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Encyclopedia > Landfill
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A landfill, also known as a dump or tip (and historically as a midden), is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. Historically, landfills have been the most common methods of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world. Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3188 KB) Suzanne Knights, my photo, July 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3188 KB) Suzanne Knights, my photo, July 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Albury is a village and civil parish in the borough of Guildford in Surrey, England, about four miles south-east of Guildford town centre. ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A midden, also known as kitchen middens, is a dump for domestic waste. ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ... The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... Waste management is literally the process of managing waste materials (normally those produced as a result of human activities). ...


Landfills may include internal waste disposal sites (where a producer of waste carries out their own waste disposal at the place of production) as well as sites used by many producers. Many landfills are also used for other waste management purposes, such as the temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or processing of waste material (sorting, treatment, or recycling).


A landfill also may refer to ground that has been filled in with soil and rocks instead of waste materials, so that it can be used for a specific purpose, such as for building houses. Unless they are stabilized, these areas may experience severe shaking or liquefaction of the ground in a large earthquake. Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... This article is about the geological substance. ... Earthquake liquefaction, often referred to simply as liquefaction, is the process by which saturated, unconsolidated soil or sand is converted into a suspension during an earthquake. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ...

Contents

Site construction requirements

The construction of a landfill requires a staged approach. Landfill designers are primarily concerned with the viability of a site. To be commercially and environmentally viable a landfill must be constructed in accord with specific requirements, which are related to:

  • Location
    • Easy access to transport by road
    • Transfer stations if rail network is preferred
    • Land value
    • Cost of meeting government requirements, such as the Environment Agency in England and Wales
    • Location of community served
    • Type of construction (more than one may be used at single site)
      • Pit - filling existing holes in the ground, typically left behind by mining
      • Canyon - filling in naturally occurring valleys or canyons
      • Mound - piling the waste up above the ground
  • Stability
    • Underlying geology
    • Nearby earthquake faults
    • Water table
    • Location of nearby rivers, streams, and flood plains
  • Capacity The available voidspace must be calculated by comparison of the landform with a proposed restoration profile.
    This calulation of capacity is based on,
    • Density of the wastes
    • Amount of intermediate and daily cover
    • Amount of settlement that the waste will undergo following tipping
    • Thickness of capping
    • Construction of lining and drainage layers.
  • Protection of soil and water through:
    • Installation of liner and collection systems.
    • Storm water control
    • Leachate management.
    • Landfill gas management.
  • Costs
    • Feasibility studies
    • Site after care
    • Site investigations (costs involved may make small sites uneconomical).

(see also the List of environmental organizations) The Environment Agency (Welsh: Asiantaeth yr Amgylchedd) of England and Wales was created by the Environment Act 1995, along with the Scottish Environment Protection Agency. ... Daily cover is the name given to the layer of compressed soil or earth which is laid on top of a days deposition of waste on an operational landfill site. ... Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ... Leachate is the liquid produced when water percolates through any permeable material. ... Nuisance is a common law tort. ...

Operations

Typically, in non hazardous waste landfills, in order to meet predefined specifications, techniques are applied by which the wastes are: In engineering and manufacturing, the term specification has the following meanings: Technical requirement An essential technical requirement for items, materials, or services, including the procedures to be used to determine whether the requirement has been met. ...

  1. Confined to as small an area as possible.
  2. Compacted to reduce their volume.
  3. Covered (usually daily) with layers of soil.
Landfill operation. Note that the area being filled is a single, well-defined "cell" and that a rubberized landfill liner is in place (exposed on the left) to prevent contamination by leachates migrating downward through the underlying geological formation.
Landfill operation. Note that the area being filled is a single, well-defined "cell" and that a rubberized landfill liner is in place (exposed on the left) to prevent contamination by leachates migrating downward through the underlying geological formation.

During landfill operations the waste collection vehicles are weighed at a weigh-bridge on arrival and their load is inspected for wastes that do not accord with the landfill’s waste acceptance criteria. Afterwards, the waste collection vehicles use the existing road network on their way to the tipping face or working front where they unload their load. After loads are deposited, compactors or dozers are used to spread and compact the waste on the working face. Before leaving the landfill boundaries, the waste collection vehicles pass through the wheel cleaning facility. If necessary, they return to weighbridge in order to be weighed without their load. Through the weighing process, the daily incoming waste tonnage can be calculated and listed in databases. In addition to trucks, some landfills may be equipped to handle railroad containers. The use of 'rail-haul' permits landfills to be located at more remote sites, without the problems associated with many truck trips. Modern landfill operation at Waimanalo Gulch, the municipal sanitary landfill for the City & County of Honolulu; photographed on August 14, 2003 by Eric Guinther. ... Modern landfill operation at Waimanalo Gulch, the municipal sanitary landfill for the City & County of Honolulu; photographed on August 14, 2003 by Eric Guinther. ... A landfill cell showing a rubberised liner is in place on the left A landfill liner, or landfill membrane is a impermeable membrane which is layed down under engineered landfill sites. ...


Typically, in the working face, the compacted waste is covered with soil daily. Alternative waste cover materials are several sprayed on foam products and temporary blankets. Blankets can be lifted into place with tracked excavators and then removed the following day prior to waste placement. Chipped wood and chemically 'fixed' bio-solids, may also be used as an alternate daily cover. The space that is occupied daily by the compacted waste and the cover material is called daily cell. Waste compaction is critical to extending the landfill life. Factors such as waste compressibility, waste layer thickness and the number of passes of the compactor over the waste affect the waste densities.


Land reclamation

Aerial view of the Puente Hills Landfill, with the San Gabriel Valley in the distance.

As human overcrowding of developed areas intensified during the 20th century, it has become important to develop land re-use strategies for completed landfills. Some of the most common usages are for parks, golf courses and other sports fields. Increasingly, however, office buildings and industrial uses are made on a completed landfill. In these latter uses, methane capture is customarily carried out to minimize explosive hazard within the building. Image File history File linksMetadata PHaerial. ... Image File history File linksMetadata PHaerial. ... Aerial view of the Puente Hills Landfill Puente Hills Landfill is currently the largest landfill in the United States, accepting four million tons of waste in 2005. ... San Gabriel Valley within Southern California The San Gabriel Valley is one of the principal valleys of southern California. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... This article is about the sport of golf. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ...


An example of a Class A office building constructed over a landfill is the Dakin Building at Sierra Point, Brisbane, California. The underlying fill was deposited from 1965 to 1985, mostly consisting of construction debris from San Francisco and some municipal wastes. Aerial photographs prior to 1965 show this area to be tidelands of the San Francisco Bay. A clay cap was constructed over the debris prior to building approval.[1] Office types Class A office space Back office Front office Mobile office Paperless office Serviced office Small office/home office Virtual office Class A Office Space describes the highest quality office space locally available. ... Dakin Building The Dakin Building is an architectural award winning class A office building on the San Francisco Bay in Brisbane, California. ... Sierra Point is a point located in Yosemite National Park at approximately , . It is located on the eastern end of the valley, below Grizzly Peak, on what is essentially the southern shoulder of Half Dome. ... Brisbane is a small city located in the northern part of San Mateo County, California. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Aerial photography is the taking of photographs from above with a camera mounted on an aircraft, balloon, rocket, kite or similar vehicle. ... Tideland is the third published book by author Mitch Cullin, and is the third installment of the writers Texas Trilogy that also includes the coming-of-age football novel Whompyjawed and the novel-in-verse Branches. ...


Another strategy for landfill reclamation is the incineration of landfill trash at high temperature via the plasma-arc gasification process, which is currently used at two facilities in Japan, and will be used at a planned facility in St. Lucie County, Florida.[2] Plasma arc gasification is a waste treatment technology that uses high electrical energy and high temperature created by an electrical arc gasifier. ... St. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Impacts

A number of adverse impacts occur from landfill operations. These impacts can vary: fatal accidents (e.g., scavengers buried under waste piles); infrastructure damage (e.g., damage to access roads by heavy vehicles); pollution of the local environment (such as contamination of groundwater and/or aquifers by leakage and residual soil contamination during landfill usage, as well as after landfill closure); offgassing of methane generated by decaying organic wastes (methane is a greenhouse gas many times more potent than carbon dioxide, and can itself be a danger to inhabitants of an area;) harbouring of disease vectors such as rats and flies, particularly from improperly operated landfills, which are common in Third-world countries; injuries to wildlife[3]; and simple nuisance problems (e.g., dust, odour, vermin, or noise pollution). A scavenger pouring water onto the paper she has collected, in order to increase the weight of, and thus the profit made from, her collection, in Hong Kong. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, or permeable mixtures of unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) (see also groundwater). ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil pollution comprises the pollution of soils with materials, mostly chemicals, that are out of place or are present at concentrations higher than normal which may have adverse effects on humans or other organisms. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... For other uses, see Third World (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up vermin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ...


Environmental noise and dust are generated from vehicles accessing a landfill as well as from working face operations. These impacts are best to intercept at the planning stage where access routes and landfill geometrics can be used to mitigate such issues. Vector control is also important, but can be managed reasonably well with the daily cover protocols. Environmental Noise, is unwanted sound, which may cause either nuisance or damage to health. ...


Most modern landfills in industrialized countries are operated with controls to attempt manage problems such as these. Analysis of common landfill operational problems are available in [1].


Some local authorities have found it difficult to locate new landfills. Communities may charge a fee or levy in order to discourage waste and/or recover the costs of site operations. Some landfills are operated for profit as commercial businesses. Many landfills, however, are publicly operated and funded.


Impacts to people near landfills in the U.S.

Communities near landfills are increasingly facing health consequences from air and water contamination, particularly from landfills that are poorly constructed and operated. Environmental contamination from landfills is entering waterways and underground aquifer at alarming rates. Liner breaches are not uncommon. Liners can delay contamination but they do not prevent it. With large amounts of toxic solid waste entering landfills today, ground and air contamination pose a significant threat to public health for those living within three to five miles of a landfill, and will eventually degrade the environment far beyond those limits.[citation needed] Water pollution has many sources and characteristics. ... Mixed municipal waste, Hiriya, Tel Aviv Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste type that includes predominantly household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a municipality within a given area. ...


Poorly constructed and operated landfills persist with leachate breaks, uncovered trash, and unchecked banned hazardous compounds. Federal laws to protect the public in Sec. 4001, Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [2] can be unenforceable to citizens without adequate legal funding. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency generally relies on the states to enforce their own operating permits and federal laws. If state agencies are not aggressive, violations can worsen, multiplying negative environmental impacts exponentially. There are some notable recorded violations in the U.S., such as for a [3] landfill in Hawaii that was fined $2.8 million in 2006 for operating violations, but this is not common. The mission of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment: air, water, and land. ...


Regional practice

United Kingdom

Main article: Landfill in the UK

Landfilling practices in the UK have had to change in recent years to meet the challenges of the European Landfill Directive. The UK now imposes landfill tax upon biodegradable waste which is landfilled. In addition to this the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme has been established for local authorities to trade landfill quotas. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Landfill Directive, more formally Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste, is a European Union directive issued by the European Union to be implemented by its member states. ... Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be broken down by other living organisms. ... The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme, LATS, is an initiative by the UK government, through DEFRA to help reduce the amount of biodegradable waste sent to landfill[1] [2]. // How does the scheme work? The Waste and Emissions Trading Act (2003) provides the legal framework for the scheme and for the...


United States

In the U.S., landfills are regulated by the state's environmental agency that establishes minimum guidelines; however, none of these standards may fall below those set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); such as was the case with the Fresh Kills Landfill in Staten Island, which is claimed by many to not only be the world's largest landfill, but the world's largest manmade structure. EPA redirects here. ... The Fresh Kills Landfill on the New York City borough of Staten Island, was formerly the largest landfill in the world, at 2200 acres (890 hectares),[1] and was New York Citys principal landfill in the second half of the 20th century. ... This article is about the borough in New York City. ...


The Fresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill, opened in Fresno, California in 1937, is considered to have been the first modern, sanitary landfill in the United States, innovating the techniques of trenching, compacting, and the daily covering of waste with soil. It has been designated a National Historic Landmark, underlining the significance of waste disposal in urban society. Fresno redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ...


Before the advent of modern landfills in America, most Americans lived in sparsely populated rural farming communities and most burned their garbage. Due to environmental and safety concerns, burning garbage by civilians has been outlawed by most municipalities and can only be performed by landfill managers or people who have obtained permits from the municipality. More information on landfill history in the United States can be found at [4].


The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is a US federal law that is designed to protect the public from harm caused by waste disposal. The EPA runs a Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP), a voluntary assistance program that helps to reduce methane emissions from landfills by encouraging the recovery and use of landfill gas as an energy resource.[5] The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), enacted in 1976, is a Federal law of the United States contained in 42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992k. ... Natural gas rig Natural gas (commonly refered to as gas in many countries) is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ...


U.S. landfills consist of 40% to 50% paper waste, 20% to 30% construction debris, and 1.2% disposable diapers. [4]

Alternatives

See also: List of solid waste treatment technologies

The obvious alternative to landfills are waste reduction and recycling strategies. Secondary to not creating waste, there are various alternatives to landfills. In the late 20th century, alternative methods to waste disposal to landfill and incineration have begun to gain acceptance. Anaerobic digestion, composting, mechanical biological treatment, pyrolysis and plasma arc gasification have all began to establish themselves in the market. The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The international recycling symbol. ... For other forms of waste plant that produce energy see waste-to-energy. ... Anaerobic digestion component of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany, 2007 Anaerobic digestion is a process in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. ... Composting is the aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter, producing compost. ... Anaerobic digestion and air processing components of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany A mechanical biological treatment system is a form of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as composting or anaerobic digestion. ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... Plasma arc waste disposal is a method of waste management which uses the extreme high temperature created by a plasma torch (or arc), to break down waste into steam and gas used for power generation, and hard solid rock-like waste (slag) which can be used in construction. ...


In recent years, some countries, such as Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, have banned the disposal of untreated waste in landfills. In these countries, only the ashes from incineration or the stabilised output of mechanical biological treatment plants may still be deposited. For other forms of waste plant that produce energy see waste-to-energy. ... Anaerobic digestion and air processing components of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany A mechanical biological treatment system is a form of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as composting or anaerobic digestion. ...


See also

Bioreactor landfilling is a process in which water and air are circulated into a specially-designed landfill, in order to cause accelerated biological decomposition of the waste material. ... Daily cover is the name given to the layer of compressed soil or earth which is laid on top of a days deposition of waste on an operational landfill site. ... The HELP model (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) is a hydrologic numerical model initially developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for landfills. ... Landfill gas monitoring is the process by which gases that are released from landfill are electronically monitored. ... Landfill mining and reclamation (LFMR) is a process whereby solid wastes which have previously been landfilled are excavated and processed. ... A landfill tax is a form of tax that is applied in some countries to increase the cost of landfill. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... Anaerobic digestion and air processing components of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany A mechanical biological treatment system is a form of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as composting or anaerobic digestion. ... A midden, also known as kitchen middens, is a dump for domestic waste. ... The Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA) is the leading professional association in the solid waste field in North America. ... Tell Mar Elias, North Jordan in 2005 Tell or tall (Arabic: ‎, tall, and Hebrew: , tel), meaning hill or mound, is an archaeological site in the form of an earthen mound that results from the accumulation and subsequent erosion of material deposited by human occupation over long periods of time. ... For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ...

References

  1. ^ Paul B. Awosika and Marc Papineau, Phase One Environmental Site Assessment, 7000 Marina Boulevard, Brisbane, California, prepared for Argentum International by Certified.Engineering & Testing Company, Boston, Massachusetts, July 15, 1993
  2. ^ USATODAY.com - Florida county plans to vaporize landfill trash
  3. ^ Wildlife Injuries Noyes, K (2006) Clean-Up Your Trash, Charity Guide
  4. ^ National Geographic magazine, September 1993
  • Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999, on the landfill of waste. Retrieved on August 29, 2005.
  • The Landfill Operation Management Advisor Web Based Expert System. Retrieved on August 29, 2005.
  • H. Lanier Hickman Jr. and Richard W. Eldredge. Part 3: The Sanitary Landfill. A Brief History of Solid Waste Management in the US During the Last 50 Years. Retrieved on August 29, 2005.

Any piece of real estate can be the subject of a Phase I ESA. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment is a report prepared for a real estate holding which identifies specific environmental contamination liabilities. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Landfill - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1215 words)
Their function is to secure the normal landfill operations and to control the anticipated emissions generated mainly by the decomposition of organic matter, such as leachate and landfill gas.
During landfill operations the waste collection vehicles or garbage trucks are weighed at a weigh-bridge on arrival and their load is inspected for wastes that do not accord with the landfill’s waste acceptance criteria.
The "Fresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill", opened in Fresno, California in 1937, is considered to have been the first modern, sanitary landfill in the United States, innovating the techniques of trenching, compacting, and the daily covering of trash with dirt.
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