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Encyclopedia > Language
Cuneiform was the first known form of written language, but spoken language is believed to predate writing by tens of thousands of years at least.
Cuneiform was the first known form of written language, but spoken language is believed to predate writing by tens of thousands of years at least.

A language is a dynamic set of visual, auditory, or tactile symbols of communication and the elements used to manipulate them. Language can also refer to the use of such systems as a general phenomenon. Language is considered to be an exclusively human mode of communication; although animals make use of quite sophisticated communicative systems none of these are known to make use of all of the properties that linguists use to define language. In the philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a language that is spoken, written, or signed by humans for general-purpose communication, as distinguished from formal languages (such as computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic) and... Language (E-ISSN: 1535-0665 Print ISSN: 0097-8507) is the official journal for the Linguistic Society of America, published since 1924. ... Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Properties of language

A set of agreed-upon symbols is only one feature of written language; all languages must define the structural relationships between these symbols in a system of grammar. Rules of grammar are what distinguish language from other forms of communication. They allow a finite set of symbols to be manipulated to create a potentially infinite number of grammatical utterances. In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ... For the rules of the English language, see English grammar. ...


Another property of language is that the symbols used are arbitrary. Any concept or grammatical rule can be mapped onto a symbol. Most languages make use of sound, but the combinations of sounds used do not have any inherent meaning - they are merely an agreed-upon convention to represent a certain thing by users of that language. For instance, there is nothing about the Spanish word nada itself that forces Spanish speakers to use it to mean "nothing". Another set of sounds - for example, English nothing - could equally be used to represent the same concept. Nevertheless, all Spanish speakers have acquired or learned that meaning for that sound pattern. But for Slovenian, Croatian, Serbian/Kosovan or Bosnian speakers, nada means "hope". Arbitrary is a term given to choices and actions which are considered to be done not by means of any underlying principle or logic, but by whim or some decidedly illogical formula. ... For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


The study of language

Main article: Linguistics

For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ...

Linguistics

Linguistics approaches language through meaning, discourse, semiotics (or social signification), as well as through existing narrative and grammatical structures. The recent study of semiotics and discourse have introduced linguistics to the more metaphysical and sociological perspectives available today, making it open to a wide range of inter-disciplinary subjects and approaches within the realm of the human sciences. Linguistics explores lingual trends and social constructs. It explores histories to arrive at universals, and it examines the aesthetics of various styles in these literary and cultural discourses. It also attempts to account for the development of specific words and utterances through the way they have been used. In linguistics, meaning is the content carried by the words or signs exchanged by people when communicating through language. ... Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse, which views language as a form of social practice (Fairclough 1989: 20) and focuses on the ways social and political domination is reproduced by text and talk. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Narratology, a term coined by Professor Edward Maloney from Georgetown University, is the theory and study of narrative and narrative structure and ([1]) the way they affect our perception. ... For the rules of the English language, see English grammar. ... Aesthetics is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ...


Discourse provides an understanding of language on the basis of how it has actually been used. Semiotics is the study of the relationship between signs and what they signify. Narrative studies works on the theory of the narrative, or narratology. The study of narratives might help us to understand how the narratives and structures, that texts are based on, shape our social visions and perspectives. Semantics is the study of meaning: It attempts to understand the meaning behind texts, utterances, usages and words. Semantics (Ancient σημαντικός semantikos significant, from semainein to signify, mean, from sema sign, token), is the study of meaning in communication. ...


Theoretical linguistics is most concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge. The fields that are generally considered the core of theoretical linguistics are syntax, phonology, morphology, and semantics. Applied linguistics attempts to put linguistic theories into practice through areas like translation, stylistics, literary criticism and theory, discourse analysis, speech therapy, speech pathology and foreign language teaching. For the journal, see Theoretical Linguistics (journal). ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... Semantics (Ancient σημαντικός semantikos significant, from semainein to signify, mean, from sema sign, token), is the study of meaning in communication. ... Applied linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stylistics is the study of style used in literary, and verbal language and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to communicate to the reader/hearer. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written, spoken or signed language use. ... It has been suggested that Speech-Language Pathology, Speech pathology, Phoniatrics be merged into this article or section. ... Second language acquisition is the process by which people learn languages in addition to their native language(s). ...


Origins of linguistics

The historical record of linguistics begins in India with Pāṇini, the 5th century BCE grammarian who formulated 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology, known as the Aṣṭādhyāyī (अष्टाध्यायी) and with Tolkāppiyar, the 3rd century BCE grammarian of the Tamil work Tolkāppiyam. Pāṇini’s grammar is highly systematized and technical. Inherent in its analytic approach are the concepts of the phoneme, the morpheme, and the root; Western linguists only recognized the phoneme some two millennia later. Tolkāppiyar's work is perhaps the first to describe articulatory phonetics for a language. Its classification of the alphabet into consonants and vowels, and elements like nouns, verbs, vowels, and consonants, which he put into classes, were also breakthroughs at the time. In the Middle East, the Persian linguist Sibawayh (سیبویه) made a detailed and professional description of Arabic in 760 CE in his monumental work, Al-kitab fi al-nahw (الكتاب في النحو, The Book on Grammar), bringing many linguistic aspects of language to light. In his book, he distinguished phonetics from phonology. For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... The Ashtadhyayi (AṣṭādhyāyÄ«, meaning eight chapters) is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit, and one of the first works on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics, or linguistics altogether. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tolkāppiyam. ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... The Tolkāppiyam (Tamil: ) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature[1]. It is written in the form of sootirams(Skt: sutra) or formulae and comprises of three books - the Ezhuttadikaram, the Solladikaram and the Poruladikaram. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Persia redirects here. ... Sibawayh (سيبويه Sîbawayh in Arabic, سیبویه Sibuyeh in Persian) was a linguist of Persian origin born ca. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ...


Later in the West, the success of science, mathematics, and other formal systems in the 20th century led many to attempt a formalization of the study of language as a "semantic code". This resulted in the academic discipline of linguistics, the founding of which is attributed to Ferdinand de Saussure.[citation needed] In the 20th century, substantial contributions to the understanding of language came from Ferdinand de Saussure, Hjelmslev, Émile Benveniste and Roman Jakobson,[1] which are characterized as being highly systematic.[1] A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... In logic and mathematics, a formal system consists of two components, a formal language plus a set of inference rules or transformation rules. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ... Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ... Louis Hjelmslev (October 3, 1899 - May 30, 1965) was a Danish linguist whose ideas formed the basis of the Danish School in linguistics. ... Emile Benveniste (1902 - 1976) was a French linguist best known for his work on Indo-European languages and his work expanding the linguistic paradigm established by Ferdinand de Saussure. ... Roman Osipovich Jakobson, (Russian, Роман Осипович Якобсон), (October 11, 1896 – July 18, 1982) was a Russian thinker who became one of the most influential linguists of the 20th century by pioneering the development of structural analysis of language, poetry, and art. ... Systematic was a hard rock band from California, USA. The band was one of the first signings to Metallica drummer Lars Ulrichs record label, The Music Company (via Elektra Records). ...


Human languages

Main article: Natural language
Some of the areas of the brain involved in language processing: Broca's area, Wernicke's area, Supramarginal gyrus, Angular gyrus, Primary Auditory Cortex
Some of the areas of the brain involved in language processing: Broca's area, Wernicke's area, Supramarginal gyrus, Angular gyrus, Primary Auditory Cortex

Human languages are usually referred to as natural languages, and the science of studying them is linguistics. A common progression for natural languages is that they are first spoken, then written, and then an understanding and explanation of their grammar (according to speech) is attempted. In the philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a language that is spoken, written, or signed by humans for general-purpose communication, as distinguished from formal languages (such as computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic) and... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... Wernickes area is a part of the human brain that forms part of the cortex, on the left posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus, encircling the auditory cortex, on the Sylvian fissure (part of the brain where the temporal lobe and parietal lobe meet). ... Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The angular gyrus is a region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus; it is involved in a number of processes related to language and cognition. ... The primary auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ...


Languages live, die, move from place to place, and change with time. Any language that ceases to change or develop is categorized as a dead language. Conversely, any language that is a living language, that is, it is in a continuous state of change, is known as a modern language. An extinct language is a language which is no longer natively spoken: it is estimated that one natural human language dies every two weeks. ... A modern language is any human language that is used by societies in the world today. ...


Making a principled distinction between one language and another is usually impossible.[2] For instance, there are a few dialects of German similar to some dialects of Dutch. The transition between languages within the same language family is sometimes gradual (see dialect continuum). For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ...


Some like to make parallels with biology, where it is not possible to make a well-defined distinction between one species and the next. In either case, the ultimate difficulty may stem from the interactions between languages and populations. (See Dialect or August Schleicher for a longer discussion.) For other uses, see Biology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Interaction (disambiguation). ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... August Schleicher August Schleicher (February 19, 1821 - December 6, 1868) was a German linguist. ...


The concepts of Ausbausprache, Abstandsprache and Dachsprache are used to make finer distinctions about the degrees of difference between languages or dialects. The Ausbausprache - Abstandsprache - Dachsprache framework is a tool developed by sociolinguists, e. ...


Artificial languages

Constructed languages

Main article: Constructed language

Some individuals and groups have constructed their own artificial languages, for practical, experimental, personal, or ideological reasons. International auxiliary languages are generally constructed languages that strive to be easier to learn than natural languages; other constructed languages strive to be more logical ("loglangs") than natural languages; a prominent example of this is Lojban. A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... Lojban (IPA ) is a constructed human language based on predicate logic. ...


Some writers, such as J. R. R. Tolkien, have created fantasy languages, for literary, artistic or personal reasons. The fantasy language of the Klingon race has in recent years been developed by fans of the Star Trek series, including a vocabulary and grammar. Tolkien redirects here. ... An artistic language (artlang) is a constructed language designed for aesthetic pleasure. ... This article is about the fictional race. ...


Constructed languages are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by natural languages.


This part of ISO 639 also includes identifiers that denote constructed (or artificial) languages. In order to qualify for inclusion the language must have a literature and it must be designed for the purpose of human communication. Specifically excluded are reconstructed languages and computer programming languages.


International auxiliary languages

Some languages, most constructed, are meant specifically for communication between people of different nationalities or language groups as an easy-to-learn second language. Several of these languages have been constructed by individuals or groups. Natural, pre-existing languages may also be used in this way - their developers merely catalogued and standardized their vocabulary and identified their grammatical rules. These languages are called naturalistic. One such language, Latino Sine Flexione, is a simplified form of Latin. Two others, Occidental and Novial, were drawn from several Western languages. An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Latino sine flexione (Latin without inflections) is an auxiliary language invented by the mathematician Giuseppe Peano in 1903. ... The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned language created by the Baltogerman naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl and published in 1922. ... Novial [nov- (new) + IAL, International Auxiliary Language] is a constructed international auxiliary language (IAL) intended to facilitate international communication and friendship, without displacing anyones native language. ...


To date, the most successful auxiliary language is Esperanto, invented by Polish ophthalmologist Zamenhof. It has a relatively large community roughly estimated at about 2 million speakers worldwide, with a large body of literature, songs, and is the only known constructed language to have native speakers, such as the Hungarian-born American businessman George Soros. Other auxiliary languages with a relatively large number of speakers and literature are Interlingua and Ido. This article is about the language. ... Ludvic Lazarus (Ludwik Lejzer, Ludwik Łazarz) Zamenhof (December 15, 1859 – April 14, 1917) was a Polish eye doctor, philologist, and the virtual inventor of Esperanto, the most widely spoken and successful constructed languages designed for international communication among speakers of all languages. ... Native Esperanto speakers (in Esperanto denaskuloj) come to be in families in which Esperanto (and usually other languages) is spoken. ... Soros redirects here. ... This article is about the auxiliary language created by the International Auxiliary Language Association. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ...


Controlled languages

Controlled natural languages are subsets of natural languages whose grammars and dictionaries have been restricted in order to reduce or eliminate both ambiguity and complexity. The purpose behind the development and implementation of a controlled natural language typically is to aid non-native speakers of a natural language in understanding it, or to ease computer processing of a natural language. An example of a widely used controlled natural language is Simplified English, which was originally developed for aerospace industry maintenance manuals. Controlled Natural Languages are subsets of natural languages whose grammars and dictionaries have been restricted in order to reduce or eliminate both ambiguity and complexity. ... Disambiguation: see also simple English Simplified English is a controlled language originally developed for aerospace industry maintenance manuals. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Formal languages

Main article: Formal language

Mathematics and computer science use artificial entities called formal languages (including programming languages and markup languages, and some that are more theoretical in nature). These often take the form of character strings, produced by a combination of formal grammar and semantics of arbitrary complexity. In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a formal language is a language that is defined by precise mathematical or machine processable formulas. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... A specialized markup language using SGML is used to write the electronic version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ... In various branches of mathematics and computer science, strings are sequences of various simple objects (symbols, tokens, characters, etc. ... In computer science and linguistics, a formal grammar, or sometimes simply grammar, is a precise description of a formal language — that is, of a set of strings. ...


Programming languages

Main article: Programming language

A programming language is an extreme case of a formal language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer, to perform specific tasks.[3] Programming languages are defined using syntactic and semantic rules, to determine structure and meaning respectively. A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ...


Programming languages are used to facilitate communication about the task of organizing and manipulating information, and to express algorithms precisely. Some authors restrict the term "programming language" to those languages that can express all possible algorithms; sometimes the term "computer language" is used for artificial languages that are more limited.


Animal communication

Main article: Animal language

The term "animal languages" is often used for nonhuman languages. Linguists do not consider these to be language, but describe them as animal communication, because the interaction between animals in such communication is fundamentally different in its underlying principles from true language, which has been found in humans only. Karl von Frisch received the Nobel Prize in 1973 for his proof of the language and dialects of the bees.[4] Recent research demonstrates that every sign-use in communication processes follows syntactic, pragmatic and semantic rules. Signs may be signals or symbols. signals in bacteria-, fungi- or plant-communication are chemical molecules ("semiochemicals"). In contrast to the analog signaling of honey bees of the southern hemisphere Karl von Frisch demonstrated that the variety of bee dances function as symbolic code for distance and direction of nutrient availability. Animal language is the modeling of human language in non human animal systems. ... Animal language is the modeling of human language in non human animal systems. ... Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ...


In several publicized instances, nonhuman animals have been taught to understand certain features of human language. Chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans have been taught hand signs based on American Sign Language; however, they have never been successfully taught grammar[citation needed]. In 2003, a saved Bonobo ape named Kanzi allegedly independently created some words to convey certain concepts, however the careful examination of other apes raised in a similar manner (Washoe, Koko, and Nim Chimpsky) shows a greater degree of anthropomorphism and selective observation on the part of trainers and a lack of initiative and high levels of simple imitative behavior with the subjects.[citation needed] The African Grey Parrot, which possesses the ability to mimic human speech with a high degree of accuracy, is suspected of having sufficient intelligence to comprehend some of the speech it mimics. Most species of parrot, despite expert mimicry, are believed to have no linguistic comprehension at all. Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... For other uses, see Gorilla (disambiguation). ... This article is about the primate. ... It has been suggested that ASL Grammar be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... Kanzi (born October 23, 1980), a bonobo, is one of the most most famous and accomplished linguistic apes, in research led by E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh. ... Washoe (around September of 1965[1] - October 30, 2007) was a chimpanzee who was the first non-human to learn American Sign Language. ... Koko (born July 4, 1971, in San Francisco, California) is the name of a lowland gorilla taught by Dr. Francine Penny Patterson and other scientists at Stanford University to communicate with more than 1,000 signs based on American Sign Language[1], and understand approximately 2,000 words of spoken... Nim Chimpsky (November 21, 1973 – March 10, 2000) was a chimpanzee who was the subject of an extended study of animal language acquisition (codenamed 6. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Psittacus erithacus erithacus Linnaeus, 1758 Psittacus erithacus timneh Fraser, 1844 and see text The African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) is a medium-sized parrot of the genus Psittacus, endemic to primary and secondary rainforest of West and Central Africa, and is considered one of the... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and...


While proponents of animal communication systems have debated levels of semantics, these systems have not been found to have anything approaching human language syntax. The situation with dolphins and whales presents a special case in that there is some evidence[citation needed] that spontaneous development of complex vocal language is occurring, but it certainly has not been proven. Semantics (Ancient σημαντικός semantikos significant, from semainein to signify, mean, from sema sign, token), is the study of meaning in communication. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ...


Some researchers argue that a continuum exists among the communication methods of all social animals, pointing to the fundamental requirements of group behavior and the existence of mirror neurons in primates. This, however, is still a scientific question. Most researchers agree that, although human and more primitive languages have analogous features, they are not homologous[citation needed].. Locations of mirror neurons A mirror neuron is a neuron which fires both when an animal performs an action and when the animal observes the same action performed by another (especially conspecific) animal. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... An analogy is a comparison between two different things, in order to highlight some form of similarity. ... Two or more structures are said to be homologous if they are alike because of shared ancestry. ...


See also

Language Portal


Image File history File links Portal. ...

The Adamic language is a term for the hypothetical language believed by some to have been spoken by all humans from the creation of Adam until the time of the Tower of Babel (as related in the Bible). ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... Illustration of the internal parts of a cochlear implant. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ... A foreign language is a language not spoken by the indigenous people of a certain place: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. ... FOXP2 (forkhead box P2) is a gene that is implicated in the development of language skills,[1] including grammatical competence. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Research into non-human great ape language has involved teaching gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams; see Yerkish. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... The Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) scale is a set of descriptions of abilities to communicate in a language. ... Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. ... For other uses, see Interpretation (disambiguation). ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... ISO 639 is one of several international standards that lists short codes for language names. ... Language education refers to the teaching and learning of a language. ... A word game or word puzzle can be of several different types: // [edit] Letter arrangement games The goal is to form words out of given letters. ... Many countries have a language policy designed to favour or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages. ... Language reform is a kind of language planning by massive change to a language. ... A language school is where one can learn a foreign language. ... Linguistic protectionism is any state policy introduced to protect a given language from the expansion of a stronger language (usually a language with a much greater number of speakers), or against mixing (or deliberate compatibility) with a different dialect or a closely related language. ... Metacommunicative competence is the ability to steeringly intervene within difficult conversations and to correct communication problems by utilizing the different ways of practical communication: verbal communication: by words or their meaning paraverbal communication: loudness of speaking, manner of speaking, when keeping silent, meaning of interrupting or interfering the conversation nonverbal... For other uses, see Name (disambiguation). ... Gender-neutral language (gender-generic, gender-inclusive, non-sexist, or sex-neutral language) is language that attempts to refer neither to males nor females when discussing an abstract or hypothetical person whose sex cannot otherwise be determined, as opposed to more traditional language forms, which may use male or female... http://members. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. ... Phonetic transcription (or phonetic notation) is the visual system of symbolization of the sounds occurring in spoken human language. ... In cartoons, profanity is often depicted by substituting symbols for words, as a form of non-specific censorship. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... In linguistics, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis (SWH) (also known as the linguistic relativity hypothesis) postulates a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it. ... A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ... For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Speech-Language Pathology, Speech pathology, Phoniatrics be merged into this article or section. ... Symbolic communication is exchange of messages that change a priori expectation of events. ... A symbolic linguistic representation is a representation of an utterance that uses symbols to represent linguistic information about the utterance, such as information about phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, or semantics. ... Terminology is the study of terms and their use — of words and compound words that are used in specific contexts. ... For the American rapper, see TheSaurus (rapper). ... A tongue-twister is a phrase in any language that is designed to be difficult to articulate properly. ... Transition words allow you to write smooth changes in the lines of thinking, thus non-complex sentences give light to complex sentences and long paragraphs through connectors of meanings. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ... For the band, see Verbal Abuse. ... When you create an image to communicate an idea, you are using visual language. ... A whistled language is the use of whistling to emulate speech and facilitate communication. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...

See also (Lists)

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language. ... This is a list of bodies that regulate languages. ... This list of languages is alphabetical by English name. ... // See List of official languages by institution. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Holquist 1981, xvii-xviii
  2. ^ "Language". The New Encyclopædia Britannica: MACROPÆDIA 22. (2005). Encyclopædia Britannica,Inc.. 548 2b. 
  3. ^ What is programming language?. Webopedia. Retrieved on 2007-11-23.
  4. ^ Frisch, K.v. (1953). 'Sprache' oder 'Kommunikation' der Bienen? Psychologische Rundschau 4. Amsterdam.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Crystal, David (1997). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Crystal, David (2001). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 8170741289
  • Gode, Alexander (1951). Interlingua-English Dictionary. New York, Frederick Ungar Publishing Company.
  • Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM. Principles of Neural Science, fourth edition, 1173 pages. McGraw-Hill, New York (2000). ISBN 0-8385-7701-6
  • Katzner, K. (1999). The Languages of the World. New York, Routledge.
  • Holquist, Michael. (1981) Introduction to Mikhail Bakhtin's The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Austin and London: University of Texas Press. xv-xxxiv
  • McArthur, T. (1996). The Concise Companion to the English Language. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Dr. Byomkes Chakrabarti (also spelled Byomkesh Chakraborty or Byomkesh Chakrabarty) (1923–1981) was a Bengali research worker on ethnic languages. ... The Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED), developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) and published by Storm Publishers in 1951, is the first Interlingua dictionary. ... Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is a psychiatrist, a neuroscientist and professor of biochemistry and biophysics at Columbia University. ... Principles of Nerual Science cover First published in 1981, Principles of Neural Science is a neuroscience textbook edited by Eric R. Kandel, James Schwartz, and Thomas Jessell. ... Mikhail Bakhtin. ...

Further reading

  • Berger, Ruth: Warum der Mensch spricht: Eine Naturgeschichte der Sprache. (Eichborn, Frankfurt 2008 - a comprehensive survey of the field covering the latest research both in linguistics and anthropology, unfortunately in German).
  • Deacon, Terrence. 1997. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain. Norton.
  • Witzany, Guenther. 1993. Natur der Sprache - Sprache der Natur. Sprachpragmatische Philosophie der Biologie. Koenigshausen und Neumann. Würzburg.
  • International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (Frawley 2003)
  • The World's Major Languages (Comrie 1987)
  • The Atlas of Languages (Comrie, Matthews, & Polinsky 1997)

External links

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Image File history File links Language. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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