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Encyclopedia > Landslide
Landslide of soil and regolith in Pakistan
Landslide of soil and regolith in Pakistan

A landslide is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows, which can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments. Although the action of gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, there are other contributing factors affecting the original slope stability. Typically, pre-conditional factors build up specific sub-surface conditions that make the area/slope prone to failure, whereas the actual landslide often requires a trigger before being released. A Landslide is a geological phenomenon. ... Rockslide is the codename of Santo Vaccarro, a fictional character, a mutant in the Marvel Universe, one of the student body in the Xavier Institute and a member of the former Hellions squad therein. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (876x592, 400 KB) Beschreibung: En: Landslides block the road (Karakoram Highway)frequently for several hours or even days. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (876x592, 400 KB) Beschreibung: En: Landslides block the road (Karakoram Highway)frequently for several hours or even days. ... Regolith (Greek: blanket rock) is a layer of loose, heterogeneous material covering solid rock. ... A Geological phenomenon is a phenomenon which is explained by or sheds light on the science of geology. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Figure 1: Simple slope slip section The field of slope stability encompasses the analysis of static and dynamic stability of slopes of earth and rock-fill dams, slopes of other types of embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and soft rock. ...

Contents

Causes of landslides

The Mameyes Landslide, which buried more than 100 homes, was caused by extensive accumulation of rains and, according to some sources, lightning.
The Mameyes Landslide, which buried more than 100 homes, was caused by extensive accumulation of rains and, according to some sources, lightning.
Main article: Causes of landslides

Landslides are caused when the stability of a slope changes from a stable to an unstable condition. A change in the stability of a slope can be caused by a number of factors, acting together or alone: Image File history File links Mameyes. ... Image File history File links Mameyes. ... Lowest pressure 997 mbar (hPa; 29. ... Example of landslide causation and triggering Landslides are events that occur in space and time. ... Figure 1: Simple slope slip section The field of slope stability encompasses the analysis of static and dynamic stability of slopes of earth and rock-fill dams, slopes of other types of embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and soft rock. ...


Natural causes:

Human causes: Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... Soil structure is determined by how individual soil granules clump or bind together and aggregate. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Surface waves in water This article is about waves in the most general scientific sense. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... This article is about precipitation. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Soil liquefaction describes the behavior of water saturated soil when its behavior changes from that of a solid to that of a liquid. ... The Hope Slide was the largest landslide ever recorded in Canada. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...

Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Earthworks can refer to: Civil engineering earthworks based on moving massive quantites of soil; The Earthworks audio equipment company; The novel Earthworks by Brian Aldiss; The earthworks style of art. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Aerial view of mixed aspen-spruce forest in Alaska Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover life forms, structure, spatial extent or any other specific botanical or geographic characteristics. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ...

Types of landslide

Main article: Landslide classification

Debris flow

Slope material that becomes saturated with water may develop into a debris flow or mud flow. The resulting slurry of rock and mud may pick up trees, houses, and cars, thus blocking bridges and tributaries causing flooding along its path. The term saturation generally means thoroughly full, and can refer to the following: In chemistry, see saturation (chemistry) for a number of meanings. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Scars formed by debris flow in great Los Angeles during the winter of 1968-1969. ... A mudflow or mudslide is the most rapid (up to 80 km/h) and fluid type of downhill mass wasting. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... This article is about the structure. ... A tributary (or affluent or confluent) is a contributory stream, a river that does not reach the sea, but joins another major river (a parent river), to which it contributes its waters, swelling its discharge. ... A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ...


Debris flow is often mistaken for flash flood, but they are entirely different processes. Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of sandstone by flash floods A Flash Flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas (washes), rivers and streams, caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ...


Muddy-debris flows in alpine areas cause severe damage to structures and infrastructure and often claim human lives. Muddy-debris flows can start as a result of slope-related factors, and shallow landslides can dam stream beds, provoking temporary water blockage. As the impoundments fail, a "domino effect" may be created, with a remarkable growth in the volume of the flowing mass, which takes up the debris in the stream channel. The solid-liquid mixture can reach densities of up to 2 tons/m³ and velocities of up to 14 m/s (Chiarle and Luino, 1998; Arattano, 2003). These processes normally cause the first severe road interruptions, due not only to deposits accumulated on the road (from several cubic metres to hundreds of cubic metres), but in some cases to the complete removal of bridges or roadways or railways crossing the stream channel. Damage usually derive from a common underestimation of mud-debris flows: in the alpine valleys, for example, bridges are frequently destroyed by the impact force of the flow because their span is usually calculated only for a water discharge. For a small basin in the Italian Alps (area = 1.76 km²) affected by a debris flow, Chiarle and Luino (1998)[citation needed] estimated a peak discharge of 750 m3/s for a section located in the middle stretch of the main channel. At the same cross section, the maximum foreseeable water discharge (by HEC-1), was 19 m³/s, a value about 40 times lower than that calculated for the debris flow that occurred. Alpine may refer to: Alpine, a breed of goat. ... The bed of this stream is made up of rocks, some very rounded (having had a longer life in the stream) and some not. ... Domino redirects here—for other meanings of the word, see Domino (disambiguation). ... Debris (French, pronounced (IPA) dibri) is a word used to describe the remains of something that has been otherwise destroyed. ...


Earth flow

A rock slide in Guerrero, Mexico.
A rock slide in Guerrero, Mexico.

Earthflows are downslope, viscous flows of saturated, fine-grained materials, that move at any speed from slow to fast. Typically, they can move at speeds from .17 to 20 km/h. Though these are a lot like mudflows, overall they are slower moving and are covered with solid material carried along by flow from within. They are different from fluid flows in that they are more rapid. Clay, fine sand and silt, and fine-grained, pyroclastic material are all susceptible to earthflows. The velocity of the earthflow is all dependent on how much water content is in the flow itself: if there is more water content in the flow, the higher the velocity will be. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 437 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1052 × 1444 pixel, file size: 229 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken in August, 1989. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 437 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1052 × 1444 pixel, file size: 229 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken in August, 1989. ... Location within Central America Country Mexico Capital Municipalities 76 Largest City Acapulco Government  - Governor Carlos Zeferino Torreblanca Galindo (PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRD: 9  - Federal Senators PRD: 2 PRI: 1 Area Ranked 14th  - Total 64,281 km² (24,819 sq mi) Population (2005)  - Total 3,115,202(Ranked 11th) Time zone... A mudflow or mudslide is the most rapid (up to 80 km/h) and fluid type of downhill mass wasting. ...


These flows usually begin when the pore pressures in a fine-grained mass increase until enough of the weight of the material is supported by pore water to significantly decrease the internal shearing strength of the material. This thereby creates a bulging lobe which advances with a slow, rolling motion. As these lobes spread out, drainage of the mass increases and the margins dry out, thereby lowering the overall velocity of the flow. This process causes the flow to thicken. The bulbous variety of earthflows are not that spectacular, but they are much more common than their rapid counterparts. They develop a sag at their heads and are usually derived from the slumping at the source.


Earthflows occur much more during periods of high precipitation, which saturates the ground and adds water to the slope content. Fissures develop during the movement of clay-like material creates the intrusion of water into the earthflows. Water then increases the pore-water pressure and reduces the shearing strength of the material.[1]


Sturzstrom

A sturzstrom is a rare, poorly understood type of landslide, typically with a long run-out. Often very large, these slides are unusually mobile, flowing very far over a low angle, flat, or even slightly uphill terrain. They are suspected of "riding" on a blanket of pressurized air, thus reducing friction with the current underlying surface. A sturzstrom is a rare, unique type of landslide. ...

See also: Slump

For the anime and manga, see Dr. Slump. ...

Shallow landslide

Block glide at Mile Marker 23 along I-99 in Blair County, Pennsylvania. Part of a hill of Devonian shale was removed to make the road, forming a dip-slope. The upper block detached along a bedding plane and is sliding down the hill, forming a jumbled pile of rock at the toe of the slide.
Block glide at Mile Marker 23 along I-99 in Blair County, Pennsylvania. Part of a hill of Devonian shale was removed to make the road, forming a dip-slope. The upper block detached along a bedding plane and is sliding down the hill, forming a jumbled pile of rock at the toe of the slide.

Landslide in which the sliding surface is located within the soil mantle or weathered bedrock (typically to a depth from few decimetres to some metres). They usually include debris slides, debris flow, and failures of road cut-slopes. Landslides occurring as single large blocks of rock moving slowly down slope are sometimes called block glides. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Interstate 99 is a part of the US Interstate highway system. ... Blair County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... Weathered is an album by Creed, released on November 20, 2001. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ... Scars formed by debris flow in great Los Angeles during the winter of 1968-1969. ...


Shallow landslides can often happen in areas that have slopes with high permeable soils on top of low permeable bottom soils. The low permeable, bottom soils trap the water in the shallower, high permeable soils creating high water pressure in the top soils. As the top soils are filled with water and become heavy, slopes can become very unstable and slide over the low permeable bottom soils. Say there is a slope with silt and sand as its top soil and bedrock as its bottom soil. During an intense rainstorm, the bedrock will keep the rain trapped in the top soils of silt and sand. As the topsoil becomes saturated and heavy, it can start to slide over the bedrock and become a shallow landslide. R. H. Campbell did a study on shallow landslides on Santa Cruz Island California. He notes that if permeability decreases with depth, a perched water table may develop in soils at intense precipitation. When pore water pressures are sufficent to reduce effective normal stress to a critical level, failure occurs. [2]


Deep-seated landslide

Landslides in which the sliding surface is mostly deeply located below the maximum rooting depth of trees (typically to depths greater than ten metres). Deep-seated landslides usually involve deep regolith, weathered rock, and/or bedrock and include large slope failure associated with translational, rotational, or complex movement. Regolith (Greek: blanket rock) is a layer of loose, heterogeneous material covering solid rock. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ...


Related phenomena

  • An avalanche, similar in mechanism to a landslide, involves a large amount of ice, snow and rock falling quickly down the side of a mountain.
  • A pyroclastic flow is caused by a collapsing cloud of hot ash, gas and rocks from a volcanic explosion that moves rapidly down an erupting volcano.

A Himalayan avalanche near Mount Everest. ... Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current) is a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... Ash plume from Mt Cleveland, a stratovolcano Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash consists of very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...

Historical landslides

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Hope Slide was the largest landslide ever recorded in Canada. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The three Storegga Slides count among the largest recorded landslides. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... Heart Mountain is an 8123-foot (2476 m) peak just north of Cody in the U.S. state of Wyoming, sticking up from the floor of the Bighorn Basin. ... Park County is a county located in the state of Wyoming. ... The Undercliff is a long cliff which stretches along the south coast of the Isle of Wight from St Lawrence, near Ventnor in the east, to St. ... , Lyme Regis (IPA: ) is a coastal town in West Dorset, England, situated 25 miles west of Dorchester and 25 miles east of Exeter. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Quebec rockslide occurred on September 19, 1889, after a day of heavy rain in Quebec City, Canada. ... Frank Slide, Turtle Mountain, Alberta, Canada The Frank Slide is a natural landslide feature in the southern Rocky Mountains of Canada, and a significant historical event in western Canada. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... The Riñihuazo is the name given to the damming of Riñihue Lake after that during Great Chilean Earthquake a landslide blocked its outflow. ... Map showing the areas affected by the tsunami The Great Chilean Earthquake or Valdivian Earthquake (Terremoto de Valdivia in Spanish) of 22 May 1960 is the most intense earthquake ever recorded, rating a 9. ... Monte Toc is a mountain in Northern Italy best known for the Vajont Dam, which was built at the mountains base in 1960. ... Vajont Dam is a dam completed in 1961 under Mount Toc, 100 km north of Venice, Italy. ... Megatsunami (often hyphenated as mega-tsunami, also known as iminami or wave of purification) is an informal term used mostly by popular media and popular scientific societies to describe a very large tsunami wave beyond the typical size reached by most tsunamis. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... The Aberfan disaster occurred on Friday, October 21, 1966, at 9:15am. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For the mountain in California, see Mount Saint Helena. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Thistle is a ghost town in Sanpete County, Utah, United States. ... Lowest pressure 997 mbar (hPa; 29. ... This article is about Puerto Ricos municipality. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Thredbo landslide was a catastrophic landslide that occurred at the village and ski resort of Thredbo, New South Wales, Australia. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The 1999 Vargas mudslide is a disaster that struck the Vargas state of Venezuela. ... Vargas State Anthem Location whithin Venezuela Created (given current status) 1997¹ State capital La Güaira Area 1,496 km² Population (2001 est. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Southern Leyte mudslide Southern Leyte mudslide Saint Bernard within Southern Leyte. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Devils Slide is a notorious stretch of Californias Highway 1, along San Mateo Countys coastline between Pacifica and Half Moon Bay. ... San Mateo County is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. ... Location of Chittagong 2007 Chittagong mud slide (Bengali: ) is a natural disaster that occurred in the port city of Chittagong in south-eastern Bangladesh. ... This article is about Chittagong as a city in Bangladesh. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Extraterrestrial landslides

Evidence of past landslides has been detected on many bodies in the solar system, but since most observations are made by probes that only observe for a limited time and most bodies in the solar system appear to be geologically inactive not many landslides are known to have happened in recent times. Both Venus and Mars have been subject to long-term mapping by orbiting satellites, and examples of recent landslides have been observed on both.

See also

An automatic deformation monitoring system is a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent software and hardware elements forming a complex whole for deformation monitoring that, once set up, does not require human input to function. ... Also referred to as Deformation Survey. ... Geotechnics (synonymous: Geotechnique) is the application of scientific methods and engineering principles to the acquisition, interpretation, and use of knowledge of materials of the Earths crust for the solution of engineering problems; the applied science of making the Earth more habitable. ... Bostons Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment. ... Landslides can be triggered by many often concomitant causes. ... Mass wasting, also known as mass movement or slope movement, is the geomorphic process by which soil, regolith, and rock move downslope under the force of gravity. ... Figure 1: Simple slope slip section The field of slope stability encompasses the analysis of static and dynamic stability of slopes of earth and rock-fill dams, slopes of other types of embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and soft rock. ... A landslide dam is a natural damming of a river by some kind of mass wasting: landslide, debris flow, or rock avalanche. ...

References

  1. ^ Easterbrook, Don J. Surface Processes and Landforms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1999.
  2. ^ Renwick,W., Brumbaugh,R. & Loeher,L. 1982. Landslide Morphology and Processes on Santa Cruz Island California. Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, Vol. 64, No. 3/4, pp. 149-159
  3. ^ Dingle,R.V. 1977. The anatomy of a large submarine slump on a sheared continental margin (SE Africa). Journal of Geological Society London, 134, 293-310.
  4. ^ Glissement de terrain à Saint-Jean-Vianney | Les Archives de Radio-Canada

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • United States Geological Survey site
  • European Soil Portal, Landslides
  • British Columbia government landslide information
  • Slide!, a program on B.C.'s Knowledge Network, with video clips
  • Geoscience Australia Fact Sheet [2]
  • Pictures of Slope Failure
  • JTC1 Joint International Technical Committee on Landslides and Engineered Slopes
Bostons Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Void ratio, in materials science, is defined as the volume of voids in a mixture divided by the volume of solids. ... Bulk density a property of particulate materials. ... Thixotropy is the property of some non-newtonian pseudoplastic fluids to show a time-dependent change in viscosity; the longer the fluid undergoes shear, the lower its viscosity. ... Reynolds dilatancy is the observed tendency of a compacted granular material to dilate (expand in volume) as it is sheared. ... The angle of repose, also referred to as angle of friction, is an engineering property of granular materials. ... Cohesion is the component of shear strength of a rock or soil that is independent of interparticle friction. ... Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... In the earth sciences, permeability (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a material (typically, a rock or unconsolidated material) to transmit fluids. ... Specific storage (Ss), storativity (S), specific yield (Sy) and specific capacity are aquifer properties; they are measures of the ability of an aquifer to release groundwater from storage, due to a unit decline in hydraulic head. ... Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ... Effective stress (σ) is a value reflecting the strength of a soil. ... Pore water pressure refers to the pressure of groundwater held within a soil or rock, in gaps between particles (pores). ... Shear strength in reference to soil is a term used to describe the maximum strength of soil at which point significant plastic deformation or yielding occurs due to an applied shear stress. ... Consolidation is a process by which soils decrease in volume. ... Soil compaction occurs when weight of livestock or heavy machinery compresses the soil, causing it to lose pore space. ... Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics as well as criteria that dictate choices in use. ... A type of seismic wave, the S-wave moves in a shear or transverse wave, so motion is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. ... An example of lateral earth pressure overturning a retaining wall. ... A drill rig operator advances a direct push soil sampler. ... The (Dutch) Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is a test to measure the strength or bearing capacity of (soft) soils. ... The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is an in-situ dynamic penetration test designed to provide information on the geotechnical properties of soils. ... Exploration geophysics is the applied branch of geophysics which uses deep and primarily near surface methods to probe or image the earth. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Water borehole in northern Uganda A borehole is a deep and narrow shaft in the ground used for abstraction of fluid or gas reserves below the earths surface. ... The Liquid Limit, also known as the upper plastic limit, and the Atterberg limit, is the water content at which a soil changes from the liquid state to a plastic state. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A direct shear test is a laboratory test used by Professional Engineer Mohamed Fazlin to find the shear strength parameters of soil. ... A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water. ... The Proctor compaction test, and the related Modified Proctor compaction test, are tests to determine the maximum practically-achievable density of soils and aggregates, and are frequently used in geotechnical engineering. ... The R-Value test, California Test 301, measures the response of a compacted sample of soil or aggregate to a vertically applied pressure under specific conditions. ... A sieve analysis is a practice or procedure used to assess the particle size distribution of a granular material. ... A triaxial shear test is a common method to measure the mechanical properties of many deformable solids, especially soil, sand, clay, and other granular materials or powders. ... Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Crosshole sonic logging is a method to verify the integrity of drilled shafts and other concrete piles. ... Shallow foundations of a house A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the ground. ... In geotechnical engineering, bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. ... A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. ... A deep foundation installation for a bridge in Napa, California. ... Dynamic load testing is a fast and effective method of assessing foundation bearing capacity that requires instrumenting a deep foundation with accelerometers and strain transducers and analyzing data collected by these sensors. ... Wave equation analysis is a numerical method of analysis for the behavior of driven foundation piles. ... A gravity-type stone retaining wall A retaining wall is a structure that holds back soil or rock from a building, structure or area. ... A diagram of a mechanically stabilized earth wall as it would be modeled in a finite element analysis. ... Soil nailing is a technique in which soil slopes, excavations or retaining walls are reinforced by the insertion of relatively slender elements - normally steel reinforcing bars. ... A tieback is a horizontal wire used to reinforce retaining walls for stability. ... Historically, Gabions were round cages with open tops and bottoms, made from wicker and filled with earth for use as fortifications. ... Slurrywall excavator A slurry wall is a type of wall used to build tunnels, open cuts and foundations in areas of soft earth close to open water or with a high ground water table. ... Figure 1: Simple slope slip section The field of slope stability encompasses the analysis of static and dynamic stability of slopes of earth and rock-fill dams, slopes of other types of embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and soft rock. ... Mass wasting, also known as mass movement or slope movement, is the geomorphic process by which soil, regolith, and rock move downslope under the force of gravity. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Soil liquefaction describes the behavior of water saturated soil when its behavior changes from that of a solid to that of a liquid. ... A series of mixed vertical oscillators A plot of the peak acceleration for the mixed vertical oscillators A response spectrum is simply a plot of the peak or steady-state response (displacement, velocity or acceleration) of a series of oscillators of varying natural frequency, that are forced into motion by... If you want to build a house and need to know where the best (or the worst) place to locate for earthquake shaking, then you need to dig up the regional seismic hazard maps. ... // The interaction between ground and structure consists of an exchange of mutual stress between the structure itself and the foundations ground. ... Geosynthetics is the term used to describe a range of generally synthetic products used to solve geotechnical problems. ... Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. ... Geomembranes are a kind of geosynthetic material. ... A geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) is a woven fabric like material primarily used for the lining of landfills. ... Also referred to as Deformation Survey. ... An automatic deformation monitoring system is a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent software and hardware elements forming a complex whole for deformation monitoring that, once set up, does not require human input to function. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
FEMA: Landslide and Debris Flow (Mudslide) (236 words)
Landslides occur in all U.S. states and territories.
In a landslide, masses of rock, earth, or debris move down a slope.
Landslides may be small or large, slow or rapid.
FEMA: After a Landslide or Debris Flow (239 words)
Floods sometimes follow landslides and debris flows because they may both be started by the same event.
Seek advice from a geotechnical expert for evaluating landslide hazards or designing corrective techniques to reduce landslide risk.
A professional will be able to advise you of the best ways to prevent or reduce landslide risk, without creating further hazard.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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