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Encyclopedia > Landing

Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal or aircraft returns to the ground. When the flying object returns to water, the process is called alighting, although it is commonly called "landing" as well. Hitting the ground too hard is prevented by wing to fly (including rotor wings), a parachute or rockets or a vertically directed jet engine; in the case of a balloon the buoyancy is slightly decreased for a soft landing. Aircraft usually land at an airport on a runway or helicopter landing pad. Mytravel Airbus A320 landing at Bristol Airport, Bristol, England. ... Mytravel Airbus A320 landing at Bristol Airport, Bristol, England. ... It has been suggested that MyTravel Airways A/S be merged into this article or section. ... The Airbus A320 is a short-to-medium range commercial passenger aircraft manufactured by Airbus. ... Flight is the process by which a heavier-than-air animal or object achieves sustained movement either through the air by aerodynamically generating lift or aerostatically using buoyancy, or movement beyond earths atmosphere, in the case of spaceflight. ... An Airbus A380, currently the worlds largest passenger airliner An aircraft is any vehicle or craft capable of atmospheric flight. ... The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ... A Soyuz rocket, at Baikanur launch pad. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Balloons, like greeting cards or flowers, are given for special occasions. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... Soft landing is a landing in which buoyancy is slightly decreased. ... Runway 13R/31L of El Dorado International Airport, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. ... An Atlas Oryx helicopter touches down on a helipad onboard the High Speed Vessel Swift (HSV 2) ship. ...


For aircraft or birds, landing is generally accomplished by gradually tapering down airspeed and lift. The first phase is the flare, where the rate of descent will be reduced by adopting a nose-up attitude. After slowing down, the plane changes pitch into the landing attitude shortly before touching down. The attitude is held until the primary wheels touch the ground and the controls are either held until all wheels touch the ground or gently adjusted (often in the case of tail-draggers) to ensure the nose-wheel or tail-wheel lightly touches the runway. An Airbus A380, currently the worlds largest passenger airliner An aircraft is any vehicle or craft capable of atmospheric flight. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Look up Flare in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Attitude may refer to: Aircraft attitude Attitude (magazine) Attitude, a song by American pop and jazz singer Suede Attitudes (band) Attitude Adjustment (Hardcore/Crossover/Thrash metal band) Attitude, song from Metallica on their album Reload. ... Look up plane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Turning the pitch angle of wingblades on or off the wind to controll is absorption of power. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...

An airliner landing at London Heathrow Airport (Air Jamaica Airbus A340-300)
An airliner landing at London Heathrow Airport (Air Jamaica Airbus A340-300)

In a small plane, with little crosswind, it is considered a "perfect" landing when contact with the ground occurs as the forward speed is reduced to the point where there is no longer sufficient lift to remain aloft. The stall warning is often heard just before landing indicating that this speed and attitude have been reached. The effect causes a very light touch down for the pilot and passengers. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixel Image in higher resolution (1935 × 1285 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixel Image in higher resolution (1935 × 1285 pixel, file size: 1. ... London Heathrow Airport (IATA: LHR, ICAO: EGLL), often referred to as Heathrow, is one of the busiest airports in the world. ... Air Jamaica is an airline based in Kingston, Jamaica. ... Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340. ... A crosswind is any wind that is blowing perpendicular to a line of travel, or perpendicular to a direction. ... In aerodynamics, a stall is a condition in which an excessive angle of attack causes loss of lift due to disruption of airflow. ...


Large transport category (airliner) aircraft land the aircraft by "flying the airplane on the runway." The airspeed and attitude of the plane are adjusted for landing. The airspeed is kept well above stall speed and a constant rate of descent. Just before landing the descent rate is reduced to a few feet per minute causing a light touch down. Usually spoilers (Sometimes called "Lift Dumpers") are immediately deployed to dramatically reduce the lift and transfer the aircraft's weight to its wheels, where mechanical braking can take effect. Reverse thrust is used by many jet aircraft to help slow down just after touch-down. The FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) a United States governmental agency has specific designations for aircraft categories, among these are: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, manned free balloon, special classes and transport. ... Airbus A319 with fully deployed combined airbrakes and spoilers In aeronautics a spoiler (sometimes called a lift dumper) is a device intended to reduce lift in an aircraft. ... For the type of ferns known as brakes, see brake (fern). ... KLM Fokker 70 with reverse thrust applied. ... Jet aircraft are aircraft with jet engines. ...


Factors such as crosswind where the pilot will use a crab landing or a slip landing will cause them to land slightly faster and sometimes with different attitudes to ensure proper handling and safety of the plane. Pilots must also be aware of ground effects to ensure a smooth landing. A crosswind is any wind that is blowing perpendicular to a line of travel, or perpendicular to a direction. ... A crab landing is method of landing an airplane in a crosswind. ... A slip landing is a technique for landing an airplane in a crosswind. ... Aircraft may be affected by a number of ground effects, aerodynamic effects due to a flying bodys proximity to the ground. ...

A Mute Swan alighting. Note the ruffled feathers on top of the wings indicate that the swan is flying at the stalling speed. The extended and splayed feathers act as lift augmenters in the same way as an aircraft's slats and flaps.
A Mute Swan alighting. Note the ruffled feathers on top of the wings indicate that the swan is flying at the stalling speed. The extended and splayed feathers act as lift augmenters in the same way as an aircraft's slats and flaps.

To land on an aircraft carrier, a conventional aircraft (moving at, perhaps, 150 mph [240 km/h]) is equipped with tailhooks to engage one of up to four arresting cables stretched across the deck, stopping the aircraft within 320 feet (100 m) after engaging one of the cables. To assist safe landings, the carrier will usually steam directly into wind at full speed, thus reducing aircraft's speed relative to the carrier deck, and eliminating any crosswind. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (952x705, 202 KB) Mute Swan touchdown at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands Centre, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, England. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (952x705, 202 KB) Mute Swan touchdown at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands Centre, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, England. ... Binomial name Cygnus olor (Gmelin, 1789) The Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) is a common Eurasian member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ... In aerodynamics, a stall is a condition in which an excessive angle of attack causes loss of lift due to disruption of airflow. ... Slats are small aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of an airplane wing which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack. ... Flaps are hinged surfaces on the trailing edge of an airplane wing which, when deployed, increase the lift (and drag) of a wing by changing the camber of the airfoil. ... Four aircraft carriers, Principe de Asturias, USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and HMS Invincible (front-to-back), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier, light V/STOL carriers, and an amphibious assault carrier. ... An aircraft about to catch the wire An aircraft coming to a stop Arrestor wires are thick steel cables fitted to the aft end of the flight deck on CTOL and STOBAR aircraft carriers. ...


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