent immigrant populations. Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ...


There are also a small population of Native Americans who still speak their native languages, but these populations are dropping and the languages are almost never widely used outside of reservations. Hawaiian, although having few native speakers, is still used at the state level in Hawaii along with English. All other languages besides the English language are usually learned to be spoken through immigrant descendants if not learned through some form of education. An Atsina named Assiniboin Boy Photo by Edward S. Curtis. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,941 sq mi (28,337 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Official language status

English is the official language of the states colored in blue. It is an official language of the striped states.
English is the official language of the states colored in blue. It is an official language of the striped states.

The United States does not have an official language; nevertheless, English (specifically, American English) is the language used for legislation, regulations, executive orders, treaties, federal court rulings, and all other official pronouncements. Additionally, one must demonstrate an ability to read, write, and speak English to become a naturalized citizen. Many individual states and territories have also adopted English as their official language: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (841x580, 19 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Languages in the United States Official English movement ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (841x580, 19 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Languages in the United States Official English movement ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... American English (AmE) is the dialect of the English language used mostly in the United States of America. ...

Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wyoming

Several states and territories are officially bi- or trilingual: Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,423 sq mi (135,775 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,732 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,794 sq mi (170,451 km²)  - Width 162 miles (260 km)  - Length 497 miles (800 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 199 miles (320 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jackson Largest city Jackson Area  Ranked 32nd  - Total 48,434 sq. ... Official language(s) None Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,359 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 500 miles (805 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1760-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,163 sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,876 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...

Until the 1950s, Pennsylvania was officially bilingual in English and German. Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,941 sq mi (28,337 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Hawaiian English is the standard of the English language as used in the State of Hawaii, and is—along with the Hawaiian language—an official language of the state. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chamorro, or Chamoru, is the native language of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. ... Carolinian is an Austronesian language spoken in the Northern Mariana Islands, where it is an official language along with English and Chamorro. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ...


Native American languages are official or co-official on many of the US Indian reservations and pueblos. In New Mexico both English and Spanish are official languages, and government material and services must be made accessible to speakers of both languages. Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Pueblos are traditional Native American communities of the Southwest United States of America. ... Official language(s) None Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq. ...


In 2000, the census bureau printed the standard census questionnaires in six languages: English, Spanish, Korean, Chinese (in traditional characters), Vietnamese, and Tagalog. The English-only movement seeks to establish English as the only official language of the entire nation. This article is about the year 2000. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... American English (AmE) is the dialect of the English language used mostly in the United States of America. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... An English-only movement refers to a political movement for establishing the English language as the only official language in the United States. ...


On May 19, 2006, the United States Senate voted to make English the national language of the United States. According to the bill, written by Sen. James M. Inhofe (R-Okla.), the federal government will no longer provide multilingual communications and services, except for those already guaranteed by law. Shortly after the approval of the Inhofe amendment, the Senate voted for another bill by Sen. Ken Salazar (D-Colo.), according to which English is the "common unifying language of the United States," but mandated that nothing in that declaration "shall diminish or expand any existing rights" regarding multilingual services. Seal of the Senate The Senate of the United States of America is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... James Mountain Inhofe (born November 17, 1934) is an American politician from Oklahoma. ... The term multilingualism can refer to rather different phenomena. ... Kenneth Lee Salazar (born March 2, 1955) is an American politician, rancher, and environmentalist from the U.S. state of Colorado. ...


The impact of these bills is not immediately clear. It is also interesting to note that Inhofe switched the language from "official language" to "national language" in a last minute change. An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ...


Pre-colonial languages

American Indian languages

The Native American languages predate European settlement of the New World. In a few parts of the U.S. (mostly on Indian reservations) they continue to be spoken fluently. Most of these languages are endangered, although there are efforts to revive them. Normally the fewer the speakers of a language the greater the degree of endangerment but there are many small Native American language communities in the Southwest (Arizona and New Mexico) which continue to thrive despite their small size. Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ... Official language(s) None Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq. ...


The US (and North America in general) is one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, as Edward Sapir observes: Edward Sapir. ...

"Few people realize that within the confines of the United States there is spoken today a far greater variety of languages ... than in the whole of Europe. We may go further. We may say, quite literally and safely, that in the state of California alone there are greater and more numerous linguistic extremes than can be illustrated in all the length and breadth of Europe."

According to the 2000 Census and other language surveys, the largest Native American language-speaking community by far is the Navajo. The largest communities are:


Navajo

178,000 speakers. Navajo is one of the Athabascan languages of the Na-Dené family. Along with the closely related Apache, the Navajo are relative newcomers to the Southwest, arriving only a few centuries before the Spanish. Navajo (also Navaho) (in Navajo: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken in the southwest United States by the Navajo people (Diné). It is geographically and linguistically one of the Southern Athabaskan languages (the majority of Athabaskan languages are spoken in northwest Canada and Alaska). ... Pre-contact distribution of Na-Dené languages (in red) Na-Dené (also Na-Dene, Nadene, Athabaskan-Eyak-Tlingit) is a Native American language family which includes the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit. ...


Dakota

18,000 speakers (22,000 including speakers in Canada), not counting 6000 speakers of the closely related Lakota. Dakota is a member of the Siouan language family. Lakota or Lakhota (as it is also commonly spelled) is the largest of the five major dialects of the Sioux language. ... Pre-contact distribution of the Siouan languages The Siouan (a. ...


Central Alaskan Yup'ik

16,000 speakers. The Yup'ik are part of the Eskimo-Aleut language family, but are not Inuit. The Yupik people speak five distinct languages, depending on their location. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ...


Cherokee

16,000 speakers, of the Iroquoian language family. The Cherokee have the largest tribal affiliation in the US, but most are of mixed ancestry and do not speak the language. Cherokee (Cherokee: Tsalagi) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people. ... Iroquoian languages The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ...


Western Apache

12,500 speakers. Also of the Na-Dené language family. Not mutually intelligible with Navajo, but the relationship is easy to see. Southern Athabaskan (also Apachean) refers to members of the Athabaskan language family (including Navajo) spoken in the Northern American Southwest. ... Pre-contact distribution of Na-Dené languages (in red) Na-Dené (also Na-Dene, Nadene, Athabaskan-Eyak-Tlingit) is a Native American language family which includes the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit. ...


Pima

12,000 speakers. One of the Uto-Aztecan languages, along with Hopi, Comanche, Huichol, and Aztec. Oodham (often referred to by the names of its two nearly-identical main dialect groupings, Papago (Tohono) and Pima (Akimel)) is an Uto-Aztecan language of Southern Arizona and northern Sonora where the Tohono Oodham and Pima reside. ... Pre-contact distribution of Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mesoamerica) The Uto-Aztecan languages are a Native American language family. ... Hopi is an Uto-Aztecan language spoken by the Hopi people of northeastern Arizona, although today some Hopi are monolingual English speakers. ... The Comanche language is a member of the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. ... Huichol yarn painting The Huichol are an indigenous ethnic group of Western Central Mexico that live in the Sierra Madre Occidental. ... Nahuatl (pronounced in two syllables, NA-watl ) is a term applied to some members of the Aztecan or Nahuan sub-branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ...

Language Spoken At Home (2000)
English only 82.105%
Spanish 10.710%
Chinese (all spoken varieties incl.) 0.771%
French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 0.627%
German 0.527%
Tagalog 0.467%
Vietnamese 0.385%
Italian 0.384%
Korean 0.341%
Russian 0.269%
Polish 0.254%
Arabic 0.234%
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 0.215%
Japanese 0.182%
French Creole 0.173%
Other Indic languages 0.167%
African languages 0.160%
Other Asian languages 0.152%
Greek 0.139%
Other Indo-European languages 0.125%
Hindi 0.121%
Other Austronesian languages 0.120%
Persian 0.119%
Other Slavic languages 0.115%
Urdu 0.100%
Other West Germanic languages 0.096%
Gujarati 0.090%
Serbo-Croatian 0.089%
Other Native American languages 0.078%
Armenian 0.077%
Hebrew 0.074%
Mon, Khmer 0.069%
Yiddish 0.068%
Navajo 0.068%
Hmong 0.064%
North Germanic languages 0.062%
Lao 0.057%
Other and unspecified languages 0.055%
Thai 0.046%
Hungarian 0.045%

Language Spoken at Home is a data set published by the United States Census Bureau on languages in the United States. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... Patois, although without a formal definition in linguistics, can be used to describe a language considered as nonstandard. ... Cajun French is a variety or dialect of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, particularly in Lafayette Parish, Evangeline Parish, St. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have been significantly influenced by Portuguese. ... A French creole, more properly French-based creole language, is a creole language with substantial influence from the French language. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The term African languages refers to the approximately 1800 languages spoken in Africa. ... There are a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising a number of families and unrelated isolate languages. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific ( with a few members spoken on continental Asia). ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as German, English and Dutch. ... {{Infobox Language |name=Gujarati |nativename=ગુજરાતી GujarātÄ« |region[[Pakistan|speakers=1 million |rank=122 |familycolor=Indo-European |fam2=Indo-Iranian |fam3=Indo-Aryan |fam4=Western Indo-Aryan |script=Gujarati script |nation=Gujarat |agency=Language Academy |iso1=gu|iso2=guj|iso3=guj |notice=Indic}} Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujarātÄ«) is an Indo-European... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (also Croatian or Serbian, Serbian or Croatian) (srpskohrvatski or cрпскохрватски or hrvatskosrpski or hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, was an official language of Yugoslavia (along with Slovenian, Macedonian). ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית, ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ... The Mon language is an Austroasiatic language spoken in Myanmar and Thailand. ... Khmer (ភាសាខ្មែរ) is one of the main Austroasiatic languages. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Navajo (also Navaho) (in Navajo: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken in the southwest United States by the Navajo people (Diné). It is geographically and linguistically one of the Southern Athabaskan languages (the majority of Athabaskan languages are spoken in northwest Canada and Alaska). ... Hmong (Hmong: Hmoob) is a Hmong-Mien language spoken by the Hmong people native to Sichuan, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages (including English, German, and Dutch) and the East Germanic languages (now extinct). ...

Choctaw

11,000 speakers. One of the Muskogean language family, like Seminole and Alabama. The Choctaw language, traditionally spoken by the Native American Choctaw people of the southeastern United States, is a member of the Muskogean family. ... Pre-contact distribution of Muskogean languages Muskogean (also Muskhogean, Muskogee) is a language family of the U.S. Southeast. ... The Creek Language, also known as Muscogee (Mvskoke in Creek), is a Muskogean language spoken by the Muscogee (Creek) Nation and Seminole Indians in Florida and Oklahoma. ... The Alabama language is a Native American language, spoken by the Alabama-Coushatta tribe of Texas. ...


Keres

11,000 speakers. A language isolate, the Keres are the largest of the Pueblo nations. The Keres pueblo of Acoma is the oldest continually inhabited community in the United States. Keresan languages Keresan (also Keres) is a group of seven related lects spoken by Pueblo peoples in New Mexico, U.S.A.. Each is mutually intelligible with its closest neighbors. ... A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... Photograph of Enchanted Mesa taken from Aaku - 1899 Acoma Pueblo (Western Keresan dialect: Aaku; Zuni: Hakukya), also known as Sky City, is a Native American pueblo built on top of a 367-foot (112 m) sandstone mesa in the U.S. state of New Mexico. ...


Zuni

10,000 speakers. Zuni is a language isolate mostly spoken in a single pueblo, Zuni, the largest in the US. Zuni language Zuni (also Zuñi or Shiwi) is spoken by over 10000 people in New Mexico and much smaller numbers in parts of Arizona. ... Zuni Pueblo, 1850 illustration. ...


Ojibway/Chippewa

7,000 speakers (about 55,000 including speakers in Canada). The Algonquian language family includes populous languages like Cree in Canada. Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa or Anishinaabemowin in Eastern Ojibwe syllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). ... The Algic (also Algonquian-Wiyot-Yurok or Algonquian-Ritwan) languages are an indigenous language family of North America. ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ...


Other languages

Many others languages have been spoken within the current borders of the United States. The following is a list of 28 language families (groups of demonstrably related languages) indigenous to the territory of the continental United States. With further study, some of these will probably turn out to be related to each other. For example, a relationship between Alsea, Coos, Siuslaw, and Wintu looks promising.

In addition to the above list of families, there are many languages in the US that are well enough known to attempt to classify, but which have not been shown to be related to any other language in the world. These 25 language isolates are listed below. With further study, some of these will likely prove to be related to each other or to one of the established families. Yuki-Wappo, for example, looks promising, and Natchez is frequently classified with the Muskogean family. Others, such as Cayuse and Adai, are so poorly known that it will probably never be possible to classify them properly. There are also larger, and more contentious proposals, such as Penutian and Hokan. The Algic (also Algonquian-Wiyot-Yurok or Algonquian-Ritwan) languages are an indigenous language family of North America. ... The Alsean (also Yakonan) language family consists of two closely related languages that were spoken along the central Oregon coast. ... The Caddoan languages are a family of Native American languages. ... The Chimakuan language family consists of two languages that are spoken in northwestern Washington, USA on the Olympic Peninsula. ... Chinook has several meanings: The Chinookan nation of Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest, which inhabited the lower Columbia River valley in what is now Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia. ... Rafael, a Chumash in the 1800s Pre-contact distribution of the Chumash The Chumash Indians, a Native American tribe, mainly inhabited the southern coastal regions of California, in the vicinity of what is now Santa Barbara and Ventura, extending as far south as Malibu. ... The Coosan (also Coos or Kusan) language family consists of two languages spoken along the southern Oregon coast: Hanis Miluk (a. ... Comecrudan languages Comecrudan refers to a group of possibly related languages spoken in the southernmost part of Texas and in northern Mexico along the Rio Grande. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... Iroquoian languages The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ... The Kalapuya (also spelled Calapooya or Calapooia) are a Native American ethnic group that once inhabited the area present-day western Oregon in the United States. ... The Kiowa-Tanoan languages are a Native American language family. ... The Maidu are a group of Native Americans who lived in Northern California. ... Pre-contact distribution of Muskogean languages Muskogean (also Muskhogean, Muskogee) is a language family of the U.S. Southeast. ... Pre-contact distribution of Na-Dené languages (in red) Na-Dené (also Na-Dene, Nadene, Athabaskan-Eyak-Tlingit) is a Native American language family which includes the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit. ... Palaihnihan is a language family consisting of two languages: Atsugewi Achumawi The Palaihnihan family is often connected with the hypothetical Hokan stock. ... Pre-contact distribution of Plateau Penutian languages Plateau Penutian (also Shahapwailutan) is a family of languages spoken in northern California, reaching through central-western Oregon to northern Washington and central-northern Idaho. ... Pomoan is a family of endangered languages spoken in northern California on the Pacific coast. ... The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of western Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ... Pre-contact distribution of Shastan languages The Shastan (also Sastean) family consisted of four languages, spoken in present-day northern California and southern Oregon. ... Pre-contact distribution of the Siouan languages The Siouan (a. ... Members of the Tsimshian tribe enjoying a tea party near Fort Simpson, British Columbia, c. ... Utian (also Miwok-Costanoan) is language family consisting of Miwokan languages and Costanoan languages. ... Pre-contact distribution of Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mesoamerica) The Uto-Aztecan languages are a Native American language family. ... Wakashan is a family of languages spoken around Vancouver Island. ... The Wintu were Native Americans who lived in what is now Northern California, they are part of a group of associated groups of Native Americans known collectively as the Wintuan or Wintun. ... Yokutsan (also Yokuts) is a family of languages spoken in the interior of southern California in and around the San Joaquin valley. ... Yuman-Cochimí languages Yuman-Cochimí is a family of languages spoken in Baja California and northern Sonora in Mexico and southern California and southwestern Arizona in the USA. Genetic relations The Yuman-Cochimí family consists of 11 languages: I. Cochimí 1. ... The Penutian is a phylum (or stock) of language families that include many Native American languages of western North America, predominantly spoken at one time in Washington, Oregon, and California. ... The Hokan languages are a group of languages spoken in North America by Native Americans. ...

Since the languages in the Americas have been spoken here for about 17,000-12,000 years, our current knowledge of American languages is limited. There are doubtless a number of languages that were spoken in the United States that are missing from historical record. Adai (also Adaizan, Adaizi, Adaise, Adahi, Adaes, Adees, Atayos) is the name of a people and language that was spoken in eastern Louisiana. ... Pre-contact distribution of the Atakapa language Atakapa is an extinct language isolate native to southwestern Louisiana and nearby eastern Texas. ... Cayuse & Sahaptin Tribal Representatives to Washington D.C. (1890) Cayuse Umapine (Wakonkonwelasonmi), a Cayuse chief, September, 1909 The Cayuse are a Native American tribe in the state of Oregon in the United States. ... Pre-contact distribution of Chimariko Chimariko is an extinct language isolate formerly spoken in Trinity County in northwestern California by Chimariko peoples. ... Chitimacha The Chitimacha (also Chitimachan, Chetimacha) are a Native American group that lives in the U.S. state of Louisiana, mainly in St. ... Coahuilteco (also Pajalate) was a language isolate that was spoken in southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. ... Esselen The Esselen were the Native American inhabitants of what is now known as Big Sur on the Central Coast of California. ... The Haida are an indigenous people of the west coast of North America. ... Karankawa The Karankawa (also Karankawan, Clamcoëhs) Indian tribes played a pivotal part in early Texas history. ... Karuk (also Karok) are an indigenous people of California in the United States. ... The Keres language is a group of seven related dialects spoken by Pueblo peoples in New Mexico, U.S.A. Each is mutually intelligible with its neighbors. ... Kootenai Group Near Tipis (ca. ... Pre-contact distribution of Natchez peoples Although suffering a turbulent history since European contact, the Natchez Nation still represents a vital part of the United States Native American community. ... The Salinan Native Americans lived in what is now Northern California, in the Salinas Valley. ... Siuslaw is one of the three Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw located on the southwest Oregon Pacific coast in the United States. ... Takelma was the language spoken by the Takelma people. ... The Timucua were a Native American tribe that lived in North Central Florida, mainly around the St. ... Seal of the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma Tonkawa The Tonkawa are a people native to central Texas, speaking the Tonkawa language. ... The Tunica (or Tonica) language was a language isolate spoken in present-day Louisiana in the United States. ... The Washoe language is a Native American language spoken by the Washoe. ... Yana is a Sanskrit word with a range of meanings including nouns such as vehicle, journey, and path; and verbs such as going, moving, riding, and marching. ... Pre-contact distribution of the Yuchi Language The Yuchi language is the language of the Yuchi people living in the southeastern United States, including eastern Tennessee, western Carolinas, northern Georgia and Alabama, in the period of early European colonization. ... The Yuki (also Yukian, Ukiah, Ukomnom) language was a Yuki-Wappo language of California spoken by the Yuki Indians. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Zuni language Zuni (also Zuñi or Shiwi) is spoken by over 10000 people in New Mexico and much smaller numbers in parts of Arizona. ...


Native American sign languages

A sign-language trade pidgin, known as Plains Indian Sign Language or Plains Standard, arose among the Plains Indians. Each signing nation had a separate signed version of their spoken language, that was used by the hearing, and these were not mutually intelligible. Plains Standard was used to communicate between these nations. It seems to have started in Texas, and then spread north, though the Great Plains, as far as British Columbia. There are still a few users today, especially among the Crow, Cheyenne, and Arapaho. Unlike other sign languages developed by hearing people, it shares the spatial grammar of deaf sign languages. A fruit stand at a market. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Plains Indian Sign Language is a sign language formerly used as an interlanguage between Native Americans of the Great Plains of the United States of America and Canada. ... The Plains Indians were the Native American tribes who lived in the Great Plains region of North America. ... The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States of America and Canada, covering all or parts of the U.S. states of New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota and North Dakota and the... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages none stated in law; English is de facto Flower Pacific dogwood Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of total)  Ranked... The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone river valley and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana, and the current chairman of the tribal council is Carl Venne. ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 The Cheyenne are a Native American nation of the Great Plains, closely allied with the Arapaho and loosely allied with the Lakota (Sioux). ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ...


Austronesian languages

Hawaiian

Hawaiian is an official state language of Hawaii as prescribed in the Constitution of Hawaii. Hawaiian has 1000 native speakers. Formerly considered critically endangered, Hawaiian is showing signs of language renaissance. The recent trend is based on new Hawaiian language immersion programs of the Hawaii State Department of Education and the University of Hawaii, as well as efforts by the Hawaii State Legislature and county governments to preserve Hawaiian place names. In 1993 about 8,000 could speak and understand it; today estimates range up to 27,000. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,941 sq mi (28,337 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... The Constitution of Hawaii refers to various legal documents throughout the history of the Hawaiian Islands that defined the fundamental principles of authority and governance within its sphere of jurisdiction. ... The Hawaii State Department of Education is the most centralized and only statewide public education system in the United States. ... Jean Charlots mural called Commencement is featured at Bachman Hall, the administrative center of the University of Hawai`i System. ... Hawaii Governor Benjamin J. Cayetano speaks before a special session of the legislature on January 24, 2000. ...


Samoan

Samoan is an official territorial language of American Samoa. Samoans make up 90% of the population, and most people are bilingual.


Chamorro

Chamorro is co-official in the Mariana Islands, both in the territory of Guam and in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. In Guam, the Chamorro people make up about half of the population. Chamorro, or Chamoru, is the native language of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. ... The English noun Commonwealth dates originally from the fifteenth century. ...


Carolinian

Carolinian is also co-official in the Northern Marianas, where only 14% of people speak English at home. Carolinian is an Austronesian language spoken in the Northern Mariana Islands, where it is an official language along with English and Chamorro. ...


The colonial languages

In the 17th century, there were colonies in North America, whose languages were English (from Virginia and Nova Albion colonies), Dutch (from New Netherland), French (from New France), Spanish (from New Spain), Swedish (from New Sweden), Scottish Gaelic (from Nova Scotia and Carolina), Welsh (from Welsh Tract) and Russian (from Russian-American Company). (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... New France (French: la Nouvelle-France) describes the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River, by Jacques Cartier in 1534, to the cession of New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River on the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Official languages None (English,French,Gaelic) Flower Trailing arbutus Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant-Governor Myra Freeman Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 11 10 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of total)  Ranked... There are several geographical locations named Carolina: Carolina, North America = Between 1663 and 1729 Carolina was the united and singular North American British colony of the Province of Carolina. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The Welsh Tract, also called the Welsh Barony, was a portion of Pennsylvania settled largely by Welsh-speaking Quakers. ... The Russian-American Company was a semi-official colonial trading company started by Grigory Shelikhov and Nikolai Rezanov and chartered by tsar Paul I in 1799. ...


English

English was inherited from British colonization and it is spoken by the vast majority of the population. It serves as the de facto language: the language in which government business is carried out. According to the 1990 census, 97% of U.S. residents speak English "well" or "very well". Only 0.8% speak no English at all, as compared with 3.6% in 1890. American English is different from British English, in terms of spelling (a classic example being the dropped "u" in words such as color/colour), grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and slang usage. The differences are not usually a barrier to effective communication between an American English and a British English speaker, but there are certainly enough differences to cause occasional misunderstandings, usually surrounding slang or region dialect differences. Two cores of English speaking are on the Eastern Seaboard, which were the Thirteen Colonies chartered by the Virginia Company and Oregon Country, formerly called New Albion and settled from the Oregon Trail. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... [[[[[ == [[Media: --71. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... American English (AmE) is the dialect of the English language used mostly in the United States of America. ... Dialect areas of England British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate between the form of the English language used in the British Isles and those used elsewhere. ... American English (AmE) is the dialect of the English language used mostly in the United States of America. ... Dialect areas of England British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate between the form of the English language used in the British Isles and those used elsewhere. ... Categories: US geography stubs ... Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 states. ... The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. ... Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell Map of Oregon Country Oregon Country was a region of western North America that originally consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about the area claimed by Francis Drake. ... The Ox Team or the Old Oregon Trail 1852-1906 by Ezra Meeker. ...


Some states, like California, have amended their constitutions to make English the only official language, but in practice, this only means that official government documents must at least be in English, and does not mean that they should be exclusively available only in English. For example, the standard California Class C driver's license examination is available in 32 different languages. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... current EU driving licence, German version - front 1. ...


French

See French in the United States

French (in its Cajun variant) is the second official language in the state of Louisiana. The largest French-speaking communities in the United States reside in Northeast Maine; Hollywood and Miami, Florida; New York City, certain areas of rural Louisiana and a small minorities in Vermont and New Hampshire. More than 13 million Americans possess primary French heritage, but only 1.6 million speak that language. The French language is spoken as a minority language of the United States. ... This article is about an ethnic culture. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33... Official language(s) None Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 39th 33,414 sq mi  86,542 km² 190 miles  305 km 320 miles  515 km 13. ... Hollywood is a city located in Broward County, Florida. ... The Magic City, The American Riviera, The Sixth Borough, M.I.A Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,794 sq mi (170,451 km²)  - Width 162 miles (260 km)  - Length 497 miles (800 km)  - % water 17. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Big Apple Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,214. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33...


Welsh

Up to two million Americans are thought to have Welsh ancestry, however, there is very little Welsh being used commonly in the USA. However, some key Welsh words and phrases have been adopted in some areas, and some place names, such as Bryn Mawr (English: Big Hill) in Chicago are Welsh. Examples include, 'bore da' meaning good morning, which is used sparingly. Several towns in Pennsylvania, mostly in the Welsh Tract, have Welsh namesakes, including Uwchlan, Bala Cynwyd, and Tredyffrin. The Edgewater Beach Apartments, built in 1927 The Bryn Mawr Historic District is a lakefront enclave of the Edgewater neighborhood community of far-north Chicago in Illinois. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ... The Welsh Tract, also called the Welsh Barony, was a portion of Pennsylvania settled largely by Welsh-speaking Quakers. ... Uwchlan Township is a township located in Chester County, Pennsylvania. ... Bala Cynwyd is a village in Lower Merion Township which is located in the Main Line in southeastern Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia. ... Tredyffrin Township is a township located in eastern Chester County, Pennsylvania, USA. As of the 2000 census, the township had a total population of 29,062. ...


Scottish Gaelic

Dutch

In 1602, the government of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands chartered the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) with the mission of exploring for a passage to the Indies and claiming any unchartered territories for the Dutch republic. This page is about the year. ... This article is about the Dutch United Provinces. ... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and Southeast Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, the Maldives...


In 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson attempted to find a northwest passage to the Indies, instead discovering areas of current United States and Canada, among others giving his name to the Hudson River and Hudson Bay and claiming the surrounding land for the VOC. // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... . No portrait of Hudson is known to be in existence. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river running mainly through New York State but partly forming the boundary between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ...


After some early trading expeditions, the first settlement was founded in 1615: Fort Nassau, on Castle Island, near present-day Albany. The settlement served mostly as a trade post for fur trade with the natives and was later replaced by Fort Oranje (or Fort Orange) at present-day Albany. Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. ... Castle Island is a 22 acre major recreation site located in South Boston on Boston Harbor. ... Flag Seal Location Location in Albany County and the State of New York Coordinates , Government Country   State     County United States   New York     Albany Founded Incorporated 1614 1686 Mayor Gerald D. Jennings Geographical characteristics Area     City 56. ... An Atsina named Assiniboin Boy Photo by Edward S. Curtis. ... Fort Orange (also Fort Oranje or Fort Oranije) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New York. ... Fort Orange (Dutch: Fort Oranje ...


In 1621, a new company was established with a trading monopoly in the Americas and West Africa: the Dutch West India Company (Westindische Compagnie or WIC). The WIC sought recognition for the area in the New World - which had been called New Netherland - as a province, which was granted in 1623. Soon after, the first colonists, mostly from present-day Belgium and Germany, arrived in the new province. Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... World map showing the Americas America or the Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... Map based on Adriaen Blocks 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. ... Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. ...


In 1626, director general of the WIC Peter Minuit "purchased" the island of Manhattan from Indians and started the construction of fort New Amsterdam. In the same year, Fort Nassau was built in the New Jersey area. Other settlements were Fort Casimir (Newcastle) and Fort Beversrede (Philadelphia). In 1655, the main settlement of New Sweden, Fort Christina, was captured after the Swedes had briefly occupied Fort Casimir. Large numbers of the inhabitants of these settlements were not Dutch, but came from a variety of other European countries, including England. Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Peter Minuit (1589–August 5, 1638) was a Walloon from Wesel, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of the Duchy of Cleves. ... The Borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam) was the name of the 17th century fortified settlement on Manhattan Island in the New Netherland territory (1614-1674) situated originally between 38 and 42 degrees latitude. ... The name Fort Nassau was used by the Dutch in the 17th century for several fortifications, mostly trading stations, named for the House of Orange-Nassau. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Fort Casimir was a Dutch settlement in New Netherland, located in what is now New Castle County, Delaware. ... New Castle is a city located in New Castle County, Delaware. ... Philadelphia is a village located in Jefferson County, New York. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River on the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. ... Fort Christina was the first Swedish settlement in North America and the principal settlement of the New Sweden colony. ...


In 1664, English troops under the command of the Duke of York (later James II of England) attacked the New Netherland colony. Being greatly outnumbered, director general Peter Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam, with Fort Orange following soon. New Amsterdam was renamed New York, Fort Orange was renamed Fort Albany. Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685. ... Peter Stuyvesant circa 1660 Peter Stuyvesant (born about 1612, Peperga (Friesland), Netherlands; died February, 1672, in present-day New York City, USA[1]) served as the last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664. ... New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam) was the name of the 17th century fortified settlement on Manhattan Island in the New Netherland territory (1614-1674) situated originally between 38 and 42 degrees latitude. ... Fort Orange (Dutch: Fort Oranje ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Fort Orange (Dutch: Fort Oranje ... Fort Albany may refer to: Fort Albany, Ontario in Canada a fort established by the British on the current site of Albany, New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Martin van Buren, the first President born in the United States (As opposed to the British colonies), spoke Dutch as his native language, making him the only President whose first language was not English.


Dutch was still spoken in many parts of New York at the time of the Revolution. For example, Alexander Hamilton's wife Eliza Hamilton attended a Dutch-language church during their marriage.


In a 1990 demographic consensus, 3% of surveyed citizens claimed descent from Dutch settlers. Modern estimates place the Dutch-American population at 5 million, lagging just a bit behind Scottish-Americans and Swedish-Americans.


Notable Dutch-Americans include the Roosevelts, Marlon Brando, Thomas Alva Edison, Martin Van Buren and the Vanderbilts.


Only 20,000 people in the US still speak the Dutch language today, concentrated mainly in Michigan, Tennessee, Miami, Houston, and Chicago.


A vernacular dialect of Dutch, known as Jersey Dutch was spoken by a significant number of people in the New Jersey area between the start of the 17th century to the mid-20th century. With the beginning of the 20th century, usage of the language became restricted to internal family circles, with an ever-growing insurgence of people abandoning the language in favor of English. It was suffering gradual decline throughout the 20th century, and it ultimately dissipated from casual usage. Jersey Dutch was a variant of the Dutch language spoken in and around Bergen and Passaic counties in New Jersey from the late 1600s until the early 20th century. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ...


German

German was a widely spoken tongue in some of the colonies, especially Pennsylvania, where a number of German-speaking religious minorities settled to escape persecution in Europe. Dutch, Swedish and Scottish Gaelic all became less common than German after the American Revolution. There is a myth (known as 'the Muhlenberg Vote') that German was to be the official language of the U.S., but this is inaccurate, and based on a failed early attempt to have government documents translated into German.[3] Another wave of settlement occurred when Germans fleeing the failure of 19th Century German revolutions emigrated to the United States. Large numbers of Germans settled throughout the U.S. especially in the cities. Neighborhoods in many cities were German-speaking. German farmers took up farming around the country, including the Texas Hill Country, at this time. German was widely spoken until the United States entered World War I. Numerous local German language newspaper and periodicals existed. Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The American Revolution was an upheaval that ended British control of middle North America, resulting in the formation of the United States of America in 1776. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First World War, also known as...


In the early twentieth century, German was the most widely-studied foreign language in the United States, and prior to World War I, more than 6% of American school-children received their primary education exclusively in German, though some of these Germans came from areas outside of Germany proper. Currently, more than 47 million Americans claim German ancestry, the largest self-described ethnic group in the U.S., and 10% of them speak or could speak the language. The Amish speak a dialect of German known as Pennsylvania Dutch. German was a second official language of the State of Pennsylvania and widely spoken in the Midwest until the late 1950s. One reason for this decline of German language was the perception during both World Wars that speaking the language of the enemy was unpatriotic; foreign language instruction was banned in places during the First World War. Another was the demise of traditional agriculture. The last wave of German immigration followed the World War II, as post-war Germany suffered economic problems, and ethnic Germans were uprooted from their homes in Eastern Europe. Unlike earlier waves, they were more concentrated in cities, and integrated quickly. Since the Wirtschaftswunder, German immigration to the U.S. has all but ended. Most German Americans are completely integrated into the mainstream American society and the language is being taught less and less in schools because of diminishing demand.
See also: Hutterite German, Texas German, Pennsylvania Dutchified English, Plautdietsch. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First World War, also known as... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... Amish couple in a buggy in rural Holmes County, Ohio, which has the worlds largest Amish population The Amish are WEIRD an Anabaptist Christian denomination and Swiss-German ethnic group found primarily in the United States and Ontario, Canada known for restrictions on the use of modern devices such... Pennsylvania German, or Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch), is a High German variety spoken by 150,000 to 250,000 people in North America. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8... Ethnic Germans (usually simply called Germans, in German Volksdeutsche) are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German rather than anything else but who do not live within the Federal Republic of Germany nor hold its citizenship. ... The German exodus from Eastern Europe refers to the exodus of the German populations to the east of Germanys and Austrias post-World War II borders. ... Current division of Europe into five (or more) regions: one definition of Eastern Europe is marked in orange Eastern Europe is an eastern region of Europe variably defined. ... The term Wirtschaftswunder (English: economic miracle) designates the upturn experienced in the West German and Austrian economies after the Second World War. ... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. ... Texas German is a dialect of the German language that is spoken by descendants of German immigrants who founded the town of Fredericksburg, Texas in 1846. ... Pennsylvania Dutchified English is a dialect of English that has been influenced by Pennsylvania German (Pennsylavania Deitsch). ... Plautdietsch, or Mennonite Low German, is a language spoken by the Mennonites, who are ethnically Dutch, but who adopted an East Low German dialect while they were refugees in the Vistula delta area of Royal Prussia (later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), beginning in the early-to-mid 1500s. ...


Swedish

New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a Swedish colony in North America corresponding roughly to the networked region of urban sprawl around Philadelphia, containing such settlements as New Stockholm (now Bridgeport) and Swedesboro in New Jersey, as well as others in Delaware, Pennsylvania and Maryland. The colony existed from March 1638 to September 1655. New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River on the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. ...


The first Swedish expedition to North America was launched from the port of Gothenburg in late 1637. Samuel Blommaert assisted with the fitting-out and appointed Peter Minuit to lead the expedition. Minuit was formerly the governor of the Dutch colony of New Netherlands. The members of the expedition, traveling aboard the ships Fogel Grip and Kalmar Nyckel, arrived in Delaware Bay, a location within the territory claimed by the Dutch, in late March 1638. They built a fort on the present-day location of the city of Wilmington, which they named Fort Christina, after Queen Christina of Sweden. In the following years, approximately one thousand people from the Swedish mainland and Finland settled in the colonized establishments and townships. Gothenburg (Swedish: ) ) is a city and municipality in the province Västergötland on the west-coast of Sweden. ... New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica) was the territory claimed by the Netherlands on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century. ... Flag Seal Motto: A Place To Be Somebody Location Coordinates , Government County New Castle County incorporated 1739 Mayor James M. Baker (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 44. ... Christina (1626-1689) or Kristina, later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometime Count Dohna, was Queen of Sweden from 1632 to 1654, was the daughter of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. ...


Widespread diaspora of Swedish immigration did not occur until the latter half of the 19th century, bringing in a total of a million Swedes. No other country had a higher percentage of its people leave for the United States except Ireland. At the beginning of the 20th century, Minnesota had the highest ethnic Swedish population in the world after the city of Stockholm. Official language(s) None Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Stockholm panorama from the City Hall is the capital of Sweden, located on the south east coast of Sweden. ...


3.7% of US residents claim descent from Scandinavian ancestors, amounting to roughly 11-12 million people. According to SIL's Ethnologue, over half a million ethnic Swedes still speak the language. Transculture assimilation has contributed to the gradual and steady decline of the language in the US. After the independence of the US from Great Britain, the government encouraged colonists to adopt the English language as a common medium of communication, and in some cases, imposed it upon them. Subsequent generations of Swedish-Americans received education in English and spoke it as their first language. Lutheran churches scattered across the midwest started abandoning Swedish in favour of English as their language of worship. Swedish newspapers and publications alike slowly faded away.


Predicted figures of citizens with direct Swedish ancestry usually remain between 5.5 million to 6 million, or 3% of the US population.


There are sizeable Swedish communities in Minnesota, Ohio, Maryland, Philadelphia and Delaware, along with small isolated pockets in Pennsylvania, San Francisco, Fort Lauderdale, and New York.


John Morton, the person who cast the decisive vote leading to the American Declaration of Independence, was a Finland-Swede. A declaration of independence is a proclamation of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... Finland-Swedish is a variety of Swedish. ...


Spanish

The Spanish language is the second-most common language in the country, spoken by about 28.1 million people (or 10.7% of the population) in 2000. In Puerto Rico, both Spanish and English have the status of official language, and in New Mexico both languages enjoy widespread usage. The United States holds the world's fifth largest Spanish-speaking population, outnumbered only by Mexico, Spain, Argentina, and Colombia. The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is predominantly Spanish-speaking. New Spain was steadily eroded in territory by Mestizo and American forces, from the Mexican-American War to the Spanish-American War. Although many new Latin American immigrants are less than fluent in English, second-generation Hispanic Americans nearly all speak English fluently, while only about half still speak Spanish. For a detailed history, see Spanish in the United States. This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; French, Métis: from Late Latin mixticius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, to mix) is a term of Spanish origin used to designate the people of mixed European and indigenous non-European ancestry. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 60,000 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government estimate) The Mexican-American... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Revolutionaries Spain Casualties 379 U.S. dead; considerably higher though undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and... Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Spanglish is a Dialectical variation of Spanish and English and is spoken in areas with large bilingual populations of Spanish and English speakers, such as along the U.S. - Mexico border (California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas), Florida, and New York City. Spanglish, a portmanteau of the words Spanish and English, is a name used to refer to a range of language-contact phenomena, primarily in the speech of the Hispanic population of the United States, which is exposed to both Spanish and English. ... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) None Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 660 miles (1,065 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,794 sq mi (170,451 km²)  - Width 162 miles (260 km)  - Length 497 miles (800 km)  - % water 17. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Big Apple Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,214. ...


Russian

The Russian language is frequently spoken in areas of Alaska, Los Angeles, Seattle, Miami, San Francisco, New York City, and Chicago. The Russian-American Company used to own Alaska Territory, until selling it after the Crimean War. Russian had always been limited, especially after the assassination of the Romanov dynasty of tsars. The largest Russian-speaking neighborhoods in the United States are found in Queens and Brooklyn, in New York City (specifically the Brighton Beach area of Brooklyn) and in Sunny Isles Beach, Florida. Russian (Russian: русский язык, russkiy yazyk, ) is the most widely spoken language of Eurasia and the most widespread of the Slavic languages. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,854 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Emerald City Location Location of Seattle in King County and Washington Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Washington King County Incorporated December 2, 1869 Mayor Greg Nickels Geographical characteristics Area     City 369. ... The Magic City, The American Riviera, The Sixth Borough, M.I.A Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Big Apple Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,214. ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... The Russian-American Company was a semi-official colonial trading company started by Grigory Shelikhov and Nikolai Rezanov and chartered by tsar Paul I in 1799. ... Alaska Territory was an organized territory of the United States from August 24, 1912 to January 3, 1959, when Alaska became the 49th state. ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Second French Empire, Ottoman Empire, Kingdom of Sardinia Imperial Russia Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 1,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is the official Slavonic title designating Emperor in the following states: Bulgaria in 913–1422 (for later usage in 1908–1946, see below) Serbia in... Queens is geographically the largest of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse county in the U.S. It is coterminous with Queens County in the State of New York and is located on western Long Island. ... A map of New York City, highlighting Brooklyn. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Big Apple Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,214. ... Sunny Isles Beach is a city located in Miami-Dade County, Florida. ...


Finnish

Shortly after the Civil War, many Finnish citizens immigrated to the United States, mainly in rural areas of the Midwest (and more primarily in Michigan's Upper Peninsula). Hancock, Michigan, as of 2005, still incorporates bi-lingual street signs written in both English and Finnish [4]. Americans of Finnish origin yield at 800,000 individuals, though actual speakers range between 20,000 and 50,000. Notable Finnish-Americans include Gus Hall, US Communist Party leader, Renny Harlin, film director, and the Canadian-born actress, Pamela Anderson. Another Finnish community in the US is found in Lake Worth, Florida, north of Miami. The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... The Upper Peninsula of Michigan, also known as The Upper Peninsula, The U.P. (or The UP), and Above the Bridge by Michiganders, refers to the northern peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Hancock is a city in Houghton County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Gus Hall Gus Hall (October 8, 1910 – October 13, 2000) was a labor organizer, a founder of the United Steelworkers of America trade union, a leader of the Soviet-allied Communist Party USA and five-time U.S. presidential candidate. ... Renny Harlin (born Lauri Mauritz Harjola on March 15, 1959 in Riihimäki, Finland) is a film director and producer mostly known for action movies. ... Pamela Anderson Pamela Denise Anderson (born July 1, 1967) is a Canadian-American television actress, glamour model, producer, TV personality and author. ... Lake Worth is a city located in Palm Beach County, Florida, named for General William J. Worth, who led U.S. forces during the Second Seminole War. ...


Immigrant languages

The U.S. has long been the destination of many immigrants. From the mid 19th century on, the nation had large numbers of residents who spoke little or no English, and throughout the country state laws, constitutions, and legislative proceedings appeared in the languages of politically important immigrant groups. There have been bilingual schools and local newspapers in such languages as German, Irish, Italian, Norwegian, Greek, Polish, Swedish, Romanian, Czech, Japanese, Yiddish, Welsh, Cantonese, Bulgarian, etc., despite opposing English-only laws that, for example, illegalized church services, telephone conversations, and even conversations in the street or on railway platforms in any language other than English, until the first of these laws was ruled unconstitutional in 1923 (Meyer v. Nebraska). Currently, Asian languages account for the majority of languages spoken in immigrant communities: Korean, various Chinese languages, Hindi, Telugu, Vietnamese, and Tagalog. Typically, immigrant languages tend to be lost through assimilation within a few generations, though there are a couple groups such as the Cajuns (French), Pennsylvania Dutch (German), and the original settlers of the Southwest (Spanish) who have maintained their languages for centuries. Yiddish (Yid. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... Meyer v. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in DevanāgarÄ«), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in Northern and Central India is an official language of the central government of India. ... Telugu (తెలుగు) (also Telegu) belongs to the Dravidian language family but with ample influence from the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family and is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ...


According to the 2000 census [5], the main immigrant/ex-colonial languages by number of speakers older than 5 are:

  1. Spanish - 28 million
  2. Chinese languages - 2.0 million + (mostly Cantonese speakers, with a growing group of Mandarin speakers)
  3. French - 1.6 million
  4. German - 1.4 million (High German) + German dialects like Hutterite German, Texas German, Pennsylvania Dutch, Plautdietsch + Yiddish
  5. Tagalog - 1.2 million
  6. Vietnamese - 1.01 million
  7. Italian - 1.01 million
  8. Korean - 890 thousand
  9. Russian - 710 thousand
  10. Polish - 670 thousand
  11. Arabic - 610 thousand
  12. Portuguese - 560 thousand
  13. Japanese - 480 thousand
  14. French Creole - 450 thousand
  15. Greek - 370 thousand
  16. Hindi - 320 thousand
  17. Persian - 310 thousand
  18. Urdu - 260 thousand
  19. Gujarati - 240 thousand
  20. Armenian - 200 thousand

Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Cantonese (Traditional Chinese: 粵語; Simplified Chinese: 粤语, Cantonese: Yuet6yue5; Mandarin pinyin: Yueyu, Yụet (Guangdong) language) is one of the major dialect groups or languages of the Chinese language or language family. ... Mandarin, or Beifanghua (Chinese: 北方話; Pinyin: BÄ›ifānghuà; literally Northern Dialect(s)), or Guanhua (Traditional Chinese: 官話; Simplified Chinese: 官话; Pinyin: Guānhuà; literally official speech) is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ... Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. ... Texas German is a dialect of the German language that is spoken by descendants of German immigrants who founded the town of Fredericksburg, Texas in 1846. ... The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are descendants of German speaking immigrants who came to Pennsylvania in the early 1700s. ... Plautdietsch, or Mennonite Low German, is a language spoken by the Mennonites, who are ethnically Dutch, but who adopted an East Low German dialect while they were refugees in the Vistula delta area of Royal Prussia (later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), beginning in the early-to-mid 1500s. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... // A creole language, or just creole, is a well-defined and stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages, typically with many distinctive features that are not inherited from either parent. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... {{Infobox Language |name=Gujarati |nativename=ગુજરાતી GujarātÄ« |region[[Pakistan|speakers=1 million |rank=122 |familycolor=Indo-European |fam2=Indo-Iranian |fam3=Indo-Aryan |fam4=Western Indo-Aryan |script=Gujarati script |nation=Gujarat |agency=Language Academy |iso1=gu|iso2=guj|iso3=guj |notice=Indic}} Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujarātÄ«) is an Indo-European...

New American languages

Several languages have been born on American soil, including creoles and sign languages. // A creole language, or just creole, is a well-defined and stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages, typically with many distinctive features that are not inherited from either parent. ... A sign language (also signed language) is a language which uses manual communication instead of sound to convey meaning - simultaneously combining handshapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to fluidly express a speakers thoughts. ...


Gullah

Gullah, an English-African creole language is spoken on the Sea Islands of South Carolina and Georgia. It retains strong influences of West African languages, and is distinct enough to be considered a separate language from English. [citation needed] The Gullah language is a creole language spoken by the Gullah (Geechees), an African American population of African slave ancestry, living mostly in the Sea Islands and the nearby coastal low country region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... The Sea Islands are an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1760-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N...


African-American Vernacular

African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), also known as Ebonics, is a variety of English spoken by many African-Americans, in both rural and urban areas. Not all African-Americans speak AAVE, of course, and many Anglo-Americans do. Indeed, it is generally accepted that Southern American English is part of the same continuum as AAVE. African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), also called Ebonics, Black English, or Black English Vernacular (BEV) is a dialect of American English. ... African American Vernacular English (AAVE), known colloquially as Ebonics, also called Black English, Black Vernacular or Black English Vernacular, is a dialect and ethnolect of American English. ... For general discussion of dark-skinned people, see Black people. ...


There is considerable debate among non-linguists as to whether the word "dialect" is appropriate to describe it. However, there is general agreement among linguists and many African Americans that AAVE is part of a historical continuum between creoles such as Gullah and the language brought by English colonists. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language used by people from a particular geographic area. ...


Some educators view AAVE as exerting a negative influence on the learning of Proper and Standard English, as numerous AAVE rules differ from the rules of Standard English. Other educators, however, propose that Standard English should be taught as a "second dialect" in areas where AAVE is a strong part of local tradition.


Hawaiian Creole

Hawaiian Pidgin, more accurately known as Hawaiian Creoles, is commonly used by locals and is considered an unofficial language of the state. Hawai‘i Pidgin English, Hawai‘i Creole English, HCE, or simply Pidgin, is a creole language based in part on English sometimes used by residents of Hawai‘i (Hawaiian Pidgin English is considered an inaccurate label). ...


Sign languages

See also: Languages in the United States#Native American sign languages.
Please expand and improve this section as described on this article's talk page or at Requests for expansion, then remove this message.

// Although the United States currently has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language. ... Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ...

Martha's Vineyard Sign Language

Martha's Vineyard Sign Language is now extinct. Along with French Sign Language, it was one of two main contributors to American Sign Language. Marthas Vineyard Sign Language (MVSL) is a sign language (now extinct), once widely used on the island of Marthas Vineyard off the coast of Massachusetts, U.S, from the early 18th century to the late 20th century. ... French Sign Language (Langue des Signes Français or LSF) is the language of the deaf in the nation of France. ...


American Sign Language

American Sign Language (ASL) is the native language of between 100,000 and 500,000 deaf people in America. Unlike Signed English, ASL is a natural language in its own right, not a manual representation of English. American Sign Language (ASL, also Amslan obs. ... Various attempts to develop a signed mode of the English language have been developed for use in deaf education. ...


Black American Sign Language

Black American Sign Language developed in segregated schools in the south. Much like AAVE and standard English, it differs in vocabulary and grammatical structure from ASL.


Hawaii Pidgin Sign Language

Hawaii Pidgin Sign Language (named after Hawaiian Pidgin English, but not itself a pidgin) is moribund. Hawaii Pidgin Sign Language is a sign language used in Hawaii. ...


Artificial languages

Esperanto

Esperanto is a constructed 'international' language, developed by L. L. Zamenhof, a Jewish occulist in Warsaw, the capital of the Russian part of partitioned Poland, and released in 1887. A nationwide organization called the Esperanto League for North America, headquartered in Emeryville, California oversees the Esperanto movement in the U.S., publishing literature, issuing a periodical, and organizing its annual conference. Smaller local groups organize meetings and annual banquets, and also host Esperanto-speaking foreign visitors. Look up Esperanto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose phonology, grammar and vocabulary are specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture the way natural languages do. ... L. L. Zamenhof Dr. Ludovic Lazarus (Ludwik Lejzer, Ludwik Łazarz) Zamenhof (December 15, 1859 – April 14, 1917) was an eye doctor, philologist, and the initiator of Esperanto, the most widely spoken and successful constructed language in the world. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Esperanto-Ligo por Norda Ameriko (ELNA) is the main organization of speakers and supporters of the international language Esperanto in the United States. ... The city of Emeryville highlighted within Alameda County Emeryville is a city located in Alameda County, California. ...


See also

This article serves as an overview of the customs and culture of the United States; for the popular (pop) culture of the United States, see arts and entertainment in the United States. ... American English (AmE) is the dialect of the English language used mostly in the United States of America. ... The phrase bilingual education has multiple definitions: education where two distinct languages are used for general teaching education designed to help children become bilingual (sometimes called two-way bilingual education; e. ... Language Spoken at Home is a data set published by the United States Census Bureau on languages in the United States. ...

External links

The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...

Bibliography

  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Campbell, Lyle; & Mithun, Marianne (Eds.). (1979). The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Grimes, Barbara F. (Ed.). (2000). Ethnologue: Languages of the world, (14th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671106-9. Online edition: http://www.ethnologue.com/, accessed on Dec. 7, 2004.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Zededa, Ofelia; Hill, Jane H. (1991). The condition of Native American Languages in the United States. In R. H. Robins & E. M. Uhlenbeck (Eds.), Endangered languages (pp. 135-155). Oxford: Berg.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Languages of the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5254 words)
Chinese, mostly of the Cantonese variety, is the third largest language spoken in the United States, almost completely spoken within Chinese American populations and by immigrants or the descendants of immigrants, especially in California.
A language isolate, the Keres are the largest of the Pueblo nations.
German was a second official language of the State of Pennsylvania and widely spoken in the Midwest until the late 1950s.
United States (2393 words)
Puerto Rico and the Northern Marianas are commonwealths of the United States.
The social structure of the United States, a capitalist country, is highly stratified, with a large proportion of the wealth of the country controlled by a small fraction of the population which exerts disproportionate cultural and political influence.
The United States is also a great center of higher education, boasting more than 1,500 universities, colleges, and other institutions of higher learning, the top tier of which may be considered to be among the most prestigious and advanced in the world.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m