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Encyclopedia > Landmine
U.S. Army soldier removes fuse from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq.
U.S. Army soldier removes fuse from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq.

A landmine is a type of self-contained explosive device which is placed onto or into the ground, exploding when triggered by a vehicle or person. The name originates from the practice of sapping, where tunnels were dug under opposing forces or fortifications and filled with explosives. Landmines generally refer to devices specifically manufactured for purpose, as distinguished from improvised explosive devices. U.S. Army Sgt. ... U.S. Army Sgt. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Sapping, or undermining, was a siege method used in the Middle Ages against fortified castles. ... Explosive devices, as used by terrorists, guerrillas or commando forces, are formally known as Improvised Explosive Devices or IEDs. ...


Landmines (sometimes called area denial munitions) are used to secure disputed borders and to restrict enemy movement in times of war. Tactically they serve a purpose similar to barbed wire or concrete dragon's teeth vehicle barriers, channelling the movement of attacking troops in ways that permit the defenders to engage them more easily. From a military perspective, landmines serve as force multipliers, allowing an organised force to overcome a larger enemy. Area denial weapons are used to prevent an adversary occupying or traversing an area of land. ... Tactics is the collective name for methods of winning a small-scale conflict, performing an optimization, etc. ... Modern barbed wire Barbed wire is a type of fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand(s). ... Dragons teeth (German: Höcker, humps) were square-pyramidal fortifications of concrete used during the Second World War to impede the movement of tanks. ... A force multiplier is a military term referring to a factor that dramatically increases (hence, multiplies) the combat-effectiveness of a given military force. ...


Anti-personnel landmines or APLs are widely considered to be ethically problematic weapons because their victims are commonly civilians, who are often killed or maimed long after a war has ended. According to anti-landmine campaigners, in Cambodia alone mines have resulted in 35,000 amputees after the cessation of hostilities. Removal of landmines is dangerous, slow and costly; however, some countries maintain that landmines are necessary to protect their soldiers in times of war. Hydrema mine clearing vehicle Demining is the process of removing landmines or naval mines from an area, which is usually done to enable military action in that area or for humanitarian reasons, as old minefields represent an important hazard to civilians. ...

Contents


History

The basic concept behind the landmine has appeared through military history. Some sources report that Zhuge Liang, of the kingdom of Shu of China, invented a landmine type device in the third century AD. Forces in ancient Rome sometimes dug small foot-sized holes, covered and armed with a sharpened spike. In the Middle Ages in Europe, small, 4-pronged spiked devices called caltrops or crows' feet could be scattered on the ground to delay the advance of an enemy. Military history is the recording (in writing or otherwise) of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... An artist impression of Zhuge Liang holding his trademark feather fan. ... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Caltrop with hollow spikes to puncture self-sealing rubber tires A caltrop (jack rock, star nail) is a weapon made up of four (or more) sharp nails or spines arranged in such a manner that one of them always points upward from a stable base (for example, a tetrahedron or...


In Europe in the early 18th century, improvised landmines or booby traps were constructed in the form of bombs buried in shallow wells in the earth and covered with scrap metal and/or gravel to serve as shrapnel. Known in French as fougasse, the term is sometimes still used in the present day to describe such devices. This technique was used in several European wars of the 18th Century, the American Revolution, and the American Civil War. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen North American colonies. ... The American Civil War (1861 - 1865) was fought in North America within the United States of America – twenty-three mostly northern states of the Union – and the Confederate States of America, a coalition of eleven southern states that declared their independence and claimed the right of secession from the Union...


The first modern mechanically fused high explosive anti-personnel landmines were created in Imperial Germany, circa 1912, and were copied and manufactured by all major participants in the First World War. In World War I, landmines were used notably at the start of the battle of Passchendale. Well before the war was over, the British were manufacturing landmines that contained poison gas instead of explosives. Poison gas landmines were manufactured at least until the 1980s in the Soviet Union. The United States was known to have at least experimented with the concept in the 1950s. This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns, and poison gas. ... Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres (Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the height of the baby-boom from returning...


Nuclear mines have also been developed, both land and naval varieties. An example is the British Blue Peacock project. A naval mine is a stationary self-contained explosive device placed in water, to destroy ships and/or submarines. ... Blue Peacock was the codename of a British project in the 1950s with the goal to place a number of 10 kiloton nuclear mines in the Rhine area in Germany. ...


Triggering Mechanisms

A landmine can be triggered by a number of things including pressure, movement, sound, magnetism and vibration. Anti-personnel mines commonly use the pressure of a person's foot as a trigger, but tripwires are also frequently employed. Most modern anti-vehicle mines use a magnetic trigger to enable it to detonate even if the tires or tracks did not touch it. Advanced mines are able to sense the difference between friendly and enemy types of vehicles by way of a built-in signature catalogue. This will theoretically enable friendly forces to use the mined area while denying the enemy access. Pressure is the application of force to a surface, and the concentration of that force in a given area. ... Magnetic lines of force of a bar magnet shown by iron filings on paper A magnet is an object that has a magnetic field. ... See Oscillator (disambiguation) for particular types of oscillation and oscillators. ... Tripwire is a company based in Portland, Oregon which produces change auditing software. ... In telecommunications, identification, friend or foe (IFF) is an identification system designed for use during hostile conditions, that enables military aircraft, or both civilian and military air-traffic controllers to distinguish friendly aircraft, vehicles, or forces from the enemy, and also to track them. ...


Many mines combine the main trigger with a touch or tilt trigger to prevent enemy engineers from defusing it. Landmine designs tend to use as little metal as possible to make searching with a metal detector more difficult; landmines made mostly of plastic have the added advantage of being very inexpensive. Plastic is a term that covers a range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products. ...


Some types of mines used by the U.S. Army and many other forces are designed to self-destruct after a period of weeks or months to reduce the likelihood of civilian casualties at the conflict's end. However, these self-destruct mechanisms are not absolutely reliable, and most landmines laid historically are not equipped in this manner. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... A self-destruct is a mechanism which causes a device to destroy itself under a predefined set of circumstances. ...


Landmine Varieties

Anti-Tank Mines (AT)

Anti-tank mines are designed to immobilise or destroy vehicles and their occupants. Anti-tank mines can produce either a mobility kill (M-Kill) or a catastrophic kill (K-Kill). An M-Kill destroys one or more of the vehicle's vital drive components (for example, breaking a track on a tank) thus immobilising the target. An M-Kill does not always destroy the weapon system or injure the crew. In a K-Kill, the weapon system and/or the crew are destroyed. An Anti-tank mine, or AT mine is similar to a Landmine except generally designed with a less sensitive trigger and more explosive power so as to be able to take out an armored vehicle, and not go off until such a vehicle comes along. ... A mobility kill (or M-kill) in armoured warfare refers to damage inflicted by a weapon on a vehicle that immobizes it, but does not totally destroy it, leaving the vehicles crew able to use its weapons. ... A Catastrophic kill, K-Kill or complete kill refers to damage inflicted on a vehicle by a weapon that renders it both unusable and unrepairable. ...


Anti-Tank mines are typically larger than anti-personnel mines and require more pressure to detonate. The high trigger pressure (normally 100 kg (250 lb) prevents them from being set off by infantry. More modern anti-tank mines use shaped charges to cut through armour. These were first deployed in large numbers in World War II. Pressure is the application of force to a surface, and the concentration of that force in a given area. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the released energy. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that engulfed much of the...


Anti-Personnel (AP) Mines

Anti-Personnel mines are designed to kill or incapacitate their victims. Such mines require the commitment of medical resources on the part of the affected enemy force, may degrade unit morale, and can damage unarmoured vehicles. Some types of AP mines may break or damage the track on armoured vehicles. AP mines can be classified into three main types: Blast Mines, AP Fragmentation Mines and AP Bounding Mines. See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Morale is a term for the capacity of people to maintain belief in an institution or a goal. ...


AP Blast Mines

A typical AP Blast mine can be classified as "pressure activated munition", the primary purpose of which is to incapacitate via the direct blast wave of the explosive charge. A typical AP Blast mine will have the following components:

Mine Casing 
The mine casing houses the components of the mine and protects it from its environment. Early landmines such as the ones found in the WWII era had casings made of steel and could be found with an electronic mine detector. Today, most AP Blast mines have a casing made out of plastic which makes them immune from electronic mine detectors.
Pressure Plate/Detonation Mechanism
The detonation mechanism is designed to set off the detonation charge either by striking it with a firing pin or passing an electric charge through it. Most AP Blast mines use a spring-loaded detonation mechanism that strikes the detonator charge when activated.
Detonator 
The detonator charge is a highly sensitive explosive that will explode easily if sudden pressure is applied to it or an electric charge is applied through it.
Main Charge 
The main charge of an AP blast mine consists of stable explosive that is itself detonated by the detonator charge. This is necessary, as making a mine out of highly sensitive "Detonator Charge" explosive would make it dangerously susceptible to explosion. In most AP blast mines TNT or Tetryl is used. On a U.S. M-14 AP Blast mine, around 31 grams of Tetryl is used, while up to 200 grams of TNT is used in a Russian PMN mine.

A weapons cache is detonated at the East River Range on Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion that involves a shock wave and a reaction zone behind it. ... Trinitrotoluene (TNT, or Trotyl) is a pale yellow crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon compound that melts at 354 K (178 Â°F, 81 °C). ... Tetryl is a sensitive explosive compound used to make detonators. ...

Deployment of AP Blast Mines

AP Blast Mines are typically used to deny an area for use by military forces or civilians. They are normally buried under 5 to 10 cm of soil or in some cases put under leaves or rocks.


Consequences of Activating an AP Blast Mine

When a subject activates an AP blast mine by stepping on one, the mine's main charge will explode and release a blast wave consisting of hot gases (the by-product of the explosion). This blast wave will send a huge compressive force upwards, bringing the mine casing and bits of the soil covering the mine along with it. When the blast wave hits the surface, it will quickly transfer the force into the subject's footwear and foot. This results in a massive compression force being applied to the subject's footwear and the foot's soft tissue and bone. In most cases, these will be crushed and torn off by the blast wave. Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction (decrease of volume). ...


The resulting injuries to a human body depend on the size of the blast mine's main charge, the depth and type of soil it was laid in and how the victim contacted it. Different types of soil will result in different amounts of energy being transferred upward into the subject's extremities, with saturated "clay-like" soil transferring the most. Larger main charges result in a release of significantly more energy, driving the blast wave further up a target's foot and leg and causing greater injury. Human anatomy or anthropotomy is a special field within anatomy. ...


Small landmines such as the Chinese Type 72 or the U.S. M-14 will result in a "traumatically amputated" foot up to the ankle, while large Russian PMN Blast mines with 200 g of TNT are so powerful that activating them will likely result in the injury of both of the subject's legs. The gram or gramme, symbol g, is a unit of mass, and is defined as one one-thousandth of the SI base unit kilogram (i. ... Trinitrotoluene (TNT, or Trotyl) is a pale yellow crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon compound that melts at 354 K (178 Â°F, 81 °C). ...


Secondary injuries from a blast mine will be caused by the material that has been torn loose by the mine's explosion. The material consists of the soil and stones that were on top of the mine, parts of the subject's footwear and the small bones in the subject's foot. This debris is projected upwards at great velocity and can become embedded in the wounds of the target, shredding tissue and encouraging infection.


Footwear, including combat boots or so-called "blast boots", does little to mitigate the effects of the mine, and the loss of a foot is the typical outcome of activating an AP Blast.


Anti-Personnel Fragmentation Mines

AP Fragmentation mines are a type of area denial munition designed to incapacitate or kill. When activated, the mine is designed to explode and project lethal metal fragments into its victim. Area denial weapons are used to prevent an adversary occupying or traversing an area of land. ...


Most AP Fragmentation mines are triggered by a tripwire. When a subject disturbs the wire, the mine will explode and release a shower of metal fragments into its surroundings. Any subject caught in its blast will likely suffer multiple shrapnel wounds over his or her body. Tripwire is a company based in Portland, Oregon which produces change auditing software. ... Shrapnel is the collective term for fragments and debris thrown out by an exploding shell or landmine. ...


Anti-Handling Devices (AHD)

Anti-Handling Devices perform the function of a mine fuse if someone attempts to tamper with the mine. They are intended to prevent moving or removing the mine, not to prevent reduction of the minefield by enemy dismounts. An AHD usually consists of an explosive charge that is connected to, placed next to, or manufactured in the mine. The device can be attached to the mine body and activated by a wire that is attached to a firing mechanism. U.S. forces can employ AHDs on conventional AT mines only. Other countries may employ AHDs on AT and AP mines. It has been suggested that fuze for ammunition be merged into this article or section. ...


Laying minefields

A German engineer hammers a warning sign into the ground following the extensive laying of landmines at El Alamein
A German engineer hammers a warning sign into the ground following the extensive laying of landmines at El Alamein

Minefields may be laid by several means. Mine-scattering shells may be fired by artillery from a distance of several tens of kilometres; mines may be ejected from cruise missiles, or dropped from helicopters or airplanes. Armoured fighting vehicles equipped to lay mines have also been built. The preferred, but most labour-intensive, way is to have trained personnel bury the mines, since this will make the mines practically invisible and reduce the number of mines needed to deny the enemy an area. Download high resolution version (1689x2301, 436 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1689x2301, 436 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... El Alamein is a town in northern Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea coast. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... The worlds most popular helicopter, the Bell 206 of Canadian Helicopters Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors (propellers). ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ...


Often anti-tank minefields are scattered with anti-personnel mines to make clearing them manually more time-consuming; and anti-personnel minefields are scattered with anti-tank mines to prevent the use of armoured vehicles to clear them quickly. Some anti-tank mine types are also able to be triggered by infantry, giving them a dual purpose even though their main and official intention is to work as anti-tank weapons.


Detecting and removing landmines

Main article: Demining
Hydrema mine clearing vehicle
Hydrema mine clearing vehicle

While placing and arming landmines is relatively inexpensive and simple, the reverse of detecting and removing them is typically expensive, slow, and dangerous. Hydrema mine clearing vehicle Demining is the process of removing landmines or naval mines from an area, which is usually done to enable military action in that area or for humanitarian reasons, as old minefields represent an important hazard to civilians. ... Spc. ... Spc. ...


Various means to detect landmines include:

  • Carefully searching suspected or known minefields areas for mines. Often this is done by crawling slowly into the field, inserting a probe (anything from a knife to a stick) into the soil to find hard objects. When walking in mined areas, mine-clearing personnel may wear large, pillow-like pads strapped under their feet, to spread their weight and dull the impact of their footsteps, as very slight disturbances of the ground can tip off old, unstable, or intentionally sensitive mine triggers.
Protective clothing
Protective clothing
Protective demining shoes
Protective demining shoes
  • Using metal detectors to sweep a suspected minefield. However, the detectors may not easily differentiate various types of metal objects, which slows the search.
  • Using animals like dogs that can sniff out explosive chemicals like TNT in landmines. Recent experiments with the Gambian giant pouched rat have indicated that it has the required sensitivity to smell, can be trained reliably with food-reward incentives, and is typically too small to set off the mines.
  • Sowing genetically engineered flower seeds over suspected minefields from the air. The flowers bloom in distinctive colours when there are explosives nearby in the soil.

Methods for removing landmines include: Traditional Scandinavian puukko knife A knife is a sharp-edged hand tool used for cutting. ... Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 665 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 665 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2961x1674, 495 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2961x1674, 495 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A U.S. Army soldier uses a metal detector to search for weapons and ammunition in Iraq Metal detectors use electromagnetic induction to detect metal. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) The dog is a canine carnivorous mammal that has been domesticated for at least 14,000 years and perhaps for as long as 150,000 years based on recent evidence. ... Trinitrotoluene (TNT, or Trotyl) is a pale yellow crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon compound that melts at 354 K (178 Â°F, 81 °C). ... Binomial name Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840 The Gambian pouch rat, Cricetomys gambianus, also known as the African Giant Pouch rat, is a nocturnal pouched rat native to Africa. ...

  • Manually disarming them.
  • Carpeting the suspected minefield with an artillery barrage.
  • Driving a heavily armoured vehicle like a tank or bulldozer through a minefield to deliberately detonate the explosives. One of the more effective methods uses a flail—a set of long chains attached to a rotating drum held out on arms across the front of the tank—to beat the ground. During World War II, to counter the use of armoured vehicles to clear mines, the Germans improvised anti-tank mines by burying an artillery shell deeper in the ground attached to a sensor some distance behind the shell, so that when the tank flail or dozer blade went over the sensor the shell exploded under the tank. Today, minefields are sometimes set with a mix of anti-personnel and anti-tank mines.
  • Using a Bangalore Torpedo to clear a path through a minefield. This can also be done using the Antipersonnel Obstacle Breaching System, a hosepipe filled with explosives and carried across a minefield by a rocket.[1]

A bulldozer is a powerful crawler (caterpillar tracked tractor) equipped with a blade. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that engulfed much of the... A shell is a projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, is not solid but contains an explosive or other filling. ... The Bangalore Torpedo is essentially an explosive charge placed on the end of a long, extendable, tube. ... The Antipersonnel Obstacle Breaching System is an explosive line charge system that allows safe breaching through complex antipersonnel obstacles. ...

Efforts to ban anti-personnel mines

After a sustained and successful international campaign led by a coalition of NGOs, and with key support from the government of Canada, the majority of the world's countries (144 to date) have made the use and possession of anti-personnel landmines by its military forces illegal. The only two Western democracies that have not banned anti-personnel landmines are the United States and Finland. Some other countries like Russia, China and North Korea also continue to use them. A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is not part of a government and was not founded by states. ...


The Ottawa Treaty (Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction) came into force on 1 March 1999. The treaty was the result of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, launched in 1992. The campaign and its leader, Jody Williams, won the Nobel peace prize in 1997 for its efforts. The Ottawa Treaty or the Mine Ban Treaty (formally the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction bans completely all anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines). ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of non-governmental organizations with the goal of abolishing the production and use of anti-personnel mines. ... 1992 was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... This article is about the Nobel prize winner. ... The Nobel Peace Prize (where Nobel is pronounced with the stress on the second syllable) is one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Signatories of the Ottawa Treaty agree that they will not use, develop, manufacture, stockpile or trade in anti-personnel landmines. Existing stocks must be destroyed within four years of signing the treaty. There were originally 122 signatories in 1997; as of February 2004, it has been signed by 152 countries and ratified by 144. 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The remaining 42 countries have not signed. The biggest of these are the People's Republic of China[2], India[3], the USA[4] and the Russian Federation[5]. The United States refuses to sign the treaty because it does not offer a "Korean exception", as landmines are a crucial component of the U.S. military strategy in South Korea. According to the US government, the one million mines along the DMZ between North and South help maintain the delicate peace by deterring a North Korean attack. Despite conducting research on technologies that could replace the mines in Korea by 2006, in 1999 the U.S. modified the Ottawa Treaty by introducing Pursuit-Deterrent Munition (PDM) which was meant to slow enemy pursuit on retreating armed forces. PDM exploits technical loopholes in Ottawa Treaty while still being a landmine, therefore, the future of land mines in the U.S. is unclear. In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more groups, where military activity is not permitted, usually by treaty or other agreement. ... The Ottawa Treaty or the Mine Ban Treaty (formally the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction bans completely all anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines). ... The Ottawa Treaty or the Mine Ban Treaty (formally the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction bans completely all anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines). ...


According to the ICBL report for August 2004, 80 countries declared stockpiles totalling 48 million landmines, of which 37.5 million have been destroyed so far. 65 countries have completed the destruction of their stockpiles, and another 51 countries have declared that they did not possess stockpiles to destroy. Nine countries signed the treaty in the year to August 2004. [6] 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A stockpile is a pile or storage location for various material materials or commodities. ...


There is a clause in the treaty, Article 3, which permits countries to retain landmines for use in training or development of countermeasures. 64 countries have taken this option. In February 2004, the number of mines retained varied from 93 for Mauritius, 1783 for the United Kingdom, around 4000 for France and Spain, 9,000 for Japan right up to as many as 69,200 for Turkmenistan. Other high levels are reported by Brazil (16,545), Sweden (16,015), Algeria (15,030), and Bangladesh (15,000). In total 289,000 mines have been declared as retained by various countries under Article 3. A further 23 countries have not declared a figure. [7] 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As an alternative to an outright ban, 10 countries follow regulations that are contained in a 1996 amendment of Protocol II of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW). The countries are China, Finland, India, Israel, Latvia, Morocco, Pakistan, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and the United States. [8] 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


The Ottawa Treaty does not include anti-tank mines, cluster bombs or claymore-type mines operated in command mode, but does cover victim-activated claymore-type mines (including those activated by tripwires). [9] An Anti-tank mine, or AT mine is similar to a Landmine except generally designed with a less sensitive trigger and more explosive power so as to be able to take out an armored vehicle, and not go off until such a vehicle comes along. ... Cluster bomb exploding Cluster munitions are air-dropped or ground launched shells that eject multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ... Parts of the M18A1 Claymore The M18 Claymore antipersonnel weapon is a weapon often used by many countries around the world, named after the large Scottish sword. ...


Manufacturers

The ICBL has identified the following countries as manufacturing landmines as of August 2004. None are signatories of the Ottawa Treaty. [10]

Of other states which are thought to have manufactured landmines recently: 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Turkey is now a signatory of the Ottawa Treaty [22]
  • Serbia and Montenegro is now a signatory of the Ottawa Treaty [23]
  • Egypt has unofficially stated that production ceased in 1988. [24]
  • The United States has not manufactured anti-personnel mines since 1997, but a government statement in February 2004 stated that, “The United States will continue to develop non-persistent anti-personnel and anti-tank landmines.”[25]
  • South Korea has stated that no mines have been produced since 2000. [26]
  • An official from China stated in September 2003 that production has ceased there, since they have an ample stockpile. [27]
  • In March 2004, a Libyan official stated that the country has never produced anti-personnel mines, but is known to have laid landmines in the 1970s and 1980s [28]
  • A United Nations Assessment Mission to Peru reported that production of landmines in the country ceased in January 1999. Peru was one of the original signatories and to the treaty came into force for them in March 1999. [29]

The Soviet Union had been accused of using specifically designed mines looking like toys (to target children) in its conflict with Afghanistan. Some of the Soviet mines used were small, green, made from plastic and winged so that they could be deployed from planes, with the result that children often mistook them for toys, but others were allegedly manufactured of red and white plastic in the shape of toy trucks. 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945. ... Green Razor Scooter This article is about things that people play with. ...


See also

An improvised explosive device (IED) is a formal name for explosive devices as used in unconventional warfare by terrorists, guerrillas or commando forces in a theater of operations. ... Cluster bomb exploding Cluster munitions are air-dropped or ground launched shells that eject multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ... Parts of the M18A1 Claymore The M18 Claymore antipersonnel weapon is a weapon often used by many countries around the world, named after the large Scottish sword. ... A naval mine is a stationary self-contained explosive device placed in water, to destroy ships and/or submarines. ... Roots of Peace is a humanitarian organization dedicated to the removal of landmines. ...

External links

  • The International Committee of the Red Cross on Landmines
  • The International Campaign to Ban Landmines
  • Equipment for post-conflict demining
  • The Tubular Bangalore Torpedo activates mines by blasting the tube after it has been pushed into the minefield.
  • Steve McClure, Japan Times, 16 May 2001, "The sweet sound of a good cause" - "Zero Landmine" charity CD and TV programme.
  • UK author Alexander Deane defends the use and legality of landmines: [30]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Landmine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3071 words)
Landmines generally refer to devices specifically manufactured for purpose, as distinguished from improvised explosive devices.
Landmines (sometimes called area denial munitions) are used to secure disputed borders and to restrict enemy movement in times of war.
Anti-personnel landmines or APLs are widely considered to be ethically problematic weapons because their victims are commonly civilians, who are often killed or maimed long after a war has ended.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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