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Encyclopedia > Language poets

The Language poets (or L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poets, after the magazine that bears that name) are an avant garde group or tendency in United States poetry that emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s; its central figures are all actively writing, teaching, and performing their work today. In developing their poetics, members of the Language school took as their starting point the emphasis on method evident in the modernist tradition, particularly as represented by Gertrude Stein and Louis Zukofsky. Language poetry is also an example of poetic postmodernism. Its immediate postmodern precursors were the New American poets, a rubric which includes the New York School, the Black Mountain School, the Beat poets, and the San Francisco Renaissance. L=A=N=G=U=A=G=Ewas an avant garde poetry magazine edited by Charles Bernstein and Bruce Andrews that ran thirteen issues from 1978 to 1981. ... The Loves of Zero 35 mm film by Robert Florey 1927 Avant-garde in French means front guard, advance guard, or vanguard. ... Emily Dickinson, one of the best known American poets. ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ... Mountebanks ... Gertrude Stein, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874, in Pittsburgh - July 27, 1946) was an American writer, poet, feminist, playwright, and catalyst in the development of modern art and literature, who spent most of her life in France. ... The cover of the 1978 edition of Zukofskys long poem A. Louis Zukofsky (January 23, 1904 - May 12, 1978) was one of the most important second-generation American modernist poets. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The New American Poetry 1945-1960 was a poetry anthology edited by Donald Allen, and published in 1960. ... The New York School was an informal group of American poets and painters active in 1950s New York City. ... The Black Mountain poets, sometimes called the Projectivist poets, were a group of mid 20th century American avant-garde or postmodern poets centered around Black Mountain College. ... Beating is striking more than once, in violence, beating a drum, etc. ... The term San Francisco Renaissance is used as a global designation for a range of poetic activity centred around that city and which brought it to prominence as a hub of the American poetic avant-garde. ...

Contents


Overview

While there is no such thing as a "typical" L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poem, certain aspects of the writing of language poets became heavily identified with this group: writing that actively challenged the "natural" presence of a speaker behind the text; writing that emphasized disjunction and the materiality of the signifier; and prose poetry, especially in longer forms than had previously been favored by English language writers, and other nontraditional and usually nonnarrative forms. A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Natural is defined as of or relating to nature; this applies to both definitions of nature: essence (ones true nature) and the untouched world (force of nature). Natural is often used meaning good, healthy, or belonging to human nature. This use can be questioned, as many freely growing plants... The present is the time that is perceived directly, not as a recollection or a speculation. ... The word speaker has a number of uses: In politics the Speaker is the presiding officer in many legislative bodies. ... Logical disjunction (usual symbol or) is a logical operator that results in true if either of the operands is true. ... Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties. ... In semiotics, a sign is generally defined as, ...something that stands for something else, to someone in some capacity. ... Prose poetry is prose that breaks some of the normal rules of prose discourse for heightened imagery or emotional effect. ... Look up form in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poetry has been a controversial topic in American letters from the 1970s to the present. Even the name itself has been controversial: while a number of poets and critics have used the name of the journal to refer to the group, many others have chosen to use the term, when they used it at all, without the equals signs, while "language writing" and "language-centered writing" are also commonly used, and perhaps the most generic terms. Discussions of the politics of the name and nature of the movement may be found in Michael Greer's artcile, "Ideology and Theory in Recent Experimental Writing or, the Naming of 'Language Poetry,'" [1] and in Bob Perelman, The Marginalization of Poetry, Lyn Hejinian, The Language of Inquiry, Barrett Watten, The Constructivist Moment, Ron Silliman, The New Sentence, and Charles Bernstein, My Way: Speeches and Poems. Online writing samples of many language poets can be found on internet sites, including blogs and sites maintained by authors and through gateways such as the Electronic Poetry Center, PennSound, and UbuWeb. Topic can refer to: one of the Topics in Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A subject of discussion, see On-topic In linguistics, the Topic (or theme) is the part of a proposition that is being talked about (predicated). ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... A name is a verbal label for a thing, person, place, product (as in a brand name) and even an idea or concept, normally used to distinguish one from another. ... Look up Controversy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The equal sign, equals sign, or = is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality. ... Bob Perelman is an American poet, critic, editor and teacher. ... Lyn Hejinian (born 1941) is a United States poet, essayist, translator and publisher. ... Barrett Watten, American poet (b. ... Ron Silliman, born 1946 in Pasco, Washington, is a contemporary American poet. ... Charles Bernstein (born April 4, 1950) is an American poet, critic, editor and teacher. ... UbuWeb is an internet museum that showcases all strains of the avant-garde including poetry, music, film, sound art, ethnopoetics, and outsider arts. ...


Poetics

L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poetry emphasizes the reader's role in bringing meaning out of a work and came about, at least in part, in response to the sometimes uncritical use of expressive lyric sentiment among earlier poetry movements to which the Language poets felt a kinship. In the 1950s and '60s certain groups of poets had followed William Carlos Williams in his use of idiomatic American English rather than what they considered the 'heightened,' or overtly poetic language favored by the New Criticism movement. In particular New York School poets like Frank O'Hara and The Black Mountain group emphasized both speech and everyday language in their poetry and poetics. In contrast, some of the Language poets emphasized metonymy, synecdoche and extreme instances of paratactical structures in their compositions, which, even when employing everyday speech, created a far different texture. The result is often alien and difficult to understand at first glance, which is what Language poetry intends: for the reader to participate in creating the meaning of the poem.[2] The 1950s were the decade that traditionally speaking, spanned the years 1950 through 1959. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with Modernism and Imagism. ... An idiom is an expression whose meaning is not compositional — that is, whose meaning does not follow from the meaning of the individual words of which it is composed. ... New Criticism was the dominant trend in English and American literary criticism of the early twentieth century, from the 1920s to the early 1960s. ... The New York School was an informal group of American poets and painters active in 1950s New York City. ... Francis Russell OHara (June 27, 1926 – July 25, 1966) was an American poet who, along with John Ashbery and Kenneth Koch, was a key member of what was known as the New York School of poetry. ... The Black Mountain poets, sometimes called the Projectivist poets, were a group of mid 20th century American avant-garde or postmodern poets centered around Black Mountain College. ... In rhetoric and cognitive linguistics, metonymy (in Greek μετά (meta) = after/later and όνομα (onoma) = name) (pronounced //) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. ... Look up Synecdoche in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Synecdoche is a figure of speech that presents a kind of metaphor in which: A part of something is used for the whole, The whole is used for a part, The species is used for the genus, The genus is used for... Parataxis (contrasted to syntaxis) is a writing or rhetorical style that favors short, simple sentences, often without the use of conjunctions. ...


With reference to earlier poetry movements, it would be important to note that both This and L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E published work by notable Black Mountain poets such as Robert Creeley and Larry Eigner. Silliman considers Language poetry to be a continuation (albeit incorporating a critique) of the earlier movements.[3] Watten has emphasized the discontinuity between the New American poets, whose writing, he argues, privileged self-expression however mediated through language, and the Language poets, who tend to deprivilege expression and see the poem as a construction in and of language itself. In contrast, Bernstein has emphasized the expessive possibilities of working with constructed, and even found,language. The Black Mountain poets, sometimes called the Projectivist poets, were a group of mid 20th century American avant-garde or postmodern poets centered around Black Mountain College. ... Robert Creeley (May 21, 1926 - March 30, 2005) was an American poet, author of more than sixty books, and usually associated with the Black Mountain poets, though his verse aesthetic diverged from that schools. ... Larry Eigner(1927- February 3rd, 1996) was an American poet associated with the group of poets that centered around Charles Olson at Black Mountain College in the mid 20th Century. ... The New American Poetry 1945-1960 was a poetry anthology edited by Donald Allen, and published in 1960. ...


Gertrude Stein, particularly in her writing after Tender Buttons, and Louis Zukofsky, in his book-length poem "A," are the modernist poets most influential on the Language school. In the postwar period, John Cage, Jackson Mac Low, and poets of the New York School (John Ashbery, Frank O'Hara, Ted Berrigan) and Black Mountain School (Robert Creeley, Charles Olson, and Robert Duncan) are most recognizable as precursors to the Language poets. Many of these poets used procedural methods based on mathematical sequences and other logical organising devices to structure their poetry, and this practice proved highly useful to the language group. The application of process, especially at the level of the sentence, was to become the basic tenet of language praxis. The influence of Stein came from the fact that she was a writer who had frequently used language divorced from reference in her own writings. The language poets also drew on the philosophical works of Ludwig Wittgenstein, especially the concepts of language-games, meaning as use, and family resemblance among different uses being the solution to the Problem of universals. A Broadcast album. ... John Cage For the character of John Cage from the TV show Ally McBeal see: John Cage (Character) John Milton Cage (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American experimental music composer, writer and visual artist. ... Jackson Mac Low (September 12, 1922 - December 8, 2004) was an American poet, performance artist, composer and playwright, known to most readers of poetry as a practioneer of systematic chance operations and other non-intentional compositional methods in his work, which Mac Low first experienced in the musical work of... The New York School was an informal group of American poets and painters active in 1950s New York City. ... John Ashbery John Ashbery (born July 28, 1927) is an American poet. ... Francis Russell OHara (June 27, 1926 – July 25, 1966) was an American poet who, along with John Ashbery and Kenneth Koch, was a key member of what was known as the New York School of poetry. ... Ted Berrigan (15 November 1934 - 4 July 1983) was an American poet. ... The Black Mountain poets, sometimes called the Projectivist poets, were a group of mid 20th century American avant-garde or postmodern poets centered around Black Mountain College. ... Robert Creeley (May 21, 1926 - March 30, 2005) was an American poet, author of more than sixty books, and usually associated with the Black Mountain poets, though his verse aesthetic diverged from that schools. ... Charles Olson (27 December 1910 – 10 January 1970) was an important 2nd generation American modernist poet who was a crucial link between earlier figures like Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams and the New American poets, a rubric which includes the New York School, the Black Mountain School, the Beat... Robert Duncan (January 7, 1919 – February 3, 1988), was an American poet associated with the Black Mountain poets and the beat generation. ... In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterised in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ... As a word, praxis can mean: Praxis is a Latinate English noun, referring to the process of putting theoretical knowledge into practice. ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 – April 29, 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking works to contemporary philosophy, primarily on the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... A language game (also called secret language or ludling) is a system of manipulating spoken words to render them incomprehensible to the untrained ear. ... Ludwig Wittgenstein proposed that we should understand some terms as being family resemblance terms, that is terms that do not determine a class of referents by specifying some determinate property of class inclusion, but rather have a group of properties that are more or less indicative that an individual should... The problem of universals is a phrase used to refer to a nest of intertwined problems about universals within the philosophy of language, cognitive psychology, epistemology, and ontology. ...


History of language poetry

Early history of language poetry

There is more than one origin of this highly decentered movement. On the West Coast, an early seed of language poetry was the launch of This magazine, edited by Robert Grenier and Watten, in 1971. Coming out of New York, L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E, edited by Andrews and Bernstein, ran from 1978 and 1982, and featured poetics, forums on writers in the movement, and themes such as "The Politics of Poetry" and "Reading Stein." Equally significant for the understanding of this movement of divergent, though interconnected, poetry practices that emerged in the 1970s was Ron Silliman's magazine Tottel's (1970-1981) and Bruce Andrews's selection in a special issue of Toopick (1973), as well as Lyn Hejinian's editing of Tuumba Press and James Sherry's editing of ROOF magazine. The first significant collection of language-centered poetics was "The Politics of the Referent," edited by Steve McCaffery for the Toronto-based publication, Open Letter (1977). Poetry journal associated with what would later be called Language poetry. ... Robert Grenier (1941– ) is a contemporary American poet who is often associated with the Language School. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Ron Silliman, born 1946 in Pasco, Washington, is a contemporary American poet. ... Bruce Andrews (born 1948) is an American poet who was one of the key figures in the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E movement. ... Lyn Hejinian (born 1941) is a United States poet, essayist, translator and publisher. ... Steven McCaffery (born January 24, 1947) is a Canadian poet and scholar who was a professor at York University, but now holds the Gray Chair at SUNY Buffalo (Amherst). ...


In an essay from the first issue of This, Grenier declared: "I HATE SPEECH". Grenier's ironic statement(itself a speech act), was, in the context of the essay in which it occurred, along with a questioning attitude to the referentiality of language evidenced even in the magazine's title, was later claimed by Ron Silliman, in the introduction to his anthology In the American Tree, as an epochal moment--a rallying cry for a number of young U.S. poets who were increasingly dissatisfied with the poetry of the Black Mountain poets and Beat poets. Writes Silliman: The Black Mountain poets, sometimes called the Projectivist poets, were a group of mid 20th century American avant-garde or postmodern poets centered around Black Mountain College. ... The term Beat Generation refers primarily to a group of American writers of the 1950s. ...

Thus capitalized, these words in an essay entitled "On Speech," the second of five short critical pieces by Robert Grenier in the first issue of This, the magazine he cofounded with Barrett Watten in winter, 1971, announced a breach - and a new moment in American writing. [4]

However, it was equally the range of contemporary poetries that focused on "language" in This, Tottel's, L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E, and also in several other key publications and essays of the time, rather than a single declarative sentence, that established the field of discussion that would emerge as Language (or L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E) poetry.


Indeed, during the 1970s, a number of magazines emerged who published poets who would become associated with L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E. Some other literary magazines associated with the movement in the 1970s and 1980s included ROOF, A Hundred Posters, Big Deal, Dog City, Hills, Là Bas, Oculist Witnesses, QU, and Roof. Poetics Journal, which published writings in poetics and was edited by Lyn Hejinian and Barrett Watten, appeared from 1982 to 1998. Significant early gatherings of L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E writing included Silliman's selection "The Dwelling Place: 9 Poets" in Alcheringa, (1975) Bruce Andrews's selection in Toopick, (1973) and Charles Bernstein's "A Language Sampler" in The Paris Review(1982) Lyn Hejinian (born 1941) is a United States poet, essayist, translator and publisher. ... Barrett Watten, American poet (b. ...


Poets not already mentioned above, who were associated with the first wave of L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E include: Rae Armantrout, Abigail Child, Clark Coolidge, Tina Darragh, Alan Davies, Carla Harryman, P. Inman, Lynne Dryer, Fanny Howe, Susan Howe, Jackson Mac Low, Tom Mandel, Bernadette Mayer, Steve McCaffery, Michael Palmer, Ted Pearson, Bob Perelman, Nick Piombino, Joan Retallack, Erica Hunt, James Sherry, Jean Day, Kit Robinson, Ted Greenwald,Leslie Scalapino, Diane Ward, Rosmarie Waldrop, and Hannah Weiner. This list accurately reflects the high proportion of female poets among the Language movement.[5] African-American poets associated with the movement include Hunt, Nathaniel Mackey, and Harryette Mullen. 00:59, 28 August 2006 (UTC)00:59, 28 August 2006 (UTC)~~ Rae Armantrout (born 1947) is an American poet generally associated with the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E group of poets. ... Clark Coolidge (February 26, 1939 – ) is an American poet born in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Tina Darragh (born 1950) is an United States poet who was one of the original members of the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E group. ... Alan Davies (born 6 March 1966, in Essex, England) is an English comedian and actor. ... Carla Harryman (born 1952) is a United States poet and playwright associated with the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E group of poets. ... P. Inman is an American poet who was born in 1947 and raised on Long Island. ... Fanny Howe (born 1940) is an United States poet and writer of fiction. ... Susan Howe (born 1937) is an Irish-born American poet and critic who is closely associated with the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E group of poets. ... Jackson Mac Low (September 12, 1922 - December 8, 2004) was an American poet, performance artist, composer and playwright, known to most readers of poetry as a practioneer of systematic chance operations and other non-intentional compositional methods in his work, which Mac Low first experienced in the musical work of... Tom Mandel (1946-April 6, 1995) was born in Chicago, Illinois He served in the United States Marine Corps in the Vietnam War. ... Bernadette Mayer (born in 1945 in Brooklyn, New York, United States) is a poet and prose writer. ... Steven McCaffery (born January 24, 1947) is a Canadian poet and scholar who was a professor at York University, but now holds the Gray Chair at SUNY Buffalo (Amherst). ... Michael Palmer, American poet(b. ... Bob Perelman is an American poet, critic, editor and teacher. ... Rosmarie Waldrop (born 1935) is a poet, translator and publisher. ... Hannah Weiner (November 4, 1928 - 1997) was an American poet who was a prominent member of the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E group of poets. ... . ... African-American literature is literature written by, usually about, and sometimes specifically for African-Americans. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Language poetry in the early 21st century

In many ways, what Language poetry is is still being determined as of this writing, (spring 2006). Most of the poets whose work falls within the bounds of the Language school are still alive and still active contributors. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Language poetry was widely received as a significant movement in innovative poetry in the U.S., a trend accentuated by the fact that some of its leading proponents took up academic posts in the Poetics, Creative Writing and English Literature departments in prominent universities (University of Pennsylvania, SUNY Buffalo, Wayne State University, University of California, Berkeley, University of California, San Diego, University of Maine, the Iowa Writers' Workshop).[citation needed] Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ... Creative writing is a term used to distinguish certain imaginative or different types of writing from generic writing. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian. ... The University of Pennsylvania (Penn is the moniker used by the university itself [2]) is a private, nonsectarian research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... University at Buffalo The University at Buffalo, formerly known as the State University of New York at Buffalo, is located in Buffalo, New York, USA, and is one of the four university centers operated by the State University of New York. ... // Introduction and overview Wayne State University, located in Detroit, Michigan, in the citys Cultural Center, part of the larger Midtown area. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, and by other names, see below) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ... The University of California, San Diego (popularly known as UCSD) is a public, coeducational university located in La Jolla, California. ... The University of Maine, established in 1865, is the flagship university of the University of Maine System. ... The Program in Creative Writing, known more commonly as the Iowa Writers Workshop, at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa is a college and graduate-level creative writing program in the United States. ...


Language poetry also developed affiliations with literary scenes outside the States, notably England, Canada (through the Kootenay School of Writing in Vancouver), France, the USSR, Brazil, Finlad, Sweden, New Zealand, and Australia. It had a particularly interesting relation to the UK avant-garde: in the 1970s and 1980s there were extensive contacts between American language poets and veteran UK writers like Tom Raworth and Allen Fisher, or younger figures such as cris cheek and Ken Edwards (whose magazine Reality Studios was instrumental in the transatlantic dialogue between American and UK avant-gardes). Other writers, such as J.H. Prynne and those associated with the so-called "Cambridge" poetry scene (Rod Mengham, Peter Riley) were more skeptical about language poetry and its associated polemics and theoretical documents. A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Tom Raworth (Thomas Moore Raworth) (born 1938) is a London-born poet and visual artist who has published over 40 books of poetry and prose since 1966. ... Allen Fisher (born 1944) is a poet, painter, publisher, teacher and performer associated with the British Poetry Revival. ... J. H. Prynne (born 1936) is a British poet closely associated with the British Poetry Revival. ... Polemic is the art or practice of disputation or controversy, as in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ...


A second-generation of poets influenced by the Language poets includes Eric Selland (also a noted translator of modern Japanese poetry), Lisa Robertson and many others. Lisa Robertson (born in 1960 in Toronto) is a Canadian poet who currently lives in France. ...


Notes

  1. ^ boundary 2, Vol. 16, No. 2/3 (Winter - Spring, 1989), pp. 335-355
  2. ^ See, for example, Ronald Johnson's RADI OS in L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E, volume 1.
  3. ^ For an interesting poetic mediation on form by Sillman, see the poem Wild Form
  4. ^ Ron Silliman, "Introduction: Language, Realism, Poetry" from In The American Tree (See below "Further reading: Anthologies")
  5. ^ Ann Vickery, Leaving Lines of Gender: A Feminist Genealogy of Language Writing, Wesleyan University Press, 2000.

This article is about the year 2000. ...

See also

This is a list of poetry groups and movements that have pages in Wikipedia. ...

Further reading

Anthologies

  • Andrews, Bruce, and Charles Bernstein, eds. The "L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E" Book. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984.
  • Bernstein, Charles, ed. The Politics of Poetic Form: Poetry and Public Policy. New York: Roof, 1990.
  • Hoover, Paul, ed. Postmodern American Poetry: A Norton Anthology. New York: Norton, 1994.
  • Messerli, Douglas, ed. Language Poetries. New York: New Directions, 1987.
  • Silliman, Ron, ed. In the American Tree. Orono, Me.: National Poetry Foundation, 1986; reprint ed. with a new afterword, 2002. An anthology of language poetry that serves as a very useful primer.

Books: Poetics and Criticism

  • Andrews, Bruce. Paradise and Method. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1996.
  • Bernstein, Charles. Content's Dream: Essays 1975-1984. Los Angeles: Sun & Moon Press, 1985
  • ———. A Poetics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992
  • ———. My Way; Speeches and Poems. University of Chicago Press, 1999
  • Davies, Alan. Signage. New York: Roof Books, 1987.
  • Friedlander, Ben. Simulcast: Four Experiments in Criticism. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004.
  • Hartley, George. Textual Politics and the Language Poets. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
  • Hejinian, Lyn. The Language of Inquiry.' ' Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
  • Howe, Susan. My Emily Dickinson. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1988.
  • Huk, Romana, ed. Assembling Alternatives: Reading Postmodern Poetries Transnationally. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2003.
  • McCaffery, Steve. North of Intention: Critical Writings 1973-1986. New York: Roof Books, 1986.
  • ———. Prior to Meaning: The Protosemantic and Poetics. Evanston: Northwestern UP, 2001.
  • Perelman, Bob. The Marginalization of Poetry: Language Writing and Literary History. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996.
  • Piombino, Nick. Boundary of Blur. New York: Roof Books, 1993
  • Silliman, Ron. The New Sentence. New York: Roof Books, 1987. An early collection of talks and essays that situates language poetry into contemporary political thought, linguistics, and literary tradition. See esp. section II.
  • Scalapino, Leslie. How Phenomena Appear to Unfold. Elmwood: Potes & Poets, 1989.
  • Vickery, Ann. Leaving Lines of Gender: A Feminist Genealogy of Language Writing. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2000.
  • Ward, Geoff. Language Poetry and the American Avant-Garde. Keele: British Association for American Studies, 1993.
  • Watten, Barrett. The Constructivist Moment: From Material Text to Cultural Poetics. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2003. See esp. chaps. 2 and 3.
  • ———. Total Syntax. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984.

Articles

  • Michael Greer, "Ideology and Theory in Recent Experimental Writing or, the Naming of "Language Poetry," boundary 2, Vol. 16, No. 2/3 (Winter - Spring, 1989), pp. 335-355
  • Perloff, Marjorie. "The Word as Such: LANGUAGE: Poetry in the Eighties." American Poetry Review (May-June 1984), 13(3):15-22.
  • Barlett, Lee, "What is 'Language Poetry'?" Critical Inquiry 12 (1986): 741-752. Available through JStor.

External links

Akhmatova's Orphans | The Beats | Black Arts Movement | Black Mountain poets | British Poetry Revival | Cairo poets | Cavalier poets | Churchyard poets | Confessionalists | Cyclic Poets | Dadaism | Deep image | Della Cruscans | Dolce Stil Novo | Dymock poets | The poets of Elan | Flarf poetry | free academy | Fugitives | Garip | Generation of '98 | Generation of '27 | Georgekreis | Georgian poets | Goliard | The Group | Harvard Aesthetes | Imagism | Kimo | Lake Poets | Language poets | Martian poetry | Metaphysical poets | Misty Poets | Modernist poetry | Mortarism | The Movement | Négritude | New Apocalyptics | New Formalism | New York School | The Nineties Poets of Jordan | Objectivists | Others group of artists | Parnassian poets | La Pléiade | Rhymer's Club | Rochester Poets | San Francisco Renaissance | Scottish Renaissance | Sicilian School | Sons of Ben | Southern Agrarians | Spasmodic poets | Sung poetry | Surrealism | Symbolism | Uranian poetry This is a list of poetry groups and movements that have pages in Wikipedia. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong. ... Akhmatova Orphans (Ахматовские сироты) were a group of Russian poets from Saint Petersburg. ... The term Beat Generation refers primarily to a group of American writers of the 1950s. ... // General A 2005 international exhibition, Back to Black - Art, Cinema and the Racial Imaginary, details which are available with the Archives of Whitechapel Art Gallery UK Recently redeveloped African and Asian Visual Arts Archive ( AAVAA) currently located at University of East London (UEL). ... The Black Mountain poets, sometimes called the Projectivist poets, were a group of mid 20th century American avant-garde or postmodern poets centered around Black Mountain College. ... The British Poetry Revival is the general name given to a loose poetic movement in Britain that took place in the 1960s and 1970s. ... The British Army presence in Egypt in World War II had as a side-effect the concentration of a group of Cairo poets. ... Cavalier poets is a broad description of a school of poets, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War. ... Churchyard Poets or Graveyard Poets is a critical term applied in retrospect to a number of English poets of the 1750s to the 1790s who wrote in the vein of Thomas Grays Elegy in a Country Churchyard (1750). ... Confessionalism is a label formally applied to a style of American poetry which emerged in the 1950s and 1960s. ... Cyclic Poets are epic poets who followed Homer and wrote poems and songs about the Trojan war. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Deep image is a term coined by Jerome Rothenberg and Robert Kelly in the second issue of Trobar, and was used to describe poetry written by him and by Robert Kelly, Diane Wakoski and Clayton Eshleman. ... The Della Cruscans were a set of English sentimental poetasters, the leaders of them hailing from Florence, that appeared in England towards the close of the 18th century, and that for a time imposed on many by their extravagant panegyrics of one another, the founder of the set being one... Dolce Stil Novo (Italian for The Sweet New Style) is the name given to the most important literary movement of 13th century Italy. ... The Dymock poets were a literary group of the early 20th century, who made their home in the Gloucestershire village of Dymock. ... A group of Ecuadorian poets born between 1905 and 1920 representing the neosymbolism or lyrical vanguard movement. ... Flarf Poetry is an avant garde, modernist poetry movement of the late 20th century and the early 21st century. ... The Free Academy was founded in 1999 in Tel Aviv, Israel. ... The Fugitives were a group of poets and literary scholars who came together at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennesee around 1920. ... Garip (Turkish: strange or peculiar) was a group of Turkish poets. ... // Background The Generation of 98 (also called Generation of 1898 or, in Spanish, Generación del 98 or Generación de 1898) was a group of novelists, poets, essayists, and philosophers active in Spain at the time of the Spanish-American War (1898). ... The Generation of 27 (Spanish Generación del 27) was an influential group of poets that arose in Spanish literary circles between 1923 and 1927, essentially out of a shared desire to experience and work with avant-garde forms of art and poetry. ... Stefan George (Bingen, Hesse, July 12, 1868 - Locarno, December 4, 1933) was a German poet and translator. ... The Georgian poets were, by the strictest definition, those whose works appeared in a series of five anthologies named Georgian Poetry, published by Harold Monro and edited by Edward Marsh. ... The Goliards were a group of clergy who wrote bibulous, satirical Latin poetry in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. ... Philip Hobsbaum (born 29 June 1932) is an academic, poet and critic. ... The Harvard Aesthetes is a name given to a group of poets attending Harvard University in a period roughly 1912-1919. ... Ezra Pound, one of the prime movers of Imagism. ... Kimo is a post-Haiku poetic form , consisting of three lines of 10, 7, and 6 syllables. ... The Lake Poets all lived in the Lake District of England at the turn of the nineteenth century. ... Martian poetry. ... The metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them. ... The Misty Poets are a group of Chinese poets who reacted against the restrictions of the Cultural Revolution. ... Mountebanks ... Mortarism is an artistic-political movement that was founded in 2003, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, by Marc di Saverio and two other psychiatric patients of St Josephs Hospital (Hamilton Mountain Site). ... The Movement was a term coined by J. D. Scott, literary editor of the Spectator, in 1954 to describe a group of writers including Kingsley Amis, Philip Larkin, Donald Alfred Davie, D.J. Enright, John Wain, Elizabeth Jennings and Robert Conquest. ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ... The New Apocalyptics were a poetry grouping in the UK in the 1940s, taking their name from the anthology The New Apocalypse (1939), which was edited by J. F. Hendry (1912-1986) and Henry Treece. ... New Formalism is a late-twentieth and early twenty-first century movement in American poetry that has promoted a return to metrical and rhymed verse. ... The New York School was an informal group of American poets and painters active in 1950s New York City. ... The “Nineties Poets” in Jordan is a label that refers to a group of poets who appeared in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s. ... William Carlos Williams, who was the only poet to be published as both an Objectivist and an Imagist The Objectivist poets were a loose-knit group of second-generation Modernists who emerged in the 1930s. ... Others was a group of avante-garde artists in New York formed after World War I. Poet Alfred Kreymborg and artist Man Ray founded the group, centered in Ridgefield, NJ. Through the group, American writers and artists came into contact and found collaboration with emigree artists who had fled from... The Parnassians were a group of 19th-century French poets, so called from their journal, the Parnasse contemporain, itself named after Mount Parnassus, home of the Muses in Greek mythology. ... The Pléiade was a group of 16th-century French poets whose principal members were Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Jean-Antoine de Baïf. ... The Rhymers Club was a group of London-based poets, founded in 1890 by W. B. Yeats and Ernest Rhys. ... Founded in 1922 as the Rochester, NY chapter of the Poetry Society of America, Rochester Poets is the areas oldest, ongoing literary organization. ... The term San Francisco Renaissance is used as a global designation for a range of poetic activity centred around that city and which brought it to prominence as a hub of the American poetic avant-garde. ... The Scottish version of modernism, the Scottish literary renaissance was begun by Hugh MacDiarmid in the 1920s when he abandoned his English language poetry and began to write in Lallans. ... In a literary context, the term Sicilian School identifies a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent, mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court, the Magna Curia. ... The phrase Sons of Ben is a mildly problematic term applied to followers of Benamor the Great. ... The Southern Agrarians or Vanderbilt Agrarians were a group of 12 American Traditionalist writers and poets from the Southern United States who joined together to publish the Agrarian manifesto, a collection of essays entitled Ill Take My Stand in 1930. ... The term spasmodic, certainly with some derogatory as well as humorous intention, was applied by William Edmonstoune Aytoun to a group of British poets of the Victorian era. ... Poezja Å›piewana (meaning sung poetry in Polish) is a broad and inprecise music genre, used mostly in Poland to describe songs consisting of a poem (most often a ballad) and music written specially for that text. ... Kay Sage. ... The Uranians were a relatively obscure group of pederastic poets who flourished between 1870 and 1930, particularly among the graduates of Oxford and Cambridge. ...


 
 

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