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Encyclopedia > Langston Hughes
Langston Hughes

Born: February 1, 1902(1902-02-01)
Flag of the United States Joplin, Missouri, United States
Died: May 22, 1967 (aged 65)
New York, New York, United States
Occupation: Columnist, dramatist, essayist, lyricist, novelist, poet, social activist, writer

Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. Hughes is known best for his work during the Harlem Renaissance. Image File history File links LangstonHughe_25. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Joplin is a city located in parts of southern Jasper County and northern Newton County in the southwestern corner of Missouri. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about work. ... A columnist is a journalist who produces a specific form of writing for publication called a column. Columns appear in newspapers, magazines and the Internet. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Social activists are people who act as the conscience and voice of many individuals within a society. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A columnist is a journalist who produces a specific form of writing for publication called a column. Columns appear in newspapers, magazines and the Internet. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Life

Childhood

Langston Hughes as a baby in 1902, photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

The son of Carrie Langston Hughes (a teacher) and her husband, James Nathaniel Hughes, Langston Hughes was born James Mercer Langston Hughes in Joplin, Missouri. After abandoning his family and the later legal dissolution of the marriage, James Hughes left for Cuba, then Mexico, as a consequence of the enduring racism in the United States.[1] After the separation of his parents, young Langston was raised mainly by his grandmother, Mary Langston, as his mother sought employment. Through the black American oral tradition of storytelling, she would instill in the young Langston Hughes a sense of indelible racial pride.[2][3][4] He spent most of childhood in Lawrence, Kansas. After the death of his grandmother, he went to live with family friends, James and Mary Reed, for two years. Due to an unstable early life, his childhood was not an entirely happy one, but it was one that heavily influenced the poet he would become. Later, he lived again with his mother in Lincoln, Illinois, who had remarried when he was still an adolescent, and eventually in Cleveland, Ohio, where he attended high school. Image File history File links Langston_Hughes_1902. ... Image File history File links Langston_Hughes_1902. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... Joplin is a city located in parts of southern Jasper County and northern Newton County in the southwestern corner of Missouri. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Lawrence is a river city in Douglas County, Kansas, United States, 41 miles (66 km) west of Kansas City, along the banks of both the Kansas (Kaw) and Wakarusa Rivers. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Lincoln is a town in Logan County, Illinois, United States. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ...

Langston Hughes in Cleveland, Ohio high school circa 1919-1920, photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Langston Hughes in Cleveland, Ohio high school circa 1919-1920, photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

While in grammar school in Lincoln, Illinois, he was designated class poet. Hughes stated in retrospect that this was because of the stereotype that African Americans have rhythm.[5] "I was a victim of a stereotype. There were only two of us Negro kids in the whole class and our English teacher was always stressing the importance of rhythm in poetry. Well, everyone knows — except us — that all Negroes have rhythm, so they elected me as class poet."[6] During high school in Cleveland, Ohio, he wrote for the school newspaper, edited the yearbook, and began to write his first short stories, poetry, and dramatic plays. His first piece of jazz poetry, When Sue Wears Red, was written while he was still in high school. It was during this time that he discovered his love of books. From this early period in his life, Hughes would cite as influences on his poetry the American poets Paul Laurence Dunbar and Carl Sandburg. Hughes spent a brief period of time with his father in Mexico in 1919. Image File history File links Hughes_high_school_1919_0r_1920. ... Image File history File links Hughes_high_school_1919_0r_1920. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... A grammar school is a school that may, depending on regional usage as exemplified below, provide either secondary education or, a much less common usage, primary education (also known as elementary). Grammar schools trace their origins back to medieval Europe, as schools in which university preparatory subjects, such as Latin... For the term used in computing, see stereotype (UML). ... For other uses, see Yearbook (disambiguation). ... Jazz poetry can be defined as poetry that demonstrates jazz-like rhythm or the feel of improvisation, from an article by Pittsburg State University faculty. ... Paul Laurence Dunbar Paul Laurence Dunbar (June 27, 1872 – February 9, 1906) was a seminal American poet of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... For the passenger train service, see Carl Sandburg (Amtrak). ...


Friction with his father and studying at Columbia

The relationship between his father and himself was troubled, causing Hughes a degree of dissatisfaction that led him to contemplate suicide at least once. Upon graduating from high school in June of 1920, Hughes returned to live with his father, hoping to convince him to provide money to attend Columbia University. Hughes later said that, prior to arriving in Mexico again: For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Alma Mater Columbia University in the City of New York is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ...

I had been thinking about my father and his strange dislike of his own people. I didn't understand it, because I was a Negro, and I liked Negroes very much.[7][8][9]

Initially, his father had hoped for Hughes to attend a university abroad, and to study for a career in engineering. On these grounds, he was willing to provide financial assistance to his son. James Hughes did not support his son's desire to be a writer. Eventually, Langston and his father came to a compromise. Langston would study engineering, so long as he could attend Columbia. His tuition provided, Hughes left his father after more than a year of living with him. While at Columbia in 1921, Hughes managed to maintain a B+ grade average. He left in 1922 because of racial prejudice within the institution, and his interests revolved more around the neighborhood of Harlem than his studies, though he continued writing poetry.[10] Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... THE FUTURE OF BRITAIN, LONG LIVE THE WHITES!!!!! ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ...

Langston Hughes, photographed by Nickolas Muray, 1923
Langston Hughes, photographed by Nickolas Muray, 1923

Image File history File links Langston_Hughes_by_Nickolas_Muray. ... Image File history File links Langston_Hughes_by_Nickolas_Muray. ... Nickolas Muray (15 February 1892 - 2 November, 1965) was a Hungarian-born American Photographer. ...

Adulthood

Hughes worked various odd jobs, before serving a brief tenure as a crewman aboard the S.S. Malone in 1923, spending six months traveling to West Africa and Europe.[11] In Europe, Hughes left the S.S. Malone for a temporary stay in Paris. Unlike specific writers of the post-World War I era who became identified as the "Lost Generation", such as Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald, Hughes instead spent time in Paris during the early 1920s, becoming part of the black expatriate community. In November 1924, Hughes returned to the U. S. to live with his mother in Washington, D.C. Hughes again found work doing various odd jobs before gaining white-collar employment in 1925 as a personal assistant to the scholar Carter G. Woodson within the Association for the Study of African American Life and History. Not satisfied with the demands of the work and time constraints this position placed on the hours he spent writing, Hughes quit this job for one as a busboy in a hotel. It was while working as a busboy that Hughes would encounter the poet Vachel Lindsay. Impressed with the poems Hughes showed him, Lindsay publicized his discovery of a new black poet, though by this time, Hughes' earlier work had already been published in magazines and was about to be collected into his first book of poetry. Crewman is a generic term for a crew member of an aircraft, naval vessel, military unit, or team of professionals attempting to accomplish a goal. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ... For other uses, see Lost Generation (disambiguation). ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American Jazz Age author of novels and short stories. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... White-collar workers perform tasks which are less laborious yet often more highly paid than blue-collar workers, who do manual work. ... Carter Woodson biographical cartoon by Charles Alston, 1943 Carter Godwin Woodson (December 19, 1875 — April 3, 1950) was an African American historian, author, journalist and the founder of Black History Month. ... The Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) is a non-profit organization founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1915 as The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History by Carter G. Woodson and Jesse E. Moorland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nicholas Vachel Lindsay (November 10, 1879 – December 5, 1931) was an American poet. ...

Langston Hughes, Lincoln University, photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Langston Hughes, Lincoln University, photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

The following year, Hughes enrolled in Lincoln University, PA, a HBCU, where he became a member of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, the first black fraternal organization founded at a historically black college and university.[12][13] Thurgood Marshall, who later became an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, was an alumnus and classmate of Langston Hughes during his undergraduate studies at Lincoln University. Image File history File links Langston_Hughes_Lincoln_University_1928. ... Image File history File links Langston_Hughes_Lincoln_University_1928. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... Lincoln University in Pennsylvania is a four-year university on 350 acres in southern Chester County and a Center for Graduate Studies in Philadelphia. ... In the United States, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) (a type of Minority Serving Institution or MSI) are colleges or universities that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the African-American community. ... The Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Incorporated (ΩΨΦ) was founded on a cool Friday evening, November 17, 1911, at Howard University in Washington, D.C. by three undergraduate students and one faculty advisor. ... The terms fraternity and sorority (from the Latin words and , meaning brother and sister respectively) may be used to describe many social and charitable organizations, for example the Lions Club, Epsilon Sigma Alpha, Rotary International, Optimist International, or the Shriners. ... Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American jurist and the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States. ... “Old girl” redirects here. ...


Hughes received a B.A. degree from Lincoln University in 1929 and a Litt.D. in 1943 from Lincoln. A second honorary doctorate would be awarded to him in 1963 by Howard University, another HBCU. Except for travels that included parts of the Caribbean and West Indies, Harlem was Hughes’s primary home for the remainder of his life. A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... Doctor of Letters (Latin: Litterarum doctor; D.Litt. ... Howard University is a university located in Washington, D.C., USA. An historically black university, Howard was established in 1867 by congressional order and named for Oliver O. Howard. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


Death

The terrazzo and brass African cosmogram titled Rivers on the floor in front of the Langston Hughes auditorium in the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in Harlem. Designed by artist Houston Conwill, poet Estella Conwill Majozo, and architect Joseph DePace

. Image File history File links Langston_Hughes_african_comogram. ... Image File history File links Langston_Hughes_african_comogram. ... Terrazzo with adapted Native-American design at the Hoover Dam Terrazzo is a faux-marble flooring or countertopping material. ... For other uses, see Brass (disambiguation). ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ...


On May 22, 1967, Hughes died from complications after abdominal surgery, related to prostate cancer, at the age of 65. His ashes are interred beneath a floor medallion in the middle of the foyer leading to the auditorium named for him within the Arthur Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in Harlem.[14] The design on the floor covering his cremated remains is an African cosmogram titled Rivers. The title is taken from the poem The Negro Speaks of Rivers by Hughes. Within the center of the cosmogram and precisely above the ashes of Hughes are the words My soul has grown deep like the rivers. Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture is part of the New York Public Library. ... Cremation is the practice of disposing of a corpse by burning. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Many of Hughes' papers reside at his alma mater in the Langston Hughes Memorial Library on the campus of Lincoln University, PA, as well as at the James Weldon Johnson Collection within the Yale University Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. In 1981, Landmark status was given to the Harlem home of Langston Hughes at 20 East 127th Street by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission and 127th St. was renamed Langston Hughes Place.[15] Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... Lincoln University in Pennsylvania is a four-year university on 350 acres in southern Chester County and a Center for Graduate Studies in Philadelphia. ... James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871 – June 26, 1938) was a leading American author, critic, journalist, poet, anthropologist, educator, lawyer, songwriter, early civil rights activist, and prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission is the New York City agency charged with administering New Yorks Landmarks Preservation Law. ...


Career

Langston Hughes, The Weary Blues, Cover design by Miguel Covarrubias, 1926
Langston Hughes, The Weary Blues, Cover design by Miguel Covarrubias, 1926

First debuting in The Crisis in 1921, the prose that would become the signature poem of Hughes appeared in his first book of poetry, The Weary Blues, published in 1926, The Negro Speaks of Rivers:[16] Image File history File links The_Weary_Blues_1926. ... Image File history File links The_Weary_Blues_1926. ... Covarrubiass caricature of himself as an Olmec. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ...

I've known rivers:
I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the
flow of human blood in human veins.
My soul has grown deep like the rivers.
I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young.
I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep.
I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it.
I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln
went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy
bosom turn all golden in the sunset.
I've known rivers:
Ancient, dusky rivers.
My soul has grown deep like the rivers.
Jessie Fauset,Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston,1927, Tuskegee. Courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Jessie Fauset,Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston,1927, Tuskegee. Courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Hughes' life and work were enormously influential during the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s alongside those of his contemporaries, Zora Neale Hurston, Wallace Thurman, Claude McKay, Countee Cullen, Richard Bruce Nugent, and Aaron Douglas, who, collectively, (with the exception of McKay), created the short-lived magazine Fire!! Devoted to Younger Negro Artists. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (567x700, 50 KB)[edit] Summary Source: Downloaded from http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (567x700, 50 KB)[edit] Summary Source: Downloaded from http://www. ... Tuskegee re-directs here; for alternate uses see Tuskegee (disambiguation) Tuskegee is a city located in Macon County, Alabama. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. ... Wallace Henry Thurman (1902-1934) was an African American novelist during the Harlem Renaissance. ... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ... Countee Cullen, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1941 Countee Cullen (May 30, 1903–January 9, 1946) was an African-American Romantic poet and an active participant in the Harlem Renaissance. ... Richard Bruce Nugent (known professionally as Richard Bruce)(July 2, 1906 - May 27, 1987) was an important figure, albeit a fleeting one, in the Harlem Renaissance. ... Power Plant, Harlem by Aaron Douglas in oil, 1939. ...


Hughes and his contemporaries were often in conflict with the goals and aspirations of the black middle class, and the three considered the midwives of the Harlem Renaissance, W.E.B. Du Bois, Jessie Redmon Fauset, and Alain Locke, who they accused of being overly fulsome in accommodating and assimilating eurocentric values and culture for social equality. Of primary conflict were the depictions of the "low-life", that is, the real lives of blacks in the lower social-economic strata and the superficial divisions and prejudices based on skin color within the black community.[17] Hughes wrote what would be considered the manifesto for himself and his contemporaries published in The Nation in 1926, The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain: The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Jessie Redmon Fauset (April 27, 1882 – April 30, 1961) was an African American editor, poet, essayist and novelist. ... Alain LeRoy Locke (1886-1954) was born on September 13, 1886, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania He was an American educator, writer, and philosopher, and is best remembered as a leader and chief interpreter of the Harlem Renaissance. ... Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... Look up manifesto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ...

The younger Negro artists who create now intend to express
our individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame.
If white people are pleased we are glad. If they are not,
it doesn't matter. We know we are beautiful. And ugly, too.
The tom-tom cries, and the tom-tom laughs. If colored people
are pleased we are glad. If they are not, their displeasure
doesn't matter either. We build our temples for tomorrow,
strong as we know how, and we stand on top of the mountain
free within ourselves.

Hughes was unashamedly black at a time when blackness was demode, and he didn’t go much beyond the themes of black is beautiful as he explored the black human condition in a variety of depths.[18] His main concern was the uplift of his people who he judged himself the adequate appreciator of and whose strengths, resiliency, courage, and humor he wanted to record as part of the general American experience.[19][20] Thus, his poetry and fiction centered generally on insightful views of the working class lives of blacks in America, lives he portrayed as full of struggle, joy, laughter, and music. Permeating his work is pride in the African American identity and its diverse culture. "My seeking has been to explain and illuminate the Negro condition in America and obliquely that of all human kind,"[21] Hughes is quoted as saying. Therefore, in his work he confronted racial stereotypes, protested social conditions, and expanded African America’s image of itself; a “people’s poet” who sought to reeducate both audience and artist by lifting the theory of the black aesthetic into reality.[22] An expression of this is the poem My People:[23] This article is about the art form. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... A 19th century childrens book informs its readers that the Dutch are a very industrious race, and that Chinese children are very obedient to their parents. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ...

Langston Hughes, Charles S. Johnson, E. Franklin Frazier, Rudolph Fisher, & Hubert Delany. African American writers influenced the Négritude movement in France. Hughes, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Claude Mckay were the most influential. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Langston Hughes, Charles S. Johnson, E. Franklin Frazier, Rudolph Fisher, & Hubert Delany. African American writers influenced the Négritude movement in France. Hughes, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Claude Mckay were the most influential. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
The night is beautiful,
So the faces of my people.
The stars are beautiful,
So the eyes of my people
Beautiful, also, is the sun.
Beautiful, also, are the souls of my people.

Moreover, Hughes stressed the importance of a racial consciousness and cultural nationalism absent of self-hate that united people of African descent and Africa across the globe and encouraged pride in their own diverse black folk culture and black aesthetic. Langston Hughes was one of the few black writers of any consequence to champion racial consciousness as a source of inspiration for black artists.[24] His African-American race consciousness and cultural nationalism would influence many foreign black writers, such as Jacques Roumain, Nicolás Guillén, Léopold Sédar Senghor, and Aimé Césaire. With Senghor and Césaire and other French-speaking writers of Africa and of African descent from the Caribbean like René Maran from Martinique and Léon Damas from French Guiana in South America, the works of Hughes helped to inspire the concept that became the Négritude movement in France where a radical black self-examination was emphasized in the face of European colonialism.[25][26] Langston Hughes was not only a role model for his calls for black racial pride instead of assimilation, but the most important technical influence in his emphasis on folk and jazz rhythms as the basis of his poetry of racial pride.[27] Image File history File links Famous_New_Negro_. ... Image File history File links Famous_New_Negro_. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion . If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Dr. Edward Franklin Frazier (September 24, 1894 - May 17, 1962), was an American sociologist. ... Rudolph Fisher (1897 - 1934) was an African-American writer His first published work, City of Refuge, appeared in Atlantic Monthly of February 1925. ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ... Claude McKay (September 15, 1889[1] – May 22, 1948) was a Jamaican writer and communist. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Folk culture refers to the localized lifestyle of a subsistence or otherwise inward looking culture. ... Renowned Haitian contemporary writer and pro-revolutionary Jacques Roumain. ... Nicolás Guillén (10 July 1902 – 16 July 1989) was an Afro-Cuban poet. ... Léopold Sédar Senghor (October 9, 1906 – December 20, 2001) was a Senegalese poet and politician who served as the first president of Senegal (1960–1980). ... Aimé Fernand David Césaire (born June 25, 1913) is a French poet, author and politician. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... René Maran (1887 – 1960) was the first black writer to win the French Prix Goncourt. ... Léon-Gontran Damas (March 28, 1912-January 22, 1978) was a French poet and politician. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Assimilation (from Latin assimilatio; to render similar) may refer to more than one article: Assimilation (linguistics), a linguistic process by which a sound becomes similar to an adjacent sound. ...

Langston Hughes & Griff Davis. While at Atlanta University, Hughes and Davis collaborated on a word and photo essay documenting and contrasting the African American bourgeoisie community and poor black ghettos in Atlanta, Georgia. Their work later appeared in Ebony magazine. Photograph Griff Davis, 1947.

In 1930, his first novel, Not Without Laughter, won the Harmon Gold Medal for literature.[28] The protagonist of the story is a boy named Sandy whose family must deal with a variety of struggles imposed upon them due to their race and class in society in addition to relating to one another. Hughes first collection of short stories came in 1934 with The Ways of White Folks.[29][30] These stories provided a series of vignettes revealing the humorous and tragic interactions between whites and blacks. Overall, these stories are marked by a general pessimism about race relations, as well as a sardonic realism.[31] He received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1935. In 1938, Hughes would establish the Harlem Suitcase Theater followed by the New Negro Theater in 1939 in Los Angeles, and the Skyloft Players in Chicago in 1941. The same year Hughes established his threatre troupe in Los Angeles, his ambition to write for the movies materialized when he co-wrote the screenplay for Way Down South.[32] Further hopes by Hughes to write for the lucrative movie trade were thwarted because of racial discrimination within the industry.[33] Through the black publication Chicago Defender, Hughes in 1943 gave creative birth to Jesse B. Semple, often referred to and spelled Simple, the everyday black man in Harlem who offered musings on topical issues of the day. He was offered to teach at a number of colleges, but seldom did. In 1947, Hughes taught a semester at the predominantly black Atlanta University. Hughes, in 1949, spent three months at the integrated Laboratory School of the University of Chicago as a "Visiting Lecturer on Poetry." He wrote novels, short stories, plays, poetry, operas, essays, works for children, and, with the encouragement of his best friend and writer, Arna Bontemps, and patron and friend, Carl Van Vechten, two autobiographies, The Big Sea and I Wonder as I Wander, as well as translating several works of literature into English. Much of his writing was inspired by the rhythms and language of the black church, and, the blues and jazz of that era, the music he believed to be the true expression of the black spirit; an example is "Harlem" (sometimes called "Dream Deferred") from Montage of a Dream Deferred (1951), from which a line was taken for the title of the play A Raisin in the Sun.[34] Image File history File links Griff_davis_and_langston_hughes. ... Image File history File links Griff_davis_and_langston_hughes. ... A photo essay is a set or series of photographs that are intended to tell a story or evoke a series of emotions in the viewer. ... The name ghetto refers to an area where people from a given ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... Nickname: Location in Fulton County and the state of Georgia Coordinates: , Country State Counties Fulton, DeKalb Government  - Mayor Shirley Franklin (D) Area  - City  132. ... Ebony, a magazine for the African American market, was founded by John H. Johnson and has been published since the autumn of 1945. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... Guggenheim Fellowships are awarded annually by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to those who have demonstrated exceptional capacity for productive scholarship or exceptional creative ability in the arts. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... The Chicago Defender announces President Harry S. Trumans order in 1948 desegregating the United States Armed Forces. ... Clark Atlanta University is a private, undergraduate and graduate institution educational institution in Atlanta, Georgia. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A play (noun) is a common literary form, usually consisting chiefly of dialog between characters, and usually intended for performance rather than reading. ... Arna Bontemps, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1938 Arna Wendell Bontemps (October 13, 1902 - June 4, 1973) was an American poet and a noted member of the Harlem Renaissance. ... Generally, patronage is the act of supporting or favoring some person, group, or institution. ... Carl Van Vechten (June 17, 1880 – December 21, 1964) was an American writer and photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein. ... “Blues music” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... A Raisin in the Sun is a play by Lorraine Hansberry that debuted on Broadway in 1959. ...

What happens to a dream deferred?
Does it dry up
like a raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore
And then run?
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar over
like a syrupy sweet?
Maybe it just sags
like a heavy load.
Or does it explode?
Langston Hughes with African writer Chinua Achebe in Lagos, Nigeria, 1962. Achebe was one of the many African American and African writers whom Hughes heavily influenced. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

During the mid 1950s and 1960s, Hughes popularity among the younger generation of black writers varied as his reputation increased worldwide. With the gradual advancement toward racial integration, many black writers considered his writings of black pride and its corresponding subject matter out of date. They considered him a racial chauvinist.[35] He in turn found a number of writers like James Baldwin lacking in this same pride, over intellectualizing in their work, and occasionally vulgar.[36][37][38] Hughes wanted young black writers to be objective about their race, but not scorn or to flee it.[39] With the Black Power movement of the 1960s, though he was able to understand the main points of it, he believed that some of the younger black writers who supported it were too angry in their work. Hughes' posthumously published Panther and the Lash in 1967 was intended to show solidarity and understanding with these writers but with more skill and absent of the most virile anger and terse racial chauvinism some showed toward whites.[40][41][42] Hughes still continued to have admirers among the larger younger generation of black writers who he often helped by offering advice to and introducing to other influential persons in the literature and publishing communities. This latter group, who happened to include Alice Walker who Hughes discovered, looked upon Hughes as a hero and an example to be emulated in degrees and tones within their own work. One of these young black writers observed of Hughes, "Langston set a tone, a standard of brotherhood and friendship and cooperation, for all of us to follow. You never got from him, 'I am the Negro writer,' but only 'I am a Negro writer.' He never stopped thinking about the rest of us."[43] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1079x1099, 552 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Langston Hughes Chinua Achebe ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1079x1099, 552 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Langston Hughes Chinua Achebe ... Chinua Achebe (born November 16, 1930) is a Nigerian novelist and poet, an esteemed and controversial literary critic, and one of the most widely read authors of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Lagos (disambiguation). ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ... James Arthur Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – November 30, 1987) was an American novelist, short story writer, playwright, poet, and essayist, best known for his novel Go Tell It on the Mountain. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Alice Malsenior Walker (born February 9, 1944) is an American author and feminist. ...

Langston Hughes after he was awarded the NAACP Spingarn Medal in 1960, photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Langston Hughes after he was awarded the NAACP Spingarn Medal in 1960, photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

In 1960, the NAACP awarded Hughes the Spingarn Medal for distinguished achievements by an African American. Hughes was inducted into the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1961. In 1973, the first Langston Hughes Medal was awarded by the City College of New York. Image File history File links Hughes_Spingarn_Medal_Ceremony. ... Image File history File links Hughes_Spingarn_Medal_Ceremony. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by a Black American. ... Langston Hughes, National Institure of Arts and Letters This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Langston Hughes Medal is awarded annually to recognize an influential and engagiging African American writer. ... “City College” redirects here. ...


Political views

Hughes, like many black writers and artists of his time, was drawn to the promise of Communism as an alternative to a segregated America. Many of his lesser-known political writings have been collected in two volumes published by the University of Missouri Press and reflect his attraction to Communism. An example is the poem A New Song:[44] Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation...

Langston Hughes, photographed by James Latimer Allen, 1930s
I speak in the name of the black millions
Awakening to action.
Let all others keep silent a moment
I have this word to bring,
This thing to say,
This song to sing:
Bitter was the day
When I bowed my back
Beneath the slaver's whip.
That day is past.
Bitter was the day
When I saw my children unschooled,
My young men without a voice in the world,
My women taken as the body-toys
Of a thieving people.
That day is past.
Bitter was the day, I say,
When the lyncher's rope
Hung about my neck,
And the fire scorched my feet,
And the oppressors had no pity,
And only in the sorrow songs
Relief was found.
That day is past.
I know full well now
Only my own hands,
Dark as the earth,
Can make my earth-dark body free.
O thieves, exploiters, killers,
No longer shall you say
With arrogant eyes and scornful lips:
"You are my servant,
Black man-
I, the free!"
That day is past-
For now,
In many mouths-
Dark mouths where red tongues burn
And white teeth gleam-
New words are formed,
Bitter
With the past
But sweet
With the dream.
Tense,
Unyielding,
Strongand sure,
They sweep the earth-
Revolt! Arise!
The Black
And White World
Shall be one!
The Worker's World!
The past is done!
A new dream flames
Against the
Sun!
Langston Hughes with his friends on board Europa-Bremen, Meschrabpam's American Negro Film Group, June 17, 1932. Seated front center from left to right are Louise Thompson Patterson and Dorothy West. On board ship was also Ralph Bunche who was visiting Paris with Alain Locke. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Langston Hughes with his friends on board Europa-Bremen, Meschrabpam's American Negro Film Group, June 17, 1932. Seated front center from left to right are Louise Thompson Patterson and Dorothy West. On board ship was also Ralph Bunche who was visiting Paris with Alain Locke. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

In 1932, Hughes became part of a group of disparate blacks who went to the Soviet Union to make a film depicting the plight of most blacks living in the United States at the time. The film was never made, but Hughes was given the opportunity to travel extensively through the Soviet Union and to the Soviet controlled regions in Central Asia, the latter parts usually closed to Westerners. In Turkmenistan, Hughes met and befriended the Hungarian polymath Arthur Koestler. Hughes would also manage to travel to China and Japan before returning home to the States. Image File history File links James_Allen_Photograph_of_Hughes_1930s. ... Image File history File links James_Allen_Photograph_of_Hughes_1930s. ... Image File history File links Meschrabpam's_American_Negro_Film_Group. ... Image File history File links Meschrabpam's_American_Negro_Film_Group. ... Louise Thompson Patterson (1901-09-09–1999-08-27) was an American social activist and college professor. ... Dorothy West (June 2, 1907 - August 16, 1998) was a novelist and short story writer who was part of the Harlem Renaissance. ... Ralph Bunche, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1951 Ralph Johnson Bunche (August 7, 1904 – December 9, 1971) was an American political scientist and diplomat who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his mediation in Palestine in the late 1940s that led to an armistice agreement between the Israelis and... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ...


Hughes' poetry was frequently published in the CPUSA newspaper and he was involved in initiatives supported by Communist organizations, such as the drive to free the Scottsboro Boys. Partly as a show of support for the Republican faction during the Spanish Civil War, in 1937 Hughes travelled to Spain as a correspondent for the Baltimore Afro-American and other various African American newspapers. Hughes was also involved in other Communist-led organizations like the John Reed Clubs and the League of Struggle for Negro Rights, even though he was more of a sympathizer than an active participant. He signed a statement in 1938 supporting Joseph Stalin's purges and joined the American Peace Mobilization in 1940 working to keep the U.S. from participating in World War II. Hughes initially did not favor black American involvement in the war because of the irony of U.S. Jim Crow laws existing at the same time a war was being fought against Fascism and the Axis Powers. He came to support the war effort and black American involvement in it after coming to understand that blacks would also be contributing to their struggle for civil rights at home.[45] The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist-Leninist groups in the United States. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... The case of the Scottsboro Boys arose in Scottsboro, Alabama during the 1930s, when nine black youths, ranging in age from thirteen to seventeen, were accused of raping two white women, one of whom would later recant. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... John Reeds signature John Jack Silas Reed (October 22, 1887 – October 19, 1920) was an American journalist, poet, and communist activist, famous for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. ... The League of Struggle for Negro Rights was organized by the Communist Party in 1930 as the successor to the American Negro Labor Congress. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Protest at the White House. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This box:      The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...

Langston Hughes, before the U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations in 1953
Langston Hughes, before the U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations in 1953

Hughes was accused of being a Communist by many on the political right, but he always denied it. When asked why he never joined the Communist Party, he wrote "it was based on strict discipline and the acceptance of directives that I, as a writer, did not wish to accept." In 1953, he was called before the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations led by Senator Joseph McCarthy . Following his appearance, he distanced himself from Communism and was subsequently rebuked by some who had previously supported him on the Radical Left. Over time, Hughes would distance himself from his most radical poems. In 1959 came the publication of his Selected Poems. Absent from this group of poems was his most controversial work. Image File history File links Hughes_Un-American_Subcommittee_Investigation_1953. ... Image File history File links Hughes_Un-American_Subcommittee_Investigation_1953. ... The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSI) of the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs is currently chaired by Senator Norm Coleman (R-MN), with Carl Levin (D-MI) as a ranking member. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSI) of the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs is currently chaired by Senator Norm Coleman (R-MN), with Carl Levin (D-MI) as a ranking member. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... For other persons named Joseph McCarthy, see Joseph McCarthy (disambiguation). ... Radical Left can refer to: 18th century Radicalism was a separate ideology, which was absorbed into liberalism and socialism. ...


Visual Media

In visual media, Hughes has been the subject of two theatrical plays by African American playwrights whose subject matter concerned in part or whole the fact of his being gay, Hannibal of the Alps by Michael Dinwiddie and Paper Armor by Eisa Davis. In the 1989 film, Looking for Langston by British filmmaker Isaac Julien, Hughes is reclaimed as a black gay icon from where there is a consistent attempt to ignore or at least downplay his homosexuality because he is such a towering figure in African American literature; his icon status among the African American community is contingent on his heterosexuality.[46] It has been noted that to retain the respect and support of black churches and organizations and avoid exacerbating his precarious financial situation, Hughes remained closeted.[47] Academics and biographers today acknowledge that Hughes was a homosexual and included homosexual codes in many of his poems, similar in manner to Walt Whitman, whose work Hughes cited as another influence on his poetry, and most patently in the short story Blessed Assurance which deals with a father's anger over his son's effeminacy and queerness.[48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55] Arnold Rampersad, the primary biographer of Hughes, determined that Hughes exhibited a preference for other African American men in his work and life.[56] This love of black men is evidenced in a number of reported unpublished poems to a black male lover.[57] GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca, (247 BC – ca. ... // Critical Synopsis Looking for Langston is the first feature film by British filmaker Isaac Julien. ... Isaac Julien (born 1960 in London, England) is a filmmaker whose work often deals with black gay politics. ... The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For the small enclosed storage space, also known as a cupboard, see closet. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In the theatrical film Get on the Bus, directed by Spike Lee, a black gay character, played by Isaiah Washington, invokes the name of Hughes and punches a homophobic character while commenting, "This is for James Baldwin and Langston Hughes." Get on the Bus is a 1996 film about a group of African-American men who are taking a cross-country bus trip in order to participate in the Million Man March. ... Shelton Jackson Lee (born March 20, 1957, in Atlanta, Georgia), better known as Spike Lee, is an Emmy Award - winning, and Academy Award - nominated American film director, producer, writer, and actor noted for his films dealing with controversial social and political issues. ... Isaiah Washington IV (born August 3, 1963) is an American film and television actor. ... Homophobia is a term used to describe: A culturally determined phobia manifesting as fear, revulsion, or contempt for homosexuality. ...


Also in visual media, the diminutive 5'4" Hughes was portrayed in the 2004 film Brother to Brother by 6'1" actor Daniel Sunjata. Prior to this film, in 2003, Hughes was portrayed as a teenager by actor Gary LeRoi Gray in the short film Salvation that was based on a portion of his autobiography the Big Sea.[58] Brother to Brother is a film written and directed by Rodney Evans and released in 2004. ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... Daniel Sunjata in the 2004 film Brother to Brother Daniel Sunjata Condon (b. ... Gary LeRoi Gray (born February 12, 1986 in Yonkers,New York) is an African-American actor and voice actor involved with movies, television, and animation. ... Short subject is an American film industry term that historically has referred to any film in the format of two reels, or approximately 20 minutes running time, or less. ... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ...


Regarding documentary film, the New York Center for Visual History included Langston Hughes as part of its Voices & Visions series of notable writers. Hughes' Dream Harlem by producer and director Jamal Joseph and distributed through California Newsreel is another such film where Hughes' steadfast racial pride and artistic independence is discussed. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... A film producer creates the conditions for making movies. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... California Newsreel is an American film distribution company based in San Francisco, California, and established in 1968. ...


Bibliography

Fine Clothes to the Jew by Langston Hughes, 1927. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Fine Clothes to the Jew by Langston Hughes, 1927. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 430 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (721 × 1006 pixel, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // Source Download: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 430 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (721 × 1006 pixel, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // Source Download: http://www. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ...

Poetry

  • The Weary Blues. Knopf, 1926
  • Fine Clothes to the Jew. Knopf, 1927
  • The Negro Mother and Other Dramatic Recitations, 1931
  • Dear Lovely Death, 1931
  • The Dream Keeper and Other Poems. Knopf, 1932
  • Scottsboro Limited: Four Poems and a Play. N.Y.: Golden Stair Press, 1932
  • Shakespeare in Harlem. Knopf, 1942
  • Freedom's Plow. 1943
  • Fields of Wonder. Knopf,1947
  • One-Way Ticket. 1949
  • Montage of a Dream Deferred. Holt, 1951
  • Selected Poems of Langston Hughes. 1958
  • Ask Your Mama: 12 Moods for Jazz. Hill & Wang, 1961
  • The Panther and the Lash: Poems of Our Times, 1967
  • The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. Knopf, 1994
  • Let America Be America Again 2005.

Fiction

The Best of Simple by Langston Hughes, 1961. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
The Best of Simple by Langston Hughes, 1961. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
  • Not Without Laughter. Knopf, 1930
  • The Ways of White Folks. Knopf, 1934
  • Simple Speaks His Mind. 1950
  • Laughing to Keep from Crying, Holt, 1952
  • Simple Takes a Wife. 1953
  • Sweet Flypaper of Life, photographs by Roy DeCarava. 1955
  • Simple Stakes a Claim. 1957
  • Tambourines to Glory (book), 1958
  • The Best of Simple. 1961
  • Simple's Uncle Sam. 1965
  • Something in Common and Other Stories. Hill & Wang, 1963
  • Short Stories of Langston Hughes. Hill & Wang, 1996

Image File history File links Simple. ... Image File history File links Simple. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... Not Without Laughter is a novel written by Langston Hughes in 1930. ... Roy DeCarava (born 1919) is an American photographer. ...

Non-Fiction

  • The Big Sea. New York: Knopf, 1940
  • Famous American Negroes. 1954
  • Marian Anderson: Famous Concert Singer. 1954
  • I Wonder as I Wander. New York: Rinehart & Co., 1956
  • A Pictorial History of the Negro in America, with Milton Meltzer. 1956
  • Famous Negro Heroes of America. 1958
  • Fight for Freedom: The Story of the NAACP. 1962

Marian Anderson (February 27, 1897 – April 8, 1993),[1] was an American contralto, perhaps best remembered for her performance on Easter Sunday, 1939 on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. // Anderson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Milton Meltzer (born May 8, 1915) is an American historian and author best known for his history nonfiction books on Jewish, African-American and American history. ...

Major Plays

Don't You Want to Be Free? (1938) by Langston Hughes was performed for his Harlem Suitcase Theatre in Harlem. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Don't You Want to Be Free? (1938) by Langston Hughes was performed for his Harlem Suitcase Theatre in Harlem. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
  • Mule Bone, with Zora Neale Hurston. 1931
  • Mulatto. 1935 (renamed The Barrier, an opera, in 1950)
  • Troubled Island, with William Grant Still. 1936
  • Little Ham. 1936
  • Emperor of Haiti. 1936
  • Don't You Want to be Free? 1938
  • Street Scene, contributed lyrics. 1947
  • Tambourines to glory. 1956
  • Simply Heavenly. 1957
  • Black Nativity. 1961
  • Five Plays by Langston Hughes. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1963.
  • Jericho-Jim Crow. 1964

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (437x700, 53 KB) // [edit] Summary [edit] Summary Source Download: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (437x700, 53 KB) // [edit] Summary [edit] Summary Source Download: http://www. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... William Grant Still William Grant Still (May 11, 1895 - December 3, 1978) was an African-American classical composer who wrote more than 150 compositions. ... Street Scene is a Broadway musical or, more precisely, an American Opera by Kurt Weill (music), Langston Hughes (lyrics), and Elmer Rice (book), based on Rices play of the same name. ... Black Nativity is a re-telling of the classic Nativity story with an entirely black cast. ... Jericho-Jim Crow is a critically acclaimed 1964 play written by Langston Hughes. ...

Works for Children

  • Popo and Fifina, with Arna Bontemps. 1932
  • The First Book of the Negroes. 1952
  • The First Book of Jazz. 1954
  • The First Book of Rhythms. 1954
  • The First Book of the West Indies. 1956
  • First Book of Africa. 1964

Other

  • The Langston Hughes Reader. New York: Braziller, 1958.
  • Good Morning Revolution: Uncollected Social Protest Writings by Langston Hughes. Lawrence Hill, 1973.
  • The Collected Works of Langston Hughes. Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 2001.

Notes

  1. ^ West.Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance, 2003, p.160
  2. ^ Hughes recalled his maternal grandmother’s stories: "Through my grandmother’s stories life always moved, moved heroically toward an end. Nobody ever cried in my grandmother’s stories. They worked, schemed, or fought. But no crying." Rampesad, Arnold & Roessel, David (2002). The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. p.620
    Langston Hughes with neighborhood children at the Children's Garden, 1955. To prevent the neighborhood children from routinely trampling on the small patch of earth beside the front steps of his Harlem residence, Hughes conceived of a tiny garden planted and kept by the children. It was named the Children's Garden. On a picket beside each plant was posted a child's name. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
  3. ^ The poem Aunt Sues’s Stories (1921) is an oblique tribute to his grandmother and his loving Auntie Mary Reed. Rampersad.vol.1, 1986, p.43
  4. ^ Imbued by his grandmother with a duty to help his race, he identified with neglected and downtrodden blacks all his life, and glorified them in his work. Brooks, Gwendolyn, (Oct. 12, 1986). The Darker Brother. The New York Times
  5. ^ Langston Hughes Reads his poetry with commentary, audiotape from Caedmon Audio
  6. ^ Langston Hughes, Writer, 65, Dead. (May 23, 1967). The New York Times
  7. ^ Langston Hughes, The Big Sea (1940), pp.54-56
  8. ^ James Hughes, a wealthy lawyer and landowner and himself a black man, hated both the racism of the North and Negroes, whom he portrayed in crude racial caricature. Smith, Dinitia (Nov. 26, 1997). Child’s Tale About Race Has a Tale of Its Own. The New York Times
  9. ^ And the father, Hughes said, "hated Negroes. I think he hated himself, too, for being a Negro. He disliked all of his family because they were Negroes." James Hughes was tightfisted, uncharitable, cold. Brooks, Gwendolyn, (Oct. 12, 1986). The Darker Brother. The New York Times
  10. ^ Rampersad.vol.1, 1986, p.56
  11. ^ Poem or To. F.S. first appeared in The Crisis in May 1925, and was reprinted in The Weary Blues and The Dream Keeper. Hughes never publicly identified F.S., but it is conjectured he was Ferdinand Smith, a merchant seaman whom the poet first met in New York in the early 1920s. Nine years older than Hughes, Smith first influenced the poet to go to sea. Born in Jamaica in 1893, Smith spent most of his life as a ship steward and political activist at sea--and later in New York as a resident of Harlem. Smith was deported back to Jamaica for alleged Communist activities and illegal alien status in 1951. Hughes corresponded with Smith up until 1961, when Smith died. Berry, p.347
  12. ^ In 1926, a patron of Hughes, Amy Spingarn, wife of Joel Elias Spingarn, provided the funds ($300) for him to attend Lincoln University. Rampersad.vol.1, 1986,p.122-23
  13. ^ In November of 1927, Charlotte Osgood Mason, (“Godmother” as she liked to be called), became Hughes' major patron. Rampersad. vol.1,1986,p.156
  14. ^ Whitaker, Charles.Ebony magazine In Langston Hughes:100th birthday celebration of the poet of Black America. April 2002.
  15. ^ Jean Carlson(2007). [1]Retrieved June 30, 2007.
  16. ^ The Negro Speaks of Rivers: First published in Crisis (June 1921), p.17. Included in The Weary Blues, Langston Hughes Reader, and Selected Poems. In The Weary Blues, the poem is dedicated to W.E.B. Du Bois. The dedication does not appear in later printings of the poem. Hughes' first and last published poems appeared in The Crisis; more of his poems appeared in The Crisis than in any other journal. Rampesad, Arnold & Roessel, David (2002). In The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. p.23 & p.620, Knopf
  17. ^ Hughes "disdained the rigid class and color differences the 'best people' drew between themselves and Afro-Americans of darker complextion, of smaller means and lesser formal education. Berry, 1983 & 1992, p.60
  18. ^ "....but his tastes and selectivity were not always accurate, and pressures to survive as a black writer in a white society (and it was a miracle that he did for so long) extracted an enormous creative toll. Nevertheless, Hughes, more than any other black poet or writer, recorded faithfully the nuances of black life and its frustrations." Patterson, Lindsay (June 29, 1969). Langston Hughes--The Most Abused Poet in America? The New York Times
    On February 1, 2002, The United States Postal Service added to its Black Heritage series of stamps the image of Langston Hughes. Photograph courtesty of the United States Postal Service
  19. ^ Brooks, Gwendolyn, (Oct. 12, 1986). The Darker Brother. The New York Times
  20. ^ Rampesad, Arnold & Roessel, David (2002). The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. p.3
  21. ^ Rampersad,1988,vol.2,p.418
  22. ^ West. 2003, p.162
  23. ^ My People: First published as Poem in Crisis (Oct.1923), p. 162, and The Weary Blues (1926). The title My People was used in The Dream Keeper (1932) and the Selected Poems of Langston Hughes (1959). Rampersad, Arnold & Roessel, David (2002). In The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. p.36 & p.623, Knopt.
  24. ^ Rampersad.vol.2, 1988, p.297
  25. ^ Rampersad.vol.1, 1986, p. 91
  26. ^ Mercer Cook, African American scholar of French culture: "His (Langston Hughes) work had a lot to do with the famous concept of Négritude, of black soul and feeling, that they were beginning to develop." Rampersad.vol.1, 1986, p. 343
  27. ^ Rampersad.vol.1, 1986, p. 343
  28. ^ Charlotte Mason generously supported him (Hughes) for two years. She supervised the writing of his first novel, Not Without Laughter (1930). Her patronage of Hughes ended about the time the novel appeared. Rampersad. Langston Hughes. In The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature, 2001, p.207
  29. ^ Noel Sullivan, after working out an agreement with Hughes, became a patron for him in 1933. Rampersad. vol.1, 1986, p.277
  30. ^ Sullivan provided Hughes with the opportunity to complete the The Ways of White Folks (1934) in Carmel, California. Hughes stayed a year in a cottage Sullivan provided for him to work in. Rampersad. Langston Hughes. In The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature, 2001, p.207
  31. ^ Rampersad. “Langston Hughes.” In The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature.2001.p.207
  32. ^ Co-written with Clarence Muse, African American Hollywood actor and musician. Rampersad.vol.1, 1986, p. 366-69
  33. ^ Gwendolyn Brooks, who met Hughes when she was 16 says, "I met Langston Hughes when I was 16 years old, and saw enough of him in subsequent years to observe that, when subjected to offense and icy treatment because of his race, he was capable of jagged anger - and vengeance, instant or retroactive. And I have letters from him that reveal he could respond with real rage when he felt he was treated cruelly by other people. Brooks, Gwendolyn, (Oct. 12, 1986). The Darker Brother. The New York Times
    Langston Hughes with fellow African American writer Gwendolyn Brooks for the promotion of The Poetry of the Negro in Chicago, 1949. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
    Langston Hughes with fellow African American writer Gwendolyn Brooks for the promotion of The Poetry of the Negro in Chicago, 1949. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
  34. ^ Harlem(2): Reprinted in Selected Poems of Langston Hughs under the title Dream Deferred. Rampesad, Arnold & Roessel, David (2002). In The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. p.426 & p.676, Knopf
  35. ^ Rampersad,1988,vol.2,p.207
  36. ^ Langstons’s misgivings about the new black writing mainly concerned its emphasis on black criminality and on profanity. Rampersad, vol.2,p.207
  37. ^ Hughes said, "There are millions of blacks who never murder anyone, or rape or get raped or want to rape, who never lust after white bodies, or cringe before white stupidity, or Uncle Tom, or go crazy with race, or off-balance with frustration." Rampersad, p.119, vol.2
  38. ^ Langston eargerly looked to the day when the gifted young writers of his race would go beyond the clamor of civil rights and integration and take a genuine pride in being black....he found this latter quality starkly absent in even the best of them....Rampersad, vol. 2, p.310
  39. ^ Rampersad.vol.2, 1988, p. 297
  40. ^ "As for whites in general, Hughes did not like them...He felt he had been exploited and humiliated by them." Rampersad, 1988,vol.2,p.338
  41. ^ Hughes' advice on how to deal with racists was "'Always be polite to them...be over-polite. Kill them with kindness.' But, he insisted on recognizing that all whites are not racist, and definitely enjoyed the company of those who sought him out in friendship and with respect." Rampersad, 1988,vol.2,p.368
  42. ^ Langston Hughes’ critics have said that he was racist against whites. I would agree with that statement but would also say that Hughes had seen enough poor judgement in whites across the globe to feel that way. It is interesting that on the inside cover of The Ways of White Folks, Hughes says To Noel Sullivan, The ways of white folks; I mean some white folks… (The Ways of White Folks…inside cover). This clearly shows that Hughes saw the good in some whites and was not entirely militant in his thought. Seat, Rob(2000). An Analization of Langston Hughes.Retrieved September 7, 2006
  43. ^ Rampersad,1988,vol.2,p.409
    The Ways of White Folks by Langston Hughes, 1934. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
    The Ways of White Folks by Langston Hughes, 1934. Photograph courtesy of Yale University Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
  44. ^ A New Song: The end of the poem was substantially changed when it was included in A New Song (New York: International Workers Order, 1938). The first version, in Opportunity (Jan. 1933), p. 123, and Crisis (March 1933), p.59. reads after line 39:
    New words are formed,
    Bitter
    With the past
    And sweet
    with the dream.
    Tense, silent,
    Without a sound.
    They fall unuttered--
    Yet heard everywhere:
    Take care!
    Black world
    Against the wall,
    Open your eyes--
    The long white snake of greed has struck to kill!
    Be wary and
    Be wise!
    Before
    The darker world
    The future lies.
    Rampesad, Arnold & Roessel, David (2002). In The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. p.170 & p.643, Knopf
  45. ^ Irma Cayton, African American, said "He had told me that it wasn't our war, it wasn't our business, there was too much Jim Crow. But he had changed his mind about all that." Rampersad,1988,vol.2,p.85
  46. ^ Highleyman, Liz. (February 27, 2004)Past Out: Langston Hughes' legacy Retrieved October 15, 2006
  47. ^ Aldrich, (2001), p.200
  48. ^ Nero, Charles I. (1997).Queer Reprensentations: Reading Lives, Reading Cultures. In Martin Duberman (Ed.), Re/Membering Langston, p.192. New York University Press
  49. ^ Yale Symposium, Was Langston Gay? commemorating the 100th birthday of Hughes in 2002
    Jean Blackwell Hutson and Langston Hughes pictured at the Schomburg Collection with Pietro Calvi's bust of Ira Aldridge as Othello, 1948. Photograph courtesy of Arthur Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
    Jean Blackwell Hutson and Langston Hughes pictured at the Schomburg Collection with Pietro Calvi's bust of Ira Aldridge as Othello, 1948. Photograph courtesy of Arthur Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
  50. ^ Schwarz, pp.68-88
  51. ^ Although Hughes was extremely closeted, some of his poems hint at his homosexuality. These include: Joy, Desire, Cafe: 3 A.M., Waterfront Streets, Young Sailor, Trumpet Player, Tell Me, F.S. and some poems in Montage of a Dream Deferred. Langston Hughes page [2] Retrieved January 10, 2007
  52. ^ ...Cafe 3 A.M. was against gay bashing by police, and Poem for F.S. which was about his friend Ferdinand Smith. Nero, Charles I. (1999), p.500
  53. ^ Nero, Charles. Gay Literature. In The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature, 2001, p.161
  54. ^ Jean Blackwell Hutson, former chief of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, said, “He was always eluding marriage. He said marriage and career didn’t work.....It wasn’t until his later years that I became convinced he was homosexual.” Hutson & Nelson. Essence magazine, February 1992. p.96
  55. ^ "Though there were infrequent and half-hearted affairs with women, most people considered Hughes asexual, insistent on a skittish, carefree 'innocence.' In fact, he was a closeted homosexual...."McClatchy,J.D. (2002).Langston Hughes: Voice of the Poet. New York: Random House Audio, p.12
  56. ^ "Referring to men of African descent, Rampersad writes "...Hughes found some young men, especially dark-skinned men, appealing and sexully fascinating. (Both in his various artistic representations, in fiction especially, and in his life, he appears to have found young white men of little sexual appeal.) Virile young men of very dark complexion fascinated him. Rampersad, vol.2,1988,p.336
  57. ^ Sandra West explicitly states Hughes' "apparent love for black men as evidenced through a series of unpublished poems he wrote to a black male lover named 'Beauty'." West,2003. p.162
  58. ^ IMDb[3]Retrieved November 4,2006
Page from The Negro Mother & Other Dramatic Recitations (1931) by Langston Hughes and illustrated by Prentiss Taylor. With the aide of Carl Van Vechten, Hughes and Taylor created the short-lived Golden Stair Press. Photograph courtesy of the Archives of American Art of the Smithsonian Institution

Also see: 2002 (number). ... Image File history File links Hughes_with_children. ... Image File history File links Hughes_with_children. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... Ebony, a magazine for the African American market, was founded by John H. Johnson and has been published since the autumn of 1945. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (457x706, 59 KB) // Source Download: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (457x706, 59 KB) // Source Download: http://www. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... Clarence Muse (October 14, 1889 – October 13, 1979), lawyer, screenwriter, director, composer, and actor. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (980x1118, 163 KB)Source: Downloaded from http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (980x1118, 163 KB)Source: Downloaded from http://www. ... Gwendolyn Elizabeth Brooks (June 7, 1917 – December 3, 2000) was an award-winning African American woman poet. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (549 × 768 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // Source Download: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (549 × 768 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // Source Download: http://www. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... Image File history File links Hughes_and_blackwell_schomburg_center. ... Image File history File links Hughes_and_blackwell_schomburg_center. ... Ira Aldridge as Mungo in The Padlock, 1820s or 1830s Ira Frederick Aldridge (July 24, 1807 New York City – 7 August 1867 Łódź) was an American stage actor who made his career largely on the London stage. ... For other uses, see Othello (disambiguation). ... The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture is part of the New York Public Library. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (400x620, 64 KB) // [edit] Summary Source Download: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (400x620, 64 KB) // [edit] Summary Source Download: http://www. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...

References

  • Aldrich, Robert (2001). Who's Who in Gay & Lesbian History. Routledge. ISBN 041522974X
  • Bernard, Emily (2001). Remember Me to Harlem: The Letters of Langston Hughes and Carl Van Vechten, 1925-1964. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-45113-7
  • Berry, Faith (1983.1992,). Langston Hughes: Before and Beyond Harlem. In On the Cross of the South, p.150; & Zero Hour, p.185-186. Citadel Press ISBN 0-517-14769-6
  • Hutson, Jean Blackwell; & Nelson, Jill (February 1992). "Remembering Langston". Essence magazine, p.96.
  • Joyce, Joyce A. (2004). A Historical Guide to Langston Hughes. In Steven C. Tracy (Ed.), Hughes and Twentieth-Century Genderracial Issues, p.136. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-514434-1
  • Nero, Charles I. (1997).Queer Reprensentations: Reading Lives, Reading Cultures. In Martin Duberman (Ed.), Re/Membering Langston, p.192. New York University Press ISBN 0814718833
  • Nero, Charles I. (1999).Columbia Reader on Lesbians and Gay Men in Media, Society, and Politics. In Larry P. Gross & James D. Woods (Eds.), In Free Speech or Hate Speech: Pornography and its Means of Production, p.500. Culumbia University press ISBN 0231104472
  • Nichols, Charles H. (1980). Arna Bontempts-Langston Hughes Letters, 1925-1967. Dodd, Mead & Company. ISBN 0-396-07687-4
  • Ostrom, Hans (1993). Langston Hughes: A Study of the Short Fiction. New York: Twayne. ISBN 0805783431
  • Ostrom, Hans (2002). A Langston Hughes Encyclopedia. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002. ISBN 0313303924
  • Rampersad, Arnold (1986). The Life of Langston Hughes Volume 1: I, Too, Sing America. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-514642-5
  • Rampersad, Arnold (1988). The Life of Langston Hughes Volume 2: I Dream A World. In Ask Your Mama!, p.336. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-514643-3
  • Schwarz, Christa A.B. (2003). Gay Voices of the Harlem Renaissance. In Langston Hughes: A "true 'people's poet",pp.68-88.Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-21607-9
  • West, Sandra L. (2003). Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance. In Aberjhani & Sandra West (Ed.), Langston Hughes, p.162. Checkmark Press ISBN 0-8160-4540-2

Essence Magazine is an American fashion and lifestyle magazine. ... Hans Ostrom, born 1954, is an American professor, writer, editor, and scholar. ... Hans Ostrom, born 1954, is an American professor, writer, editor, and scholar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

See also

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Langston Hughes
African American Portal
Persondata
NAME Hughes, Langston
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Poet, playwright, novelist
DATE OF BIRTH February 1, 1902
PLACE OF BIRTH Joplin, Missouri
DATE OF DEATH May 22, 1967
PLACE OF DEATH New York, New York

  Results from FactBites:
 
The My Hero Project - Langston Hughes (876 words)
Langston Hughes was born in Joplin, Missouri, in 1902 to a family of abolitionists.
Hughes went on to receive both Guggenheim and Rosenwald fellowships and was nicknamed the "Poet Laureate of Harlem." Several years after his death from cancer in 1967, Hughes' residence in Harlem was given landmark status by the New York City Preservation Commission; in 1969, the Langston Hughes Community Library and Cultural Center opened.
Langston Hughes was nicknamed the Poet Laureate of Harlem.
Langston Hughes - MSN Encarta (579 words)
Langston Hughes (1902-1967), American writer, known for using the rhythms of jazz and of everyday fl speech in his poetry.
James Mercer Langston Hughes was born on February 1, 1902, in Joplin, Missouri, and educated at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania.
Hughes wrote in many genres, but he is best known for his poetry, in which he disregarded classical forms in favor of musical rhythms and the oral and improvisatory traditions of fl culture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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