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Encyclopedia > Language families and languages
Current distribution of Human Language Families

Most languages are known to belong to language families ("families" hereforth). An accurately identified family is a phylogenetic unit, that is, all its members derive from a common ancestor. This ancestor is very seldom known to us directly, since most languages have a very short recorded history. However, it is possible to recover many of its features by applying the comparative method — a reconstructive procedure worked out by 19th-century linguist August Schleicher. This can demonstrate the validity of many of the proposed families listed below. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1339x636, 17 KB)Industriuss Human Language Families Map, using colors from Wikipedia:WikiProject_Languages File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1339x636, 17 KB)Industriuss Human Language Families Map, using colors from Wikipedia:WikiProject_Languages File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In biology, Phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = race and genetic = birth) is the taxonomical classification of organisms based on how closely they are related in terms of evolutionary differences. ... The comparative method (in linguistics) is a method used to detect genetic relationships between languages and to establish a consistent relationship hypothesis by reconstructing: the common ancestor of the languages in question, a plausible sequence of regular changes by which the historically known languages can be derived from that common... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) The 19th century lasted from 1801 to 1900 in the Gregorian calendar (using the Common Era system of year numbering). ... The following is a list of linguists, those who study linguistics. ... August Schleicher August Schleicher (February 19, 1821 - December 6, 1868) was a German linguist. ...


Language families can be divided into smaller phylogenetic units, conventionally referred to as branches of the family, because the history of a language family is often represented as a tree diagram. However, the term family is not restricted to any one level of this "tree"; the Germanic family, for example, is a branch of the Indo-European family. Some taxonomists do restrict the term family to a certain level, but there is little consensus in how to do this. The term tree diagram is used in different ways in different disciplines. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ...


The common ancestor of a family is known as its protolanguage. For example, the reconstructible protolanguage of the well-known Indo-European family is called Proto-Indo-European. This is not known from written records, since it was spoken before the invention of writing, but sometimes a protolanguage can be identified with a historically known language. Thus, provincial dialects of Latin ("Vulgar Latin") gave rise to the modern Romance languages, so the Proto-Romance language is more or less identical with Latin (if not exactly with the literary Latin of the Classical writers), and dialects of Old Norse are the protolanguage to Norwegian, Swedish, Danish and Icelandic. Proto-language may either refer to a language that preceded a certain set of given languages, or to system of communication during a stage in glottogony that may not yet be properly called a language. ... Proto-language may either refer to a language that preceded a certain set of given languages, or to system of communication during a stage in glottogony that may not yet be properly called a language. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Vulgar Latin (in Latin, sermo vulgaris) is a blanket term covering the vernacular dialects of the Latin language spoken mostly in the western provinces of the Roman Empire until those dialects, diverging still further, evolved into the early Romance languages — a distinction usually assigned to about the ninth century. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ...


Languages that cannot be reliably classified into any family are known as language isolates. A language isolated in its own branch within a family, such as Greek within Indo-European, is often also called an isolate, but such cases are usually clarified. For instance, Greek might be referred to as an Indo-European isolate. A language isolate is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ...

Contents


Largest families

According to the numbers in Ethnologue[1], the largest language families in terms of number of languages are: Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with native language biblical texts. ...

  1. Niger-Congo (1514 languages) [formerly Niger-Kordofanian]
  2. Austronesian (1268 languages)
  3. Trans-New Guinea (564 languages) [validity disputed]
  4. Indo-European (449 languages)
  5. Sino-Tibetan (403 languages)
  6. Afro-Asiatic (375 languages)
  7. Nilo-Saharan (204 languages)
  8. Pama-Nyungan (178 languages)
  9. Oto-Manguean (174 languages)
  10. Austro-Asiatic (169 languages)
  11. Sepik-Ramu (100 languages) [validity disputed]
  12. Tai-Kadai (76 languages)
  13. Tupi (76 languages)
  14. Dravidian (73 languages)
  15. Mayan (69 languages)

The Niger-Kordofanian language family was proposed by Joseph H. Greenberg in his 1966 book Languages of Africa. ... The Austronesian languages are a family of languages widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... Trans-New Guinea is a family of languages spoken mainly in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Sino-Tibetan languages form a language family of about 250 languages of East Asia, in number of speakers worldwide second only to Indo-European. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... Map showing the distribution of the Nilo-Saharan languages. ... The Pama-Nyungan languages are the most widespread subfamily of the Australian language family. ... Oto-Manguean languages are a large family of Native American languages spoken in Mexico. ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... The Sepik-Ramu languages are a hypothetical language phylum consisting of about one hundred languages of the Sepik and Ramu river basins of northern Papua New Guinea. ... The Tai-Kadai languages, also known simply as Kadai, are a language family found in Southeast Asia and southern China. ... Tupi is the name of one of the main people of Brazilian Indians who first inhabited the Amazon region, then spreading southward, gradually occupying the Atlantic coast. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, and eastern and central India. ... The Mayan languages are a family of related languages spoken from South-Eastern Mexico through northern Central America as far south as Honduras. ...

Language families (spoken)

In the following, each "bulleted" item is a known language family. The geographic headings over them are meant solely as a tool for grouping families into collections more comprehensible than an unstructured list of the dozen or two of independent families. Geographic relationship is convenient for that purpose, but these headings are not a suggestion of any "super-families" phylogenetically relating the families named.


Africa and southwest Asia

See main article, African languages
  1. Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) languages
  2. Niger-Congo languages
  3. Nilo-Saharan languages
  4. Khoisan languages

Africa is the worlds second-largest continent and second most populous after Asia. ... Southwest Asia (PDF) Southwest Asia (often called the Middle East) is the southwestern part of Asia. ... The term African languages refers to the approximately 1800 languages spoken in Africa. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... Map showing the distribution of Niger-Congo languages The Niger-Congo languages constitute one of the worlds major language families, and Africas largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages. ... Map showing the distribution of the Nilo-Saharan languages. ... Map showing the distribution of the Khoi-San languages. ...

Europe, and north, west, and south Asia

  1. Indo-European languages
  2. Dravidian languages (some include Dravidian languages in a larger Elamo-Dravidian language family.)
  3. Caucasian languages (generally thought to be two separate families, North Caucasian and Kartvelian)
  4. Altaic languages (disputed)
  5. Uralic languages
  6. Hurro-Urartian languages (extinct)
  7. Yukaghir languages (Some include Yukaghir in the Uralic family.)
  8. Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages
  9. Yeniseian languages
  10. Andamanese languages (two families)

World map showing location of Europe When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... North Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... Composite satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia. ... The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, and eastern and central India. ... The Elamo-Dravidian languages are a hypothesised language family which includes the living Dravidian languages of India and Pakistan, in addition to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... The term Caucasian languages is loosely used to refer to a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than 7 million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. ... North Caucasian languages is a blanket term for two distinct, but possibly related, phyla of languages spoken in the north Caucasus and in Turkey. ... The South Caucasian languages, also called the Kartvelian languages, are spoken primarily in Georgia, with smaller groups of speakers in Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Russia, Ukraine and other countries. ... Altaic is a language family which includes 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and Far East. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... The Hurro-Urartian languages are an extinct language family of the Ancient Near East, which comprises only two languages, Hurrian and Urartian (Asia Minor and the Caucasus). ... An extinct language (also called a dead language) is a language which no longer has any native speakers. ... Geographical distribution of Yukaghir, Finnic, Ugric and Samoyedic languages The Yukaghir languages are a family of related languages spoken in Russia by the Yukaghir, a Siberian people, living in the basin of the Kolyma River. ... The Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages are a language family of Siberia. ... The Yenisei-Ostyak language family is spoken in central Siberia. ... Ethnolinguistic map of the precolonial Andaman Islands (drawn 1902) The Andamanese languages form a language family spoken in the Andaman Islands, a India. ...

East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific

  1. Australian Aboriginal languages (multiple unrelated families)
  2. Austroasiatic languages
  3. Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) languages
  4. Hmong-Mien languages
  5. Japonic languages (or Fuyu languages)
  6. Papuan languages (multiple unrelated families)
  7. Sino-Tibetan languages
  8. Tai-Kadai languages
  9. Shahedul Haque, NSU

East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other meanings of pacific, see pacific (disambiguation). ... The Australian Aboriginal languages are a Australia, and the rest are descended linguistically from them. ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Hmong-Mien languages are a language family of southern China and Southeast Asia. ... The Japonic languages are a language family believed to descend from a common language known as Proto-Japonic. ... The Fuyu languages or Buyeo languages are a hypothetical language family that would relate the languages of Fuyu, Goguryeo, Baekje and the Japonic languages, and possibly place them together as a family under the hypothetical Altaic family. ... The term Papuan languages refers to those languages of the western Pacific which are neither Austronesian nor Australian. ... Sino-Tibetan languages form a language family of about 250 languages of East Asia, second only to Indo-European in terms of the number of speakers. ... The Tai-Kadai languages are a language family found in Southeast Asia and southern China. ...

North America

Distribution of language families and isolates north of Mexico at first contact.
Distribution of language families and isolates north of Mexico at first contact.
See main article, Native American languages
  1. Algic languages (incl. Algonquian languages) (29)
  2. Alsean languages (2)
  3. Caddoan languages (5)
  4. Chimakuan languages (2)
  5. Chinookan languages (3)
  6. Chumashan languages (6)
  7. Comecrudan languages (3)
  8. Coosan languages (2)
  9. Eskimo-Aleut languages (7)
  10. Guacurian languages (a.k.a. Waikurian) (8)
  11. Iroquoian languages (11)
  12. Kalapuyan languages (3)
  13. Kiowa-Tanoan languages (7)
  14. Maiduan languages (4)
  15. Mayan languages (North America & Central America) (31)
  16. Muskogean languages (6)
  17. Na-Dené languages (40)
  18. Oto-Manguean languages (North America & Central America) (27)
  19. Palaihnihan languages (2)
  20. Plateau Penutian languages (a.k.a. Shahapwailutan) (4)
  21. Pomoan languages (7)
  22. Salishan languages (23)
  23. Shastan languages (4)
  24. Siouan languages (16)
  25. Tequistlatecan languages (3)
  26. Totonacan languages (2)
  27. Tsimishian languages (2)
  28. Utian languages (12)
  29. Uto-Aztecan languages (31)
  30. Wakashan languages (6)
  31. Wintuan languages (4)
  32. Yokutsan languages (3)
  33. Yukian languages (2)
  34. Yuman-Cochimí languages (11)

World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west... Download high resolution version (1005x912, 422 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1005x912, 422 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... The Algic languages are an indigenous language family of North America. ... Algonquian languages The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... The Alsean (also Yakonan) language family consists of two closely related languages that were spoken along the central Oregon coast. ... The Caddoan languages are a family of Native American languages. ... The Chimakuan language family consists of two languages that are spoken in northwestern Washington, USA on the Olympic Peninsula. ... Interior of a Chinookan plankhouse in the 1850s Chinookan refers to several groups of Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. ... Chumashan is a family of languages that were spoken on the southern California coast (from San Luis Obispo to Malibu), in neighboring inland regions (San Joaquin Valley), and on three nearby islands (San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Cruz). ... Comecrudan languages Comecrudan refers to a group of possibly related languages spoken in the southernmost part of Texas and in northern Mexico along the Rio Grande. ... The Coosan (also Coos or Kusan) language family consists of two languages spoken along the southern Oregon coast: Hanis Miluk (a. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ... The Kalapuya (also spelled Calapooya or Calapooia) are a Native American ethnic group that once inhabited the area present-day western Oregon in the United States. ... The Kiowa-Tanoan languages are a Native American language family. ... The Maidu are a group of Native Americans who lived in Northern California. ... The Mayan languages are a family of related languages spoken from South-Eastern Mexico through northern Central America as far south as Honduras. ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... Muskogean (also Muskhogean, Muskogee) is a language family of the Northern American Southeast. ... Pre-contact distribution of Na-Dené languages (in red) Na-Dené (also Na-Dene, Nadene, Athabaskan-Eyak-Tlingit) is a Native American language family which includes the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit. ... Oto-Manguean languages are a large family of Native American languages spoken in Mexico. ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... Palaihnihan is a language family consisting of two languages: Atsugewi Achumawi The Palaihnihan family is often connected with the hypothetical Hokan stock. ... Plateau Penutian (also Shahapwailutan) is a family of languages in spoken in northern California, reaching through central-western Oregon to northern Washington and central-northern Idaho. ... The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of western Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ... The Siouan languages are a Native American language family of North America. ... Members of the Tsimshian tribe enjoying a tea party near Fort Simpson, British Columbia, c. ... Utian (also Miwok-Costanoan) is language family consisting of Miwokan languages and Costanoan languages. ... The Uto-Aztecan languages are a Native American language family. ... Wakashan is a family of languages spoken around Vancouver Island. ... The Wintu were Native Americans who lived in what is now Northern California, they are part of a group of associated groups of Native Americans known collectively as the Wintuan or Wintun. ... Yokutsan (also Yokuts) is a family of languages spoken in the interior of southern California in and around the San Joaquin valley. ... Yuman-Cochimí is a family of languages spoken in Baja California and northern Sonora in Mexico and southern California and southwestern Arizona in the USA. Genetic relations The Yuman-Cochimí family consists of 11 languages: I. Cochimí 1. ...

Central America and South America

See main article, Native American languages
  1. Alacalufan languages (South America) (2)
  2. Algic languages (North American & Central America) (29)
  3. Arauan languages (South America) (8)
  4. Araucanian languages (South America) (2)
  5. Arawakan languages (South America, Caribbean) (60)
  6. Arutani-Sape languages (South America) (2)
  7. Aymaran languages (South America) (3)
  8. Barbacoan languages (South America) (7)
  9. Cahuapanan languages (South America) (2)
  10. Carib languages (South America) (29)
  11. Chapacura-Wanham languages (South America) (5)
  12. Chibchan languages (Central America & South America) (22)
  13. Choco languages (South America) (10)
  14. Chon languages (South America) (2)
  15. Comecrudan languages (North America & Central America) (3)
  16. Guacurian languages (a.k.a. Waikurian) (8)
  17. Harakmbet languages (South America) (2)
  18. Jicaquean languages (Central America)
  19. Jivaroan languages (South America) (4)
  20. Katukinan languages (South America) (3)
  21. Lencan languages (Central America)
  22. Lule-Vilela languages (South America) (1)
  23. Macro-Ge languages (South America) (32)
  24. Maku languages (South America) (6)
  25. Mascoian languages (South America) (5)
  26. Mataco-Guaicuru languages (South America) (11)
  27. Mayan languages (Central America) (31)
  28. Misumalpan languages (Central America)
  29. Mixe-Zoquean languages (Central America) (19)
  30. Mosetenan languages (South America) (1)
  31. Mura languages (South America) (1)
  32. Na-Dené languages (North America & Central America) (40)
  33. Nambiquaran languages (South America) (5)
  34. Oto-Manguean languages (North America & Central America) (27)
  35. Paezan languages (South America) (1)
  36. Panoan languages (South America) (30)
  37. Peba-Yaguan languages (South America) (2)
  38. Quechuan languages (South America) (46)
  39. Salivan languages (South America) (2)
  40. Tacanan languages (South America) (6)
  41. Tequistlatecan languages (Central America) (3)
  42. Totonacan languages (Central America) (2)
  43. Tucanoan languages (South America) (25)
  44. Tupi languages (South America) (70)
  45. Uru-Chipaya languages (South America) (2)
  46. Uto-Aztecan languages (North America & Central America) (31)
  47. Witotoan languages (South America) (6)
  48. Xincan languages (Central America)
  49. Yanomam languages (South America) (4)
  50. Yuman-Cochimi languages (North America & Central America) (11)
  51. Zamucoan languages (South America) (2)
  52. Zaparoan languages (South America) (7)

Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... Kawésqar, also known as Qawasqar, Alacaluf, and Halakwulup, is a language isolate spoken in southern Chile. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Algic languages are an indigenous language family of North America. ... Political highlights of North America North America is the third largest continent in area and the fourth ranked in population. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... The Aruan languages are : Arua, Banawá, Culina, Dení, Jamamadí, Jaruára, Paumarí and Suruahá. The languages which are still living are spoken in Brazil. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Araucanian languages are an indigenous language family of central Chile and west central Argentina in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Arawakan languages are an indigenous language family of South America and the Caribbean. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Aymaran languages are a South American language family. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Barbacoan (also Barbakóan, Barbacoano, Barbacoana) is a language family spoken in Colombia and Ecuador. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Cariban languages are an indigenous language family of South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Chapacura-Wanham languages are a nearly extinct Native American language family of South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Chibchan languages are a language family indigenous to Colombia and Central America. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Choco languages are a small family of Native American languages spread across Colombia and Panama. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The two Chon languages are Selknan which died out two years ago and Tehuelche. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Macro-Ge, also spelled Macro-Gê, Macro-Je, and Macro-Jê, is a medium sized language stock proposed for South America, centered around the Gê-Kaingang language family. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Mayan languages are a family of related languages spoken from South-Eastern Mexico through northern Central America as far south as Honduras. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... The Misumalpan languages are a small family of Native American languages spoken on the east coast of Nicaragua and nearby areas. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Mura language family is a language family of Brazil. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Na-Dené or Na-Dene is a Native American language family which includes the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit. ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Oto-Manguean languages are a large family of Native American languages spoken in Mexico. ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... Paezan (also Páesan, Paezano) is a family of languages spoken in Colombia and Ecuador. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Peba-Yaguan language family is located in the northwestern Amazon, but today Yagua is the only remaining spoken language of the family. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Quechuan languages are a family of related languages in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Tupi languages are a language family of 70 languages which are spoken by Indian tribesmen in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Uto-Aztecan languages are a Native American language family. ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

Language isolates (spoken)

A language isolate is a natural language with no demonstrable genetic relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been proved to descend from a common ancestor to any other language. ...

Central & South America

  1. Aikaná (Brazil: Rondônia)
  2. Alagüilac (Guatemala)
  3. Andoque (Colombia, Peru)
  4. Baenan (Brazil)
  5. Betoi (Columbia)
  6. Camsá (Columbia)
  7. Canichana (Bolivia)
  8. Cayubaba language (Bolivia)
  9. Coahuilteco (US: Texas; northeast Mexico)
  10. Cofán (Colombia, Ecuador)
  11. Cotoname (northeast Mexico; US: Texas)
  12. Cuitlatec (Mexico: Guerrero)
  13. Culle (Peru)
  14. Cunza (Chile, Bolivia, Argentina)
  15. Gamela (Brazil: Maranhão)
  16. Gorgotoqui (Bolivia)
  17. Huamoé (Brazil: Pernambuco)
  18. Huave (Mexico: Oaxaca)
  19. Irantxe (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
  20. Itonama (Bolivia)
  21. Jotí (Venezuela)
  22. Karirí (Brazil: Paraíba, Pernambuco, Ceará)
  23. Koayá (Brazil: Rondônia)
  24. Kukurá (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
  25. Mapudungu (Chile, Argentina)
  26. Maratino (northeastern Mexico)
  27. Movima (Bolivia)
  28. Munichi (Peru)
  29. Nambiquaran (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
  30. Naolan (Mexico: Tamaulipas)
  31. Natú (Brazil: Pernambuco)
  32. Omurano (Peru)
  33. Otí (Brazil: São Paulo)
  34. Pankararú (Brazil: Pernambuco)
  35. Puelche (Chile)
  36. Puinave (Columbia)
  37. Puquina (Bolivia)
  38. Quinigua (northeast Mexico)
  39. Sabela (Ecuador, Peru)
  40. Seri (Mexico: Sonora)
  41. Solano (northeast Mexico; US: Texas)
  42. Tarairiú (Brazil: Rio Grande do Norte)
  43. Tarascan (a.k.a. Purépecha) (Mexico: Michoacán)
  44. Taushiro (Peru)
  45. Tequiraca (Peru)
  46. Ticuna (Colombia, Peru, Brazil)
  47. Tuxá (Brazil: Bahia, Pernambuco)
  48. Warao (Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela)
  49. Xokó (Brazil: Alagoas, Pernambuco)
  50. Xukurú (Brazil: Pernambuco, Paraíba)
  51. Yámana (a.k.a Yagan) (Chile)
  52. Yuracare (Bolivia)
  53. Yuri (Colombia, Brazil)
  54. Yurumanguí (Columbia)

Map indicating where Cotoname is spoken Cotoname is a Southwestern language family, spoken by Native Americans indigenous to the lower Rio Grande Valley of northeastern Mexico and extreme southern Texas (United States). ... Tarascan men reeling cord for nets & making nets, 1899. ... Ticuna is a language spoken by approximately 21,000 people in Brazil, Peru, and Colombia. ...

North America

  1. Adai (US: Louisiana, Texas)
  2. Aranama-Tamique (US: Texas)
  3. Atakapa (US: Louisiana, Texas)
  4. Beothuk (Canada: Newfoundland)
  5. Calusa (US: Florida)
  6. Cayuse (US: Oregon, Washington)
  7. Chimariko (US: California)
  8. Chitimacha (US: Lousiania)
  9. Coahuilteco (US: Texas; northeast Mexico)
  10. Cotoname (northeast Mexico; US: Texas)
  11. Esselen (US: California)
  12. Haida (Canada: British Columbia; US: Alaska)
  13. Karankawa (US: Texas)
  14. Karok (a.k.a. Karuk) (US: California)
  15. Keres (US: New Mexico)
  16. Konomihu (US: California)
  17. Kootenai (Canada: British Columbia; US: Idaho, Montana)
  18. Natchez (US: Mississippi, Louisiana)
  19. Salinan (US: California)
  20. Siuslaw (US: Oregon)
  21. Solano (northeast Mexico; US: Texas)
  22. Takelma (US: Oregon)
  23. Timucua (US: Florida, Georgia)
  24. Tonkawa (US: Texas)
  25. Tunica (US: Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas)
  26. Washo (US: California, Nevada)
  27. Yana (US: California)
  28. Yuchi (US: Georgia, Oklahoma)
  29. Zuni (a.k.a. Shiwi) (US: New Mexico)

Adai (also Adaizan, Adaizi, Adaise, Adahi, Adaes, Adees, Atayos) is the name of a people and language that was spoken in eastern Louisiana. ... Atakapa is the name of a group of small bands and the language of Native Americans that lived along the Gulf of Mexico. ... The Beothuk language was the language spoken by the Beothuk indigenous people of Newfoundland. ... The Calusa, sometimes spelled Caloosa or Calosa, were a Native American group that lived on the coast and along the inner waterways of Floridas southwest coast. ... Cayuse & Sahaptin Tribal Representatives to Washington D.C. (1890) Cayuse Umapine (Wakonkonwelasonmi), a Cayuse chief, September, 1909 The Cayuse are a Native American tribe in the state of Oregon in the United States. ... Chitimacha The Chitimacha (also Chitimachan, Chetimacha) are a Native American group that lives in the U.S. state of Louisiana, mainly in St. ... Coahuilteco (also Pajalate) was a language isolate that was spoken in southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. ... Map indicating where Cotoname is spoken Cotoname is a Southwestern language family, spoken by Native Americans indigenous to the lower Rio Grande Valley of northeastern Mexico and extreme southern Texas (United States). ... The Esselen were the Native American inhabitants of what is now known as Big Sur on the Central Coast of California. ... Haida Haida Copper Shield The Haida are an indigenous people of the west coast of North America. ... The Karankawa (also Karankawan, Clamcoëhs) Indian tribes played a pivotal part in early Texas history. ... Karuk (also Karok) are an indigenous people of California in the United States. ... The Keres language is a group of seven related dialects spoken by Pueblo peoples in New Mexico, U.S.A. Each is mutually intelligible with its neighbors. ... Kootenai Group Near Tipis (ca. ... Pre-contact distribution of Natchez peoples Although suffering a turbulent history since European contact, the Natchez Nation still represents a vital part of the United States Native American community. ... The Salinan Native Americans lived in what is now Northern California, in the Salinas Valley. ... Siuslaw is one of the three Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw located on the southwest Oregon Pacific coast in the United States. ... Solano County is a county located in central California, about halfway between San Francisco and Sacramento. ... The Takelma were a people that lived in western Oregon along the Rogue River. ... The Timucua were a Native American tribe that lived in North Central Florida, mainly around the St. ... The Tonkawa are a people native to eastern Texas. ... The Tunica (or Tonica) language was a language isolate spoken in present-day Louisiana in the United States. ... The Washoe language is a Native American language spoken by the Washoe. ... Yana is a Sanskrit word with a range of meanings including nouns such as vehicle, journey, and path; and verbs such as going, moving, riding, and marching. ... The Yuchi language is the language of the Yuchi people living in the southeastern United States, including eastern Tennessee, western Carolinas, northern Georgia and Alabama, in the period of early European colonization. ... Zuni language Zuni (also Zuñi or Shiwi) is spoken by over 10000 people in New Mexico and much smaller numbers in parts of Arizona. ...

Asia

  1. Ainu language or languages (Russia, Japan) (like Arabic or Japanese, the diversity within Ainu is large enough that some consider it to be perhaps up to a dozen languages while others consider it a single language with high dialectal diversity)
  2. Burushaski (Pakistan, India) (sometimes linked to Yeniseian)
  3. Kalto or Nahali (India) [sometimes linked to Munda]
  4. Korean (North & South Korea, China) (sometimes linked to Altaic)
  5. Nivkh or Gilyak (Russia) (sometimes linked to Chukchi-Kamchatkan)
  6. Sumerian (Iraq) [extinct]
  7. Elamite (Iran) [extinct] (sometimes linked to Dravidian)
  8. Hattic (Turkey) [extinct] (sometimes linked to Northwest Caucasian)

The Ainu language (Ainu: アイヌ イタㇰ, aynu itak; Japanese: アイヌ語, ainu-go) is spoken by the Ainu ethnic group on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. ... Arabic (العربية al-arabiyyah, or less formally arabi) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Burushaski is a language isolate spoken by some 50,000-60,000 Burúšo people in the Hunza, Nagir, Yasin, and parts of the Gilgit valleys in northern Pakistan. ... The Yenisei-Ostyak language family is spoken in central Siberia. ... Kalto or Nahali is a language isolate spoken in west-central India (in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra) by around 5,000 people. ... Altaic is a language family which includes 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and Far East. ... Nivkh or Gilyak (ethnonym: Nivxi) (language, нивхгу - Nivxgu) is a language spoken in Outer Manchuria, in the basin of the Amgun, a tributary of the Amur, along the lower reaches of the Amur and on the northern half of Sakhalin. ... The Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages are a language family of Siberia. ... The Sumerian language of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BC. Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language around 2000 BC, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial and scientific language in Mesopotamia until about 1 AD. Then, it... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, and eastern and central India. ... The word Hattic may refer to: An ancient people of Anatolia, the Hattians. ... The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Pontic or Abkhaz-Adyg/Circassian, are a group of languages spoken in Caucasian Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Kabardino-Balkaria (an autonomous republic in Russia) and Abkhazia ( de facto independent formally an autonomous republic in Georgia). ...

Africa

  1. Hadza (Tanzania) (sometimes included in Khoisan)

Hadza is a language of Tanzania. ...

Europe

  1. Basque (Spain, France)
  2. Etruscan (Italy) [extinct]
  3. Pictish (Scotland) [extinct] [disputed - possibly an Indo European Celtic - Brythonic language]

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Etruscan was a language spoken and written in the ancient region of Etruria (current Tuscany) and in what is now Lombardy (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy. ... The Picts inhabited Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ...

Sign languages

See List of sign languages

A sign language (also signed language) is a language which uses manual communication instead of sound to convey meaning - simultaneously combining handshapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to fluidly express a speakers thoughts. ... Sign language is not universal or international. ... Adamorobe Sign Language is an indigenous sign language used in Adamorobe, an Akan village in eastern Ghana. ... American Sign Language (ASL, also Amslan obs. ... Auslan is the sign language used by the Australian Deaf community. ... BANZSL, or British, Australian and New Zealand Sign Language, is the name given to the parent language which British Sign Language (BSL), Auslan and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) may be considered dialects of. ... British sign language (BSL) is the sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK). ... Auslan is the sign language used by the Australian Deaf community. ... New Zealand Sign Language, or NZSL, is the main language of the Deaf Community in New Zealand. ... British sign language (BSL) is the sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK). ... Finnish Sign Language is the sign language most commonly used in Finland. ... French Sign Language (Langue des Signes Français or LSF) is the language of the deaf in the nation of France. ... German Sign Language or Deutsche Gebärdensprache is the sign language of the Deaf community in Germany. ... Hawaii Pidgin Sign Language is a sign language used in Hawaii. ... ... Irish Sign Language (ISL) is the sign language of Ireland. ... Japanese Sign Language is the sign language most commonly used in Japan. ... Malaysian Sign Language (MSL), or Bahasa Isyarat Malaysia (BIM), is the sign language in every day use in many parts of Malaysia. ... Marthas Vineyard Sign Language was a signed language that developed in Marthas Vineyard, Massachusetts, because of the extremely high percentage of deaf people living there (1 out of 155, compared to 1 out of 6,000 for the general United States population, with 1 out of 4 people... New Zealand Sign Language, or NZSL, is the main language of the deaf community in New Zealand. ... Nicaraguan Sign Language (or ISN, Idioma de Signos Nicaragüense) is a signed language spontaneously developed by deaf children in a number of schools along the Pacific Coast of Nicaragua. ... Penang Sign Language (PSL) was developed in Malaysia by Deaf children, outside the classroom, when oralism was predominant. ... Quebec Sign Language, known in French as Langue des Signes Québécoise and typically abbreviated LSQ, is a sign language used in Canada. ... Selangor Sign Language (SSL), also known as Kuala Lumpur Sign Language (KLSL), is a sign language used in Malaysia. ... hi This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL) is the sign language most commonly used in Taiwan. ... Yucatec Maya Sign Language is used in the Yucatán region in Mexico by both hearing and deaf members of a traditional Mayan community, where there there is an unusually high number of deaf inhabitants. ...

Creole languages, pidgins, mixed languages, and trade languages

  • American Indian Pidgin English
  • Basque-Algonquian Pidgin (a.k.a. Micmac-Basque Pidgin, Souriquois)
  • Bislamic languages
  • Broken Oghibbeway (a.k.a. Broken Ojibwa)
  • Broken Slavey (a.k.a. Slavey Jargon, Broken Slavé)
  • Callahuaya (a.k.a. Machaj-Juyai, Kallawaya)
  • Carib Pidgin (a.k.a. Ndjuka-Amerindian Pidgin, Ndjuka-Trio)
  • Carib Pidgin-Arawak Mixed Language
  • Catalangu
  • Chabacano - A Spanish creole spoken in South of the Philippines.
  • Chinook Jargon
  • Delaware Jargon (a.k.a. Pidgin Delaware)
  • Eskimo Trade Jargon (a.k.a. Herschel Island Eskimo Pidgin, Ship's Jargon)
  • Greenlandic Eskimo Pidgin
  • Guajiro-Spanish
  • Güegüence-Nicarao
  • Haida Jargon
  • Haitian creole
  • Hawaiian Creole English
  • Hiri Motu
  • Hudson Strait Pidgin
  • International Sign or Gestuno - constructed language
  • Inuktitut-English Pidgin
  • Jargonized Powhatan
  • Kutenai Jargon
  • Labrador Eskimo Pidgin (a.k.a. Labrador Inuit Pidgin)
  • Lingua Franca Apalachee
  • Lingua Franca Creek
  • Lingua franca
  • Lingua Geral do Sul (a.k.a. Lingua Geral Paulista, Tupí Austral)
  • Loucheux Jargon (a.k.a. Jargon Loucheux)
  • Media Lengua
  • Mednyj Aleut (a.k.a. Copper Island Aleut, Medniy Aleut, CIA)
  • Michif (a.k.a. French Cree, Métis, Metchif, Mitchif, Métchif)
  • Mobilian Jargon (a.k.a. Mobilian Trade Jargon, Chickasaw-Chocaw Trade Language, Yamá
  • Montagnais Pidgin Basque (a.k.a. Pidgin Basque-Montagnais)
  • Nheengatú (a.k.a. Lingua Geral Amazônica, Lingua Boa, Lingua Brasílica, Lingua Geral do Norte)
  • Norfuk
  • Nootka Jargon
  • Ocaneechi
  • Pitkern
  • Pidgin Massachusett
  • Portuguese Creole languages
  • Rusnorsk
  • Sango

A Creole is a language descended from a pidgin that has become the native language of a group of people. ... A Pidgin, or contact language, is the name given to any language created, usually spontaneously, out of a mixture of other languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues. ... A mixed language is a language that arises when two languages are in contact and there is a high degree of bilingualism among speakers. ... Bislama is a Melanesian creole language, one of the official languages of Vanuatu. ... Pijin is a language spoken in the Solomon Islands. ... Tok Pisin (tok means word or speech, pisin means pidgin) is the creole spoken in Papua New Guinea (PNG). ... Chavacano, (also Chabacano or Zamboangueño), is a Spanish creole spoken in the Philippines. ... Chinook Jargon was a trade language (or pidgin) of the Pacific Northwest, which spread quickly up the West Coast from Oregon State, through Washington State, British Columbia, and as far as Alaska. ... Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language based on the French language. ... Hawaiian Pidgin English, also known as Hawaiian Creole English or simply Pidgin, is a creole language based on English that is widely used by residents of Hawai‘i. ... Hiri Motu is an official language of Papua New Guinea. ... Gestuno or International Sign Language of the Deaf is a constructed sign language, which the World Congress of the World Federation of the Deaf originally discussed in 1951. ... An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose phonology, grammar and vocabulary are specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Michif is the indigenous language of the Métis people of Canada. ... Norfuk (increasingly spelled Norfolk) is the language spoken on Norfolk Island by the local residents. ... Pitkern (also Pitcairnese) is a creole language formed on the basis of an 18th century dialect of the English language and the Tahitian language spoken in the Pitcairn Islands. ... A Portuguese Creole is a creole language based on the Portuguese language. ... ... Sango (also spelt Sangho) is the primary language spoken in the Central African Republic: it has 5 million second-language speakers, but only 400,000 native speakers, mainly in the towns. ...

Proposed language stocks

  • Alarodian
  • Almosan (= Sapir's Algonkin-Wakashan)
  • Almosan-Keresiouan
  • Algonkian-Gulf
  • Amerind
    • Central Amerind
  • Andean languages
  • Aztec-Tanoan
  • Austric
  • Chibchan-Paezan
  • Coahuiltecan
  • Dene-Caucasian
  • Equatorial languages
  • Eurasiatic
  • Gulf languages
  • Hokan languages
  • Hokan-Siouan
  • Ibero-Caucasian
  • Indo-Pacific
  • Keresiouan
  • Kongo-Saharan
  • Macro-Carib
  • Macro-Ge
  • Macro-Mayan
  • Macro-Panoan
  • Macro-Siouan
  • Macro-Tucanoan
  • Mosan
  • Na-Dene (Sapir's)
  • Nostratic
  • Nostratic-Amerind
  • Penutian
  • Pontic
  • Proto-World
  • Quechumaran
  • Ural-Altaic
  • Wappo-Yukian

The Alarodian languages are a proposed language family that encompasses two language families of the Caucasus: Northeast or Dagestan (sometimes called Avar or Lezgian which are also the names of its most major members) and North-central or Vaynakh (which includes Chechen and Ingush), as well as the extinct Hurro_Urartian... In addition to its use by social scientists to refer (broadly) to the various indigenous languages of The Americas, the term Amerind languages may controversially refer to one of the three families in Joseph H. Greenbergs classification of all Native American languages—the other two being Na-Dene and... The Austric language superfamily is a large grouping of languages primarily spoken in South East Asia and the Pacific. ... Coahuiltecan A general group of people living in the southern Texas region near the Rio Grande. ... The Dene-Caucasian (or Sino-Caucasian) language family is a conjectural macrofamily containing the Sino-Tibetan, North Caucasian, Yeniseian and Na-Dene languages. ... The Eurasiatic languages are a hypotetical language group from which allegedly descend several language families of Europe and Asia, including Indo-European languages, Uralic and Altaic. ... The Hokan language family is a hypothetical grouping of a dozen small language families spoken in California and Mexico. ... The term Ibero-Caucasian (or Iberian-Caucasian) was proposed by Georgian linguist Arnold Chikobava for the union of the four language families that are specific to the Caucasus area, namely South Caucasian, also called Georgian or Kartvelian; Northwest Caucasian, also called Abkhaz/Adygh or Circassian; North-central Caucasian or Vaynakh. ... The Indo-Pacific super-family groups together several language families, mainly spoken in Papua New Guinea and nearby regions, which are not Austronesian, together with the native languages of Tasmania and the Andaman Islands. ... Macro-Ge, also spelled Macro-Gê, Macro-Je, and Macro-Jê, is a medium sized language stock proposed for South America, centered around the Gê-Kaingang language family. ... The Macro-Siouan languages are a proposed language family that includes the Siouan, Iroquoian, and Caddoan languages. ... Na-Dené or Na-Dene is a Native American language family which includes the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit. ... Nostratic is a highly controversial language super-family that suggests links between many Eurasian language families. ... The Penutian is a phylum (or stock) of language families that include many Native American languages of western North America, predominantly spoken at one time in Washington, Oregon, and California. ... Proto-Pontic is a postulated proto-language. ... The term Proto-World language refers to the hypothetical latest common ancestor of all the worlds languages, an ancient language from which all modern languages and language families – and usually including all known dead languages – derive. ... The Ural-Altaic language family was a grouping of languages which was once widely accepted by linguists, but has since been generally rejected. ...

Other natural languages of special interest

An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ... An extinct language is a language which is no longer natively spoken: it is estimated that one natural human language dies every two weeks. ... An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose vocabulary and grammar were specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ...

External links

Bibliography

  • Boas, Franz. (1911). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 1). Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 40. Washington: Government Print Office (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology).
  • Boas, Franz. (1922). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 2). Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 40. Washington: Government Print Office (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology).
  • Boas, Franz. (1933). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 3). Native American legal materials collection, title 1227. Glückstadt: J.J. Augustin.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Campbell, Lyle; & Mithun, Marianne (Eds.). (1979). The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Goddard, Ives (Ed.). (1996). Languages. Handbook of North American Indians (W. C. Sturtevant, General Ed.) (Vol. 17). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-1604-8774-9.
  • Goddard, Ives. (1999). Native languages and language families of North America (rev. and enlarged ed. with additions and corrections). [Map]. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press (Smithsonian Institute). (Updated version of the map in Goddard 1996). ISBN 0-8032-9271-6.
  • Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com).
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. (1966). The Languages of Africa (2nd ed.). Bloomington: Indiana University.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Ruhlen, Merritt. (1987). A guide to the world's languages. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). (1978-present). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 1-20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1-3, 16, 18-20 not yet published).
  • Voegelin, C. F.; & Voegelin, F. M. (1977). Classification and index of the world's languages. New York: Elsevier.

  Results from FactBites:
 
language families of the world (835 words)
There are three language isolates represented on this map, unrelated to any of the language families: Basque thrives between France and Spain.
The Kartvelian languages are considered by many linguists to be a separate family, possibly related to Indo-European.
Possibly related are the 170 languages of the Australian aborigines.
Language - MSN Encarta (1296 words)
In northern Asia there are a number of languages that appear either to form small, independent families or to be language isolates, such as the Chukotko-Kamchatkan language family of the Chukchi and Kamchatka peninsulas in the far east of Russia.
The family stretches from the eastern edge of Siberia to the Aleutian Islands, and across Alaska and northern Canada to Greenland, where one variety of the Inuit language, Greenlandic, is an official language.
Languages of the Algonquian and Iroquoian families constitute the major indigenous languages of northeastern North America, while the Siouan family is one of the main families of central North America.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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