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Encyclopedia > Landing craft
Landing craft Rapière
Landing craft Rapière
LCU 1656 departs USS Bataan (LHD-5) well deck during Hurricane Katrina relief operations.

A landing craft is a type of boat used to convey infantry and vehicles on to a shore during an assault from sea to land. Most renowned are the amphibious mechanized assault landing craft used to storm the beaches of Normandy during WWII. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 241 KB) Summary A Landing Craft Utility (LCU) vehicle from Assault Craft Unit Two (ACU-2) stationed at Little Creek Amphibious Base in Norfolk, Va. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 241 KB) Summary A Landing Craft Utility (LCU) vehicle from Assault Craft Unit Two (ACU-2) stationed at Little Creek Amphibious Base in Norfolk, Va. ... USS Bataan (LHD-5) is a Wasp-class amphibious assault ship commissioned in 1997. ... Hurricane Katrina was the eleventh-named tropical storm, fourth hurricane, third major hurricane, and first Category 5 hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. ... Lobster boat A boat is a watercraft, usually smaller than most ships. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme, First World War. ... Vehicles are non-living means of transport. ... A DUKW (commonly DUCK), during World War II Propeller on a French VAB An amphibian or amphibious vehicle, is a vehicle that, like an amphibian, can move on land as well as on water. ... Mont Saint Michel is a historic pilgrimage site and a symbol of Normandy Normandy is a geographical region in northern France. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War (sometimes WW2 or WWII), was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as...


Landing Craft are ships or smaller vessels whose primary purpose is to place elements of an army on an (enemy held) beach. Army (from French armée) can, in some countries, refer to any armed force. ... Your Grandma. ...


In the days of sail the normal ship's boats were used, but the introduction of steamships led to the provision of boats of lesser capacity forcing the creation of specialist designs for landing purposes. Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ...


The High Summer of the landing craft was the latter half of WWII when a large number of different designs were produced in large quantities by the United Kingdom and USA. Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War (sometimes WW2 or WWII), was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as...


Because of the need to run up onto a suitable beach they were flat-bottomed, and many designs had a flat front rather than a normal bow. This tended to make them very difficult to control and very uncomfortable in rough seas. The bow is the foremost point of the hull of a ship or boat: the point that is ahead when the vessel is underway. ...


The control point (bridge was far too fancy a description for the facilities of the LCA and DUKW) was normally situated at the extreme rear of the vessel as were the engines. Bridge of the brigantine LEtoile The bridge of a ship is an area or room where the ships navigational controls and other essential equipment related to ship operations are housed and operated. ...


In all cases they tended to be known by an acronym derived from the official name rather than the full title. Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ...

Contents


Types

The smallest landing craft were the US-designed DUKW, basically an amphibious truck, and the Landing Vehicle Tracked, an amphibious armoured personnel carrier. These were operated by Army personnel, not naval crews. They had a capacity of about 3 tons. Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government  â€¢ President  â€¢ Vice President Federal republic George... Duck boat tour in Boston A DUKW on a London tourist trip A DUKW on the Thames in London Wikimedia Commons has media related to: DUKW The DUKW, popularly called the DUCK, is a six-wheel-drive amphibious truck developed by the United States during World War II for transporting... The Landing Vehicle Tracked (LVT) was an amphibious vehicle used by the United States Navy, Marine Corps and Army during World War II. It was widely known as amphtrack, amtrak, amtrac etc. ...


Then came the British Landing Craft Assault (LCA) small craft intended to be transported around by larger vessels then lowered into the water off the target beach. Typically they could carry 36 fully-armed soldiers. The Landing Craft Assualt (LCA) was the British and Commonwealth landing craft of the Second World War. ...


The US Landing Craft Vehicle/Personnel (LCVP) was more flexible - it could carry 30 troops or small vehicles such as Jeeps. The Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or Higgins boat was a landing craft used extensively in World War II. The craft was designed by Andrew Higgins of Louisiana, based on boats made for operating in swamps and marshes. ...


Landing Craft, Mechanized were larger capable of carrying one small tank or 100 troops. The Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM) was a landing craft designed for carrying vehicles. ...


None of the above was capable of making a voyage longer than about 6 hours, mainly through fuel limitations.

Enlarge
LCI(L) 196 and a DUKW during the Invasion of Sicily 1943 (World War II)

Then came the Landing Craft Infantry (LCI), capable of making serious voyages under its own power (some were sailed directly from the United Kingdom to take part in the Operation Torch landings, and US Navy LCIs island-hopped across the Pacific). LCIs were about 160 feet long and 23 feet wide and carried around 250 troops. There were several sub-types of the craft, with the LCI(L) (large) infantry carrier dominating; but LCIs also served as rocket (LCI(R)) and mortar (M), and gunboat (G) platforms, as well as a flotilla flagship (FF). While still intended to run up on the beach, these tended to have a normal type bow with stepped ramps each side for the troops to disembark. The LCI was re-classified Landing Ship Infantry (LSI) in 1949. Landing Craft Infantry (Large) #196 near Scoglitti, Sicily, Italy - 1943-07-11 - US Naval Historical Center From this page: http://www. ... Landing Craft Infantry (Large) #196 near Scoglitti, Sicily, Italy - 1943-07-11 - US Naval Historical Center From this page: http://www. ... Combatants Allies (United States, United Kingdom, French resistance forces in Algiers) Vichy France, Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower François Darlan Strength 73,500 Casualties 479 dead + 720 wounded 1346 dead + 1997 wounded Template:Campaignbox North African Campaign Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World... Island hopping refers to crossing an ocean by a series of shorter journeys between islands, as opposed to a single journey directly across the ocean to the destination. ...


Of a similar size was the Landing Craft Tank, which could carry up to 4 Tanks or other vehicles. These had a flat front which formed a ramp which was dropped for the vehicles to get ashore. Behind the ramp was an open space known as the Tank Deck. The Landing craft tank was an amphibious assault ship for landing tanks on beachheads, used by the U.S. Navy in World War II, and afterwards under different designations in the Korean War and the Vietnam War. ...


The next step was the Landing Ship Tank. This carried rather more vehicles than the LCT (20 in the US-built versions) and had normal looking bows, although the bows were actually formed by doors which were opened for the unloading ramp to drop. Fully loaded, these displaced more than 3,000 tons, rather more than most Royal Navy destroyers of the period. The tank landing ship (LST, for Landing Ship, Tank) was created during World War II to support amphibious operations by carrying significant quantities of vehicles, cargo, and troops directly onto an unimproved shore. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ...


Finally there was the Landing Ship Dock, which had a large open compartment at the back. Opening a stern door and flooding special compartments allowed this area to be open to the sea and LCI-sized vessels could enter or leave. The United States Navy Dock Landing Ship (Navy hull classification LSD) was designed to support amphibious operations. ... Aft of the Soleil Royal, by Jean Bérain the Elder. ...


Initial British nomenclature used different type names leading to alternate names such as Assault Landing Craft, Infantry Landing Craft and Tank Landing Craft.


Due to their rather small size the majority were not given names and were simply given serial numbers, e.g. LCT 304. The LSDs were an exception to this being much the same size as a small cruiser. Three British-built LSTs were named as well, HMS Boxer, Bruiser and Thruster which were somewhat larger than the US design; they also had proper funnels. USS Port Royal, a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, launched in 1994. ... HMS Boxer was built as a Landing Ship, Tank at Harland and Wolff. ...


Armament

DUKWs, LCAs and LCMs had no fixed armament, but there were ways for troops on board to use their own weapons.


LCIs and LCTs had a 20 mm Oerlikon each side of the bridge structure. LSTs had a somewhat heavier armament. Oerlikon is a Swiss anti-aircraft artillery manufacturer made famous by its Oerlikon 20 mm autocannon design of 1914, used in the First and Second World Wars, and still today. ...


Special purpose craft

Some LCTs were converted for special purposes.


Landing Craft Assault (Hedgerow)

The LCA(HR) was a conversion of the British LCA which carried 24 spigot mortars, the Royal Navy's Hedgehog anti-submarine weapon instead of personnel. The mortars were fired as a barrage onto the beach to clear mines and other obstructions. Having discharged its mortars and its duty the LCA(HR) would then leave the beach area. They were towed to the beach by larger craft such as the LCT which would carry the assault teams of the Royal Engineers with their specialist vehicles and equipment to complete the beach clearance. US soldier firing an M224 60-mm mortar. ... Hedgehog anti-submarine weapon An anti-submarine weapon developed by the Royal Navy during World War II, the Hedgehog was deployed on convoy escort warships such as destroyers to supplement the depth charge. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers (RE), commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... Badge of the 79th Armoured Division Amphibious DD tanks await blowing of breaches in sea wall on Utah Beach. ...


Landing Craft Flak

The Landing Craft Flak (LCF) was intended to give anti-aircraft support to the landing. They were first used in the Dieppe Raid early in 1942. The ramp was welded shut, and a deck built on top of the Tank deck. American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... Dieppes pebble beach and cliff immediately following the raid on 19 August 1942. ...


They were equipped with 8 20mm Oerlikons and four pom-poms and had a crew of 60. Royal Navy examples had mixed crews, with the operation of the craft being the responsibility of RN crew and the manning of the guns being done by Royal Marines. They carried two naval officers and two marine officers. A pom-pon is an antiaircraft gun. ... The Corps of Royal Marines, usually just known as The Royal Marines (RM) - or colloquially, The Green Berets[1] - are the United Kingdoms amphibious forces and a core component of the countrys Rapid Deployment Force. ...


Landing Craft Gun

The Landing Craft Gun (LCG) was similar and was intended to give supporting fire to the landing. Apart from the Oerlikons as per a normal LCT they had a couple of 4.7 inch destroyer guns. Crewing was similar to the LCF. LCGs played a very important part in the Walcheren operation in October 1944. Satellite image of the Scheldt estuary Walcheren is a former island in the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands at the mouth of the Scheldt estuary. ...


Landing Craft Rocket

Finally there was the Landing Craft Rocket, known as the Landing Craft tank (Rocket)LCT(R) to denote that it was a modified LCT rather than LCR.


This had a large set of launchers for the British RP-3 60 lb (27 kg) rockets mounted on the covered-over tank deck. The full set of launchers was 'in excess of' 1,000 and reloads to the tune of 5,000 rockets were kept below. The firepower was claimed to be equivalent to 80 light cruisers or 200 destroyers. The RP-3 (for Rocket Projectile 3), was a British air to ground rocket used in the Second World War. ...


The method of operation was to anchor off the target beach, pointing towards the shore. The distance to the shore was then measured by radar and the elevation of the launchers set accordingly. The crew then vanished below (apart from the commanding officer who retreated to a special cubby hole to control things) and the launch was then set off electrically. The launch could comprise the whole lot or individual ranks of rockets. This long range radar antenna (approximately 40m (130ft) in diameter) rotates on a track to observe activities near the horizon. ...


A full reload was a very labour-intensive operation and at least one LCT(R) went along side a cruiser and got a working party from the larger ship to assist in the process.


Amphibious mechanized utility and landing craft

The mechanized utility and landing craft, more commonly known as an amphibious landing craft or boat. This was the kind used during the second world war, and while the mechanized landing crafts of today are similar in construction, a lot of improvements have been made. Normally using diesel engines, the best amphibious landing boats (such as the LCM 8 of the US Navy) are capable of a military lift of 183 metric tons at a speed of 22 km/h, carrying even heavy equipment like M1 Abrams tanks with little trouble. Amphibious landing craft normally mount several machine guns or similar weapons for the defense of troops and/or vehicle crews inside. The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Military Lift: Referring to any vehicle, plane or boat used by a nations military to deploy and re-deploy military personnel or material. ... The M1 Abrams main battle tank is the principal combat tank of the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps, with three main versions being deployed starting in 1980: the M1, M1A1, and M1A2. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ...


Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC)

LCAC
Enlarge
LCAC

The air cushioned landing craft, or fully amphibious landing craft, is a more modern variation on the amphibious landing boat. These craft are based on small to mid sized multi-purpose hovercraft, also known as 'over the beach' ('OTB') craft. This allows troops and material to access more than 70% of the world's coastline, while only approximately 15% of that coastline is available to conventional landing craft. Typical barriers to conventional landing craft are soft sandy beaches, marshes, swampland, and loose surfaces. Air cushion technology has vastly increased the landing capability of the craft, providing greater speed and flexibility over traditional landing craft. LCAC Source http://www. ... LCAC Source http://www. ... A hovercraft, or air-cushion vehicle (ACV), is a vehicle or craft that can be supported by a cushion of air ejected downwards against a surface close below it, and can in principle travel over any relatively smooth surface, such as gently sloping land, water, or marshland, while having no... Patterns in the sand Sand is an example of a class of materials called granular matter. ... 90 mile beach Australia A beach or strand is a geological formation consisting of loose rock particles such as sand, shingle, cobble, or even shell along the shoreline of a body of water. ... Freshwater marsh in Florida In geography, a marsh is a type of wetland, featuring grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water. ... A freshwater swamp This article is about the wetland type (a landform). ...


Like the mechanized landing craft, they are usually equipped with mounted machine guns, although they also support grenade launchers and heavy weapons. A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... A grenade launcher is weapon that fires or launches a grenade to longer distances than a soldier could throw by hand. ...


These vehicles are commonly used in the United States Navy, which first received them in 1984, and some other modern fighting forces, such as the United Kingdom's Royal Navy. Units likely to use these vessels include special forces such as the US Navy Seals, Green Berets and Delta Force and the UK's SAS and SBS, as well as elite frontline troops such as the United States Marine Corps and the UK Royal Marines. The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... SEALs in from the water. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army Special Forces, the Green Berets. ... Official Names 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (Airborne) 1st SFOD-D (A) Combat Applications Group (CAG) Nicknames Delta Force D-boys Delta boys Deltas Delta Operators Branch United States Army Chain of Command USASOC Department of Defense Description Versatile Special Operations Force, mainly trained for counter-terrorism. ... For other Special Air Services, see Australian Special Air Service Regiment and Special Air Service of New Zealand. ... The Special Boat Service (SBS) is the British Royal Navys Special Forces unit. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military. ... The Corps of Royal Marines, usually just known as The Royal Marines (RM) - or colloquially, The Green Berets[1] - are the United Kingdoms amphibious forces and a core component of the countrys Rapid Deployment Force. ...


External links

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Landing craft
  • Navy Fact File: Landing Craft, Air Cushioned
  • Landing Craft Infantry (LCI) Assn. (usslci.com)
  • NavSource.org Landing Craft Infantry (LCI) Data and Photo Index

  Results from FactBites:
 
Landing Craft, Air Cushion - Navy Ships (1357 words)
The Landing Craft, Air Cushion (LCAC) Transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel of the assault elements of the Marine Air/Ground Task Force both from ship to shore and across the beach.
The landing craft air cushion (LCAC) is a high-speed, over-the-beach fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload.
LCAC was developed to satisfy the need for an air cushion landing craft capable of carrying troops, artillery, tanks, combat vehicles, and other major items of combat and combat support equipment across the beach.
C-9979 landing craft - Wookieepedia, the Star Wars Wiki (602 words)
The massive wings of the landing craft were strong enough to bear even the strongest and heaviest metal alloys, thus making tensor fields essential for the craft.
Landing craft were always stored in an unloaded condition to prevent structural stress and so that their vehicles could be serviced and repaired.
During the Invasion of Naboo, the Trade Federation deployed C-9979 landing craft to transport troops to the major cities of Naboo, thus furthering the invasion.
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