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Encyclopedia > Languages in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom does not have a constitutionally defined official language. English is the main language (being spoken monolingually by roughly 95% of the UK population) and is thus the de facto official language. An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...

Contents


Statistics

According to the 2001 census, Welsh is spoken by about 20% of the population of Wales, giving it around 600,000 speakers. However, there is some controversy over the actual number who speak Welsh. Some statistics choose to include people who have studied Welsh to at least GCSE standard, not all of whom could be regarded as fluent speakers of the language. Unlike Scottish Gaelic, which is sometimes viewed as a regional language even in Scotland itself, but like many other minoritised languages, Welsh has for a long time been strongly associated with nationalism, making it harder to get an accurate and unbiased figure for how many people speak it fluently. Furthermore, no question about Welsh-language ability was asked in the 2001 census outside Wales, thereby ignoring a suspected considerable population of Welsh speakers particularly in neighbouring English counties and in London. Census 2001 is the name by which the national census conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 is known. ... The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) (Welsh: Tystysgrif Gyffredin Addysg Uwchradd (TGAU)) is the name of a set of British qualifications, taken by secondary school students at age 14–16 in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate...


Scottish Gaelic has about 60,000 speakers according to the 2001 census (roughly 1% of the population of Scotland). In Northern Ireland, about 7% of the population speak Irish Gaelic according to the 2001 census (around 110,000 speakers) and 2% regional forms of Scots according to the 1999 Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey (around 30,000 speakers). Alongside British Sign Language, Irish Sign Language is also used. Cornish is spoken by roughly 3,500 people (about 0.6% of the population of Cornwall). Scots is spoken by 30% of the Scottish population according to the 1996 estimate of the General Register Office for Scotland (approximately 1.5 million speakers). British Sign Language is understood by less than 0.1% of the total population of the UK. 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Further complication arises from language ability. Some low ability learners/users record themselves as speakers of various languages, while some who are (near-)fluent may choose not to, due to the stigma attached to some minority languages.

Bilingual road sign in Cardiff.
Bilingual road sign in Cardiff.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 563 KB) Bilingual road sign in Callaghan Square, Cardiff, 2005-07. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 563 KB) Bilingual road sign in Callaghan Square, Cardiff, 2005-07. ... The Norman Keep, Cardiff Castle. ...

Status

Certain nations and regions of the UK have frameworks for the promotion of their autochthonous languages. An autochthonous language is an indigenous language, one resident for a considerable length of time in a territory or region spoken by an autochthonous group. ...

Under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (which is not legally enforceable) the UK government has committed itself to the promotion of certain linguistic traditions. Welsh, Scottish Gaelic and Cornish are to be developed in Wales, Scotland and Cornwall respectively. Other native languages afforded such protection include Irish in Northern Ireland, Scots in Scotland and Northern Ireland (in the latter territory officially known as Ulster Scots or Ullans, but in the speech of users simply as Scotch or Scots), and British Sign Language. For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom, England and Wales and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... The Welsh Language Act 1993 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ... Dieu et mon droit (motto) (French for God and my right)2 Northern Irelands location within the UK Main language English Other recognised languages Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain MP Area  - Total Ranked 4th... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scotch-Irish, refers to the variety of the Scots language spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ... The Cornish language (in Cornish: Kernowek, Kernewek, Curnoack) is one of the Brythonic group of Celtic languages that includes Welsh, Breton, the extinct Cumbric and perhaps the hypothetical Ivernic. ... Cornwall (Cornish: Kernow) is a county at the extreme South-West of England on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar. ... Scots or Lallans (Eng: Lowlands), sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Gaelic language of the Highlands, is a West Germanic language used in Scotland, parts of Northern Ireland, and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scotch-Irish, refers to the variety of the Scots language spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... Ullans is recent a neologism merging Ulster and Lallans - the Scots for Lowlands. ... In older times Scotch was an adjective meaning of Scotland. Nowadays the preferred adjective is Scottish or Scots, and Scotch usually pertains to a recipe such as Scotch whisky. ... British Sign Language (BSL) is the sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK). ...


A number of bodies have been established to oversee the promotion of the regional languages: in Scotland, Bòrd na Gàidhlig oversees Scottish Gaelic. Foras na Gaeilge has an all-Ireland remit as a cross-border language body, and Tha Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch is intended to fulfil a similar function for Ulster Scots, although hitherto it has mainly concerned itself with culture. In Wales, the Welsh Language Board (Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) has a statutory role in agreeing Welsh language plans with official bodies. Bòrd na Gàidhlig /borst na ga:lIk/ is the Scottish government appointed agency with responsibility for Scottish Gaelic. ... Foras na Gaeilge is the governing body of the Irish language, responsible for the promotion of the language throughout all of Ireland. ... The Ulster-Scots Agency (also Tha Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch) is a cross-border body set up in Ireland to promote the Ulster Scots language. ... The Welsh Language Board (in Welsh, Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) is a statutory body set up by the British Government as part of the 1992 Welsh Language Act. ...


Kesva an Taves Kernewek, the Cornish Language Board, has local government involvement but does not enjoy statutory status. Kesva an Taves Kernewek (Cornish Language Board in Cornish) is a representative body promoting the Cornish language. ...


Controversies

Language vs dialect

The main subject of debate is what constitutes language and dialect; for some this is clear, but public perception is still very much divided. The criteria, even amongst linguists vary widely.


Scottish Gaelic and Irish Gaelic are generally viewed as being languages in their own right rather than dialects of a single tongue but are sometimes mutually intelligible to a limited degree - especially between southern dialects of Scottish Gaelic and northern dialects of Irish (programmes in each form of Gaelic are broadcast on BBC Radio nan Gaidheal and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta), but the relationship of Lowland Scots and English is less clear, since there is usually partial mutual intelligibility. Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Irish (Gaeilge), a Goidelic language spoken in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Canada, and the United States, is constitutionally recognised as the first official language of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Recently the same has been true of Ulster Scots and Lowland Scots (which are considered dialects of English by some) in Scotland, though in the political rather than the linguistic sphere, since there is almost absolute mutual intelligibility between contemporary speakers, and a common written form was current well into the 20th century. Former official flag of Northern Ireland and de facto civil flag. ... Scots or Lallans (Eng: Lowlands), sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Gaelic language of the Highlands, is a West Germanic language used in Scotland, parts of Northern Ireland, and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or...


While in continental Europe closely related languages and dialects may get official recognition and support, in the UK there is a tendency to view closely related vernaculars as a single language. Even British Sign Language is mistakenly thought of as a form of 'English' by some, rather than being language in its own right, with a distinct grammar and vocabulary. The boundaries not always being clear cut can lead to problems in estimating numbers of speakers. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ... The vernacular is the native language of a country or locality. ... Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ...


Hostility

In Northern Ireland, the use of Irish Gaelic and Ulster Scots is sometimes politically loaded, despite both having been used by all communities in the past; according to the Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey 1999, the ratio of Unionist to Nationalist users of Ulster Scots is 2:1. Also, some resent Scottish Gaelic being promoted in the Lowlands, although it was once spoken in the majority of Scotland, an exception being the extreme south-east of the country, which was annexed from the Northumbrian earldom.


Two areas with mostly Norse-derived placenames (and some Pictish), the Northern Isles (Shetland and Orkney) were ceded to Scotland in lieu of an unpaid dowry in 1472, and never spoke Gaelic; its traditional vernacular Norn, a derivative of Old Norse mutually intelligible with Icelandic and Faroese, died out in the 18th century after large-scale immigration by Lowland Scots speakers. To this day, many Shetlanders and Orcadians maintain a separate identity, albeit through the Shetlandic and Orcadian dialects of Lowland Scots, rather than their former national tongue. Norn was also spoken at one point in Caithness, and possibly the Western Isles, apparently dying out much earlier than Shetland and Orkney. However, Gaelic replaced Norn entirely in the Western Isles; to what degree this happened in Caithness is a matter of controversy, although it was spoken in parts of the county until the 20th century. See Shetland (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ... Events February 20 - The Orkneys and Shetlands are annexed to the crown of Scotland Discovery of Newfoundland by Didrik Pining and João Vaz Corte-Real. ... Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic) is a traditional county and former administrative county within the Highland area of Scotland. ... The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic) is a traditional county and former administrative county within the Highland area of Scotland. ...


Non-recognition

Lowland Scots within Scotland and the regional varieties of English within England receive little or no public support, and are often used for comedic purposes in British media. The dialects of Northern England share some features with Lowland Scots that those of Southern England do not. The United Kingdom has a diverse range of different types of media. ... Scots (or Lallans, meaning Lowlands), properly Lowland Scots, is used in Lowland Scotland, as well as parts of Northern Ireland and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or Ullans but by speakers simply as Scotch or Scots. On the...


Public funding of minority languages continues to produce mixed reactions, and there is sometimes resistance to their teaching in schools. Partly as a result, proficiency in languages other than "Standard" English can vary widely.


Cornish

The status of Cornish is also highly controversial. For example, it is commonly claimed in literature to be dead. Or that the entire body of speakers are "learners", or are mostly of low proficiency. The Cornish language (in Cornish: Kernowek, Kernewek, Curnoack) is one of the Brythonic group of Celtic languages that includes Welsh, Breton, the extinct Cumbric and perhaps the hypothetical Ivernic. ...


Certainly, a number of children are being brought up to speak the language, and their Cornish may be viewed as being analogous to the position of speakers of the revived form of Hebrew. Cornish has also had problems with factionalism, which has led to some infighting. Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ...


There is some public resistance to Cornish as a "dead language", something which also affects minority languages in areas they are no longer commonly spoken.


Languages and dialects in the United Kingdom

Native

Germanic

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Dialect areas of England British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate between the form of the English language used in the British Isles and those used elsewhere. ... Shelta (also known as Gammen, Sheldru, or simply the Cant) is a language spoken by parts of the Irish Traveller people. ... Cockney rhyming slang (sometimes abbreviated as CRS) is a form of English slang which originated in the East End of London. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... Estuary English is a name given to the form of English widely spoken in South East England, especially along the river Thames and its estuary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In the East Midlands of England, (Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, and Nottinghamshire) a dialect is spoken which is often mistaken for the Yorkshire or Tyke dialect, due to similarities with accents in the southern parts of Yorkshire. ... West Midlands English is a group of dialects of the English language. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mid Ulster English (Ulster Anglo-Irish) is the dialect of most people in Ulster, including those in the two main cities. ... Polari (or alternatively Palare, from Italian parlare, to talk) was a form of cant slang used in the gay subculture in Britain in the 1950s and 1960s, although its origins can be traced back to at least the nineteenth century. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Highland English is the variety of Gaelic influenced Scottish English spoken in the Scottish Highlands. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Signing Exact English (SEE) is a system of sign language that strives to be an exact representation of English. ... Scots or Lallans (Eng: Lowlands), sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Gaelic language of the Highlands, is a West Germanic language used in Scotland, parts of Northern Ireland, and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... See also Scottish colloquial terms. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scotch-Irish, refers to the variety of the Scots language spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ...

Celtic languages

The Cornish language (in Cornish: Kernowek, Kernewek, Curnoack) is one of the Brythonic group of Celtic languages that includes Welsh, Breton, the extinct Cumbric and perhaps the hypothetical Ivernic. ... Ulster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Ulster. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Galwegian Gaelic is an extinct Goidelic dialect formerly spoken in South West Scotland. ...

Other Indo-European

Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... Angloromani is a language combining aspects of English and Romani. ...

Sign languages

British Sign Language (BSL) is the sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK). ... Makaton (trademark) is a system of communication based on a combination of spoken words, sign language vocabulary (originally adapted from British Sign Language), and graphic symbols. ... Irish Sign Language (ISL) is the sign language of Ireland, used primarily in the Republic of Ireland. ... Northern Ireland Sign Language (NISL) is a sign language used in Northern Ireland, mainly Belfast. ... Signing Exact English (SEE) is a system of sign language that strives to be an exact representation of English. ... Tic-tac (also tick-tack and non-hyphenated variants) is a traditional method of sign language used by bookmakers to communicate the odds of certain horses. ...

Immigrant

Communities migrating to the UK in recent decades have brought many more languages to the country. Surveys started in 1979 by the Inner London Education Authority discovered over 100 languages being spoken domestically by the families of the inner city's school children. Among the more widespread languages spoken are:

Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) or Bengali is an Indo-Aryan language of East South Asia, evolved from Sanskrit and Prakrit. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... {{Infobox Language |name=Gujarati |nativename=ગુજરાતી Gujarātī |region[[Pakistan|speakers=1 million |rank=122 |familycolor=Indo-European |fam2=Indo-Iranian |fam3=Indo-Aryan |fam4=Western Indo-Aryan |script=Gujarati script |nation=Gujarat |agency=Language Academy |iso1=gu|iso2=guj|iso3=guj |notice=Indic}} Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujarātī) is an Indo-European... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in Gurmukhī, Panjābī in Shāhmukhī) is the language of the Punjabi people and the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... Telugu (తెలుగు) belongs to the Dravidian language family but with ample influence from the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family and is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language of the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... West Indian also redirects here. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia with smaller numbers of speakers in Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Zimbabwe and Zambia. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...

Historic

The Anglo-Norman language is the name given to the variety of Norman spoken by the Anglo-Normans, the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... The term Flemish language can designate: the official language of Flanders, which is Dutch with only very small variations; any of the regional dialects of Dutch spoken in Belgium; these are more different from Dutch than the official language of Flanders; one of these dialects, the West Flemish. ... The Insular Celtic language hypothesis groups the Goidelic languages, which include Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic, together with the Brythonic languages, of which the modern ones are Breton, Cornish and Welsh. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Breton (Breton: Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) and Loire-Atlantique (historically part of Brittany) in France. ... British was an ancient Celtic language spoken in much of southern and central Britain, up to the central lowlands of Scotland. ... Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language centred in Cumbria, and spoken from southern lowland Scotland south as far as Greater Manchester, i. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) are one of two major divisions of modern-day Insular Celtic languages (the other being the Brythonic languages). ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... This is the approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century. ... Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ...

Historic (hypothesised)

UK placenames also display evidence of a pre-Indo-European tongue. Ivernic is an extinct Brythonic language that was spoken in Ireland, particularly in Munster. ... The Picts inhabited Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth. ... Southwestern Brythonic is one of two dialects into which the Brythonic language split following the Battle of Deorham in A.D. 577, the other being Western Brythonic, which later evolved into Welsh and Cumbric. ... The Pre-Indo-European population of Europe included an unknown number of ethnic groups that dwelt on the continent before the coming of the speakers of Indo-European languages (though some scholars dispute the Indo-European invasion theory: see Paleolithic Continuity Theory). ...


Other official languages

Norman French is still used in the Houses of Parliament for certain official business between the clerks of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and on other official occasions such as the dissolution of Parliament. Law French is an archaic language based on Norman and Anglo-Norman. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


Languages of Channel Islands and Isle of Man

The Channel Islands and Isle of Man are not part of the UK, but are closely associated with it. Their languages are recognised as regional languages by the British and Irish governments within the framework of the British-Irish Council. The Channel Islands are a group of islands off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. ... The British–Irish Council (sometimes known as the Council of the Isles) is a body created by the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ...

The Sercquiais (Sark) dialect is descended from Jèrriais, but is not recognised under this framework. Auregnais, the dialect of Alderney, is now extinct. Jèrriais is a form of Norman language spoken in Jersey in the Channel Islands. ... Dgèrnésiais, also known as Guernésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, or patois is the variety of Norman language spoken in Guernsey. ... Sercquiais also known as Sarkese or Sark-French is the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Sark. ... Flag of Sark Sark (in French, Sercq, in Sercquiais Sèr) is a small island of the Channel Islands, part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey. ... Auregnais or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (French:Aurigny, Auregnais:Aoeurgny/Auregny). ... Capital St Anne Status Part of Guernsey, Crown dependency of the UK Official language(s) English Head of Government Sir Norman Browse Population 2,400 Currency Alderney pound Alderney is also a suburb of Poole in Dorset, England, and a breed of cattle Alderney (French: Aurigny; Auregnais: Aoeurgny) is...


See also

Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... British literature is literature from the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. ... The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union. ... It has been suggested that Languages of the European Union be merged into this article or section. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... The history of the Scots language goes back at least six and a half centuries, to when Lowland Scots (then called Inglis) began to appear in literary form. ...

References

  • Trudgill, Peter (ed.), Language in the British Isles, Cambridge University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-521-28409-0

  Results from FactBites:
 
United Kingdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6161 words)
The United Kingdom, often referred to as "Britain", is a constitutional monarchy and unitary state composed through a political union of four constituent entities: the three constituent countries of England, Scotland and Wales (known as the Home Nations) on Great Britain, and the province of Northern Ireland on the island of Ireland.
The United Kingdom, the dominant industrial and maritime power of the 19th century, is often credited with being the nation that "created the modern world", by playing a leading role in developing Western ideas of property, capitalism and parliamentary democracy—to say nothing of its part in advancing world literature, science and technology.
At the April 2001 UK Census, the United Kingdom's population was 58,789,194, the third-largest in the European Union (behind Germany and France) and the twenty-first largest in the world.
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