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Encyclopedia > Landsat program
Landsat 7, launched in 1999, is the most recent addition to the Landsat program.
Landsat 7, launched in 1999, is the most recent addition to the Landsat program.

The Landsat program is the longest running enterprise for acquisition of imagery of Earth from space. The first Landsat satellite was launched in 1972; the most recent, Landsat 7, was launched on April 15, 1999. The instruments on the Landsat satellites have acquired millions of images. The images, archived in the United States and at Landsat receiving stations around the world, are a unique resource for global change research and applications in agriculture, cartography, geology, forestry, regional planning, surveillance, education and national security. Landsat 7 data has eight spectral bands with spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 60 meters. Landsat 7 Photo This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Landsat 7 Photo This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Landsat 7 is the latest satellite of the Landsat program. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Landsat 7 is the latest satellite of the Landsat program. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Regional planning is a branch of land use planning and deals with the efficient placement of land use activities, infrastructure and settlement growth across a significantly larger area of land than an individual city or town. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Resolving power is the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together. ...

Contents

History

Hughes Santa Barbara Research Center initiated design and fabrication of the first three MSS Multi-Spectral-Scanners in the same year man landed on the moon, 1969. The first prototype MSS was completed within nine months by fall of 1970 when it was tested by scanning Half Dome at Yosemite National Park.


The initial centerline for the primary layout of the MSS was drawn by Jim Kodak, the opto-mechanical design engineer who designed the Pioneer spacecraft optical camera, the first instrument to leave the solar system. The US Pioneer program of unmanned space missions was designed for planetary exploration. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ...


The program was called the Earth Resources Observation Satellites Program when it was initiated in 1966, but the name was changed to Landsat in 1975. In 1979, Presidential Directive 54 under President of the United States Jimmy Carter transferred Landsat operations from NASA to NOAA, recommended development of long term operational system with four additional satellites beyond Landsat 3, and recommended transition to private sector operation of Landsat. This occurred in 1985 when the Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT), a partnership of Hughes Aircraft and RCA, was selected by NOAA to operate the Landsat system under a ten year contract. EOSAT operated Landsats 4 and 5, had exclusive rights to market Landsat data, and was to build Landsats 6 and 7. Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Hughes logo adopted after his death Hughes developed the AIM-120 AMRAAM, one of the worlds most advanced air-to-air missiles Hughes Aircraft Company was a major defense/aerospace company founded by Howard Hughes. ... RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ...

A simulated-color satellite image of Kolkata taken on NASA's Landsat 7 satellite.
A simulated-color satellite image of Kolkata taken on NASA's Landsat 7 satellite.

In 1989, this transition had not been fully completed when NOAA's funding for the Landsat program ran out and NOAA directed that Landsats 4 and 5 be shut down, but an act of the United States Congress provided emergency funding for the rest of the year. Funding ran out again in 1990 and once again Congress provided emergency funding to NOAA for six more months of operations, requesting that agencies that used Landsat data provide the funding for the other six months of the upcoming year. The same funding problem and solution was repeated in 1991. In 1992, various efforts were made to finally procure funding for follow on Landsats and continued operations, but by the end of the year EOSAT ceased processing Landsat data. Landsat 6 was finally launched on October 5, 1993, but was lost in a launch failure. Processing of Landsat 4 and 5 data was resumed by EOSAT in 1994. NASA finally launched Landsat 7 on April 15, 1999. Download high resolution version (800x800, 218 KB)A simulated-color satellite image of Kolkata taken on NASAs Landsat 7 satellite. ... Download high resolution version (800x800, 218 KB)A simulated-color satellite image of Kolkata taken on NASAs Landsat 7 satellite. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


The value of the Landsat program was recognized by Congress in October 1992 when it passed the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act (Public Law 102-555) authorizing the procurement of Landsat 7 and assuring the continued availability of Landsat digital data and images, at the lowest possible cost, to traditional and new users of the data.


Satellite chronology

Landsat 1, originally named Earth Resources Technology Satellite 1, was a modified version of the Nimbus 4 meteorological satellite. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Landsat 2 is the second satellite of the Landsat program. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Landsat 3 undergoing final launch preparations Landsat 3 is the third satellite of the Landsat program. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... An artists impression of Landsat 5, indentical in design to Landsat 4. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Landsat 5 is the fifth satellite of the Landsat program. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... Landsat 6 was designed to continue the Landsat program, and was equipped with an upgraded set of instruments. ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Landsat 7 is the latest satellite of the Landsat program. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...

Technical details

The Multi-Spectral-Scanner had a 9" fused silica dinner-plate mirror epoxy bonded to three invar tangent bars mounted to base of a Ni/ Au brazed Invar frame in a serreuire truss that was arranged with four "Hobbs-Links" (conceived by Dr. Gregg Hobbs) crossing at mid truss. This construct ensured the secondary mirror would simply oscilate about the primary optic axis to maintain focus despite vibration inherent from the 14-inch Be scan mirror. This engineering solution allowed the US to develop LANDSAT at least five years ahead of French SPOT which first used CCD arrays to stare without need for a scanner. Invar, also called FeNi36, is an alloy of iron (64%) and nickel (36%) with some carbon and chromium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 4, d Appearance lustrous, metallic Atomic mass 58. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... Brazing is a joining process whereby a non-ferrous filler metal or alloy is heated to melting temperature above 450°C (842°F), or, by the traditional definition that has been used in the United States, above 800°F (425)°C and distributed between two or more close-fitting parts... In architecture and structural engineering, a truss is a structure comprising one or more triangular units which are constructed with straight slender members whose ends are connected at joints. ... A secondary mirror (or secondary) is a second light gathering and focusing surface in a reflector telescope. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... SPOT (Satellite Pour lObservation de la Terre) is a commercial earth observation satellite. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ...


The MSS FPA, or Focal Plane Array consisted of 24 square optical fibers extruded down to .0002"square fiber tips in a 4x6 array to be scanned across the Nimbus spacecraft path in a +/-6 degree scan as the satellite was in a 10:30 polar orbit, hence it had to be launched from Vandenburg AFB. The fiber optic bundle was embedded in a fiber optic plate to be terminated at a relay optic device that transmitted fiber end signal on into six photodiodes and 18 photomultiplier tubes that were arrayed across a 0.30-inch thick aluminum tool plate, with sensor weight balanced vs the 9-inch telescope on opposite side. This main plate was assembled on a frame, then attached to the silver-loaded magnesium housing with helicoil fasteners. The focal plane of a lens is a plane that is perpendicular to the axis of the lens and passes through its focus. ... “Camp Cooke” redirects here. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...


Key to MSS success was the scan monitor mounted on the underbelly of the Mg housing. It consisted of a diode source & sensor mounted at ends of four flat mirrors that were tilted so that it took 14 bounces for a beam to reflect length of the three mirrors from source to sender striking Be scan mirror seven times as it reflected seven times off the flat mirrors. It only sensed three positions, both ends of scan & the mid scan, but that was all that was required to determine where MSS was pointed and electronics scanning could be calibrated to display a map.


Future

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission, scheduled to be launched in 2011, will be the next satellite in the Landsat series.[4]


References

  1. ^ http://www.universetoday.com/am/publish/landsat_5_20_years.html?432004
  2. ^ http://earth.esa.int/showcase/landsat/
  3. ^ http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/
  4. ^ http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=1676

See also

For the purported psychic ability to sense remotely, see Remote viewing right Synthetic aperture radar image of Death Valley colored using polarimetry In the broadest sense, remote sensing is the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real...

External links


Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...

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      The Landsat Program
Landsat 5 spacecraft

Landsat 1 · Landsat 2 · Landsat 3 · Landsat 4 · Landsat 5 · Landsat 6 · Landsat 7 · LDCM Image File history File links Landsat5 Artists Rendering (NASA PD) File links The following pages link to this file: Landsat 5 Landsat 4 ... Landsat 1, originally named Earth Resources Technology Satellite 1, was a modified version of the Nimbus 4 meteorological satellite. ... Landsat 2 is the second satellite of the Landsat program. ... Landsat 3 undergoing final launch preparations Landsat 3 is the third satellite of the Landsat program. ... An artists impression of Landsat 5, indentical in design to Landsat 4. ... Landsat 5 is the fifth satellite of the Landsat program. ... Landsat 6 was designed to continue the Landsat program, and was equipped with an upgraded set of instruments. ... Landsat 7 is the latest satellite of the Landsat program. ...

Landsat 7 mission patch

  Results from FactBites:
 
Landsat Program (504 words)
The Landsat Program is the longest running enterprise for acqusition of imagery of the earth from space.
The value of the Landsat Program was recognized by Congress in October, 1992 when it passed the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act (Public Law 102-555) authorizing the procurement of Landsat 7 and assuring the continued availabilty of Landsat digital data and images, at the lowest possible cost, to traditional and new users of the data.
The focus is on the development of Landsat 7 and Landsat-type remote sensing of the earth in the 21st century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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