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Encyclopedia > Lander (spacecraft)

A lander is a type of spacecraft which descends to come to rest on the surface of an astronomical body. For bodies with atmospheres, the landing is called re-entry and the lander re-entry vehicle. In this case landers employ aerobraking and parachutes to slow down, often with small landing rockets which fire just before impact to bring the lander to rest relatively gently. The Mars Pathfinder mission also used inflatable airbags to cushion the lander's impact. A spacecraft is a vehicle, vessel, craft or device designed to operate beyond the surface of the Earth in outer space. ... Atmosphere is the general name for a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass. ... Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal or aircraft returns to the ground. ... Atmospheric entry is the transition from the vacuum of space to the atmosphere of any planet or other celestial body. ... Refer to atmospheric reentry. ... An artists conception of a spacecraft aerobraking Aerobraking is a technique used by spacecraft in which it uses drag within a planetary atmosphere to reduce its velocity relative to the planet. ... The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ... A Redstone rocket, part of the Mercury program The traditional definition of a rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving fluid from within a rocket engine. ... The Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II rocket, just a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched. ... An automobile airbag, like this one in a crashed SEAT Ibiza car, deflates after 0. ...


The Rosetta probe, launched 2 March 2004, is planned to put a lander on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014; due to the extremely low gravity of such bodies, Rosetta's landing system includes a harpoon launcher intended to anchor a cable in the surface and pull it down. A landing on a similarly small body, the asteroid 433 Eros, was performed by the satellite NEAR Shoemaker despite the fact that NEAR was not originally designed to be capable of landing. The Hayabusa probe made several attempts to land on 25143 Itokawa with mixed success, including a failed attempt to deploy a rover. Conceptual drawing of the Rosetta orbiter and Philae lander Rosetta is a European Space Agency-led unmanned space mission launched in 2004 intended to study the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Comet Hale-Bopp For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is the designation of a comet with a current orbital period of 6. ... 2014 (MMXIV) will be a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Asteroid, minor planet, and planetoid are synonyms, and are used to indicate a diverse group of small celestial bodies that drift in the solar system in orbit around the Sun. ... The asteroid 433 Eros (eer-os) was named after the Greek god of love Eros. ... Near Earth Asteroid Eros as seen from the NEAR spacecraft. ... For other uses, see Hayabusa (disambiguation). ... Image:25143 Itokawa 051101-2 ISAS-JAXA.jpg Hayabusa image of 25143 Itokawa. ...


The Galileo probe dropped a small reentry vehicle into the atmosphere of Jupiter, but as Jupiter is a gas giant with no well-defined surface it is debatable whether this was a "lander" per se. Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... A gas giant is a large planet that is not composed mostly of rock or other solid matter. ...


A number of Moon probes, such as some members of the Soviet Luna program and the American Ranger program, were hard-impact landers which were not intended to continue providing useful data after their high-speed landings. The Huygens probe, carried to Saturn's moon Titan by the Cassini probe, was likewise not specifically designed to survive landing. However, due to the low speed impact, it continued providing data for more than two hours after it landed. Bulk composition of the Moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ... The Luna programme was a series of 24 unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. ... The Ranger program was a series of unmanned space missions by the United States in the 1960s whose objective was to obtain the first close-up images of the surface of the Moon. ... A scale replica of the probe An artists impression of the Huygens probe as it descends through Titans murky, brownish-orange atmosphere of nitrogen and carbon-based molecules, beaming its findings to the distant Cassini orbiter. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... Moons of the Solar System scaled to Earths Moon A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... Atmospheric characteristics Pressure 146. ... This is an artists concept of Cassini during the Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) maneuver, just after the main engine has begun firing. ...


The Soviet Venera program included a number of Venus landers, some of which were crushed during descent much as Galileo's Jupiter "lander" and others of which successfully touched down. The Soviet Vega program also placed two balloons in the Venusian atmosphere. Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander The Venera series of probes was developed by the USSR for the gathering of data from Venus. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ...


The Surveyor program was designed to determine where Apollo could land safely; thus these robotic missions required soft landers to sample the lunar soil and determine the thickness of the dust layer, which was unknown before Surveyor. The Apollo Lunar Module used a rocket descent engine for a soft landing of two astronauts on the Moon, each of the six times this was carried out. Photograph of Surveyor(3) lunar landing spacecraft taken by Apollo 12 astronauts (descriptions added). ... ¹ ² ³ ™ bob loves cheeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeseeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee: The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... A Redstone rocket, part of the Mercury program The traditional definition of a rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving fluid from within a rocket engine. ...


 
 

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