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Encyclopedia > Land warfare

War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. Other terms for war, which often serve as euphemisms, include armed conflict, hostilities, and police action (note). War is contrasted with peace, which is usually defined as the absence of war. Conflict is a state of opposition, disagreement or incompatibility between two or more people or groups of people, which is sometimes characterized by physical violence. ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... Violence refers to acts —typically connotative with aggressive and criminal behaviour —which intend to cause or is causing of injury to persons, animals, or (in limited cases) property. ... A combatant (also referred to as an enemy combatant) is a soldier or guerrilla member who is waging war. ... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces. ... A police action in military/security studies and international relations, is a military action undertaken without a formal declaration of war, often localized in scope. ... The concept of peace ranks among the most controversial in our time. ...


A common perception of war is a series of military campaigns between at least two opposing sides involving a dispute over sovereignty, territory, resources, religion or a host of other issues. A war to liberate an occupied country is sometimes characterised as a "war of liberation", while a war between internal elements of the same state may constitute a civil war. A military campaign is usally a connected series of battles (or instances of combat in warfare between two or more parties wherein each group seeks to defeat the others) and the maneuvers that is conducted by a military force (regular or irregular) seeking victory in a war. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region, group of people or oneself. ... A territory is a defined area (including land and waters), usually considered to be a possession of an animal, person, organization, or institution. ... Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... Look up Liberation on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberation is based on the word liberty, related to the word liberal (Monish Modi), and it is often understood as to be freed (or change) from not having freedom to having freedom. A major use of the word is the act of... Belligerent military occupation, occurs when one nations military garrisons occupy all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent during an invasion (during or after a war). ... A civil war is a war in which the competing parties are segments of the same country or empire. ...

Contents


History of war

Main article: History of warfare

War seems as old as human society, and certainly features prominently in the recorded histories of state-cultures. But it is a complex issue. Some hunter-gatherer societies engaged in skirmishes over territory and resources, although many did not. The earliest city states and empire in Mesopotamia became the first to employ standing armies. Organization and structure has since been central to warfare, as illustrated by the success of highly disciplined troops of the Roman Empire. The history of warfare is the history of war and its evolution and development over time. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... An army composed of full time professional soldiers form a standing army. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine Empire. ...

History of warfare
Eras
Prehistoric warfare
Ancient warfare
Medieval warfare
Early modern warfare
Modern warfare
Types
Aerial warfare
Amphibious warfare
Armoured warfare
Attrition warfare
Guerrilla warfare
Maneuver warfare
Mountain warfare
Naval warfare
Nuclear warfare
Siege warfare
Space warfare
Trench warfare
Urban warfare
Lists
List of wars
List of battles
List of sieges
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As well as organizational change, technology has played a central role in the evolution of warfare. Inventions created for warfare have also played an important role in other fields. The continued advance of technology has led to an increase in the destructiveness and cost of warfare throughout human history. The history of warfare is the history of war and its evolution and development over time. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, states and other such large social organizations. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the European Middle Ages. ... Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare is a complex affair, involving the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Aerial warfare is the use of aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of warfare. ... Landing ship Rapière Amphibious warfare is the assault of an objective located on land by a force attacking from ships. ... Armoured warfare in modern warfare is understood to be the use of armoured fighting vehicles as a central component of the methods of war. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... Guerrilla War redirects here. ... Maneuver warfare is a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption. ... A typically white color clothes of a soldier trained for mountain warfare. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Nuclear war, or atomic war, is war in which nuclear weapons are used. ... For the Boston area punk band see Siege (band). ... Space warfare is warfare that takes place in outer space. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of fortifications dug into the ground, facing each other. ... Urban warfare is warfare conducted in populated urban areas such as towns and cities. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... History -- Military history -- Lists of battles This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The study of warfare is known as military history. Military history is the recording (in writing or otherwise) of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ...


Morality of war

Plaque at center of Melbourne's Shrine of Remembrance
Plaque at center of Melbourne's Shrine of Remembrance

Throughout history war has been the source of serious moral questions. Although many ancient nations and some more modern ones viewed war as noble, over the sweep of history concerns about the morality of war have gradually increased. Today war is almost unanimously seen as undesirable and morally problematic. Many now believe that wars should only be fought as a last resort. Some, known as pacifists, believe that war is inherently immoral and no war should ever be fought. This position was passionately defended by the Indian leader Mohandas K. Gandhi (called "Mahatma" or "Great Soul"). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 374 KB) Plaque at center of Melbourne War Memorial Source: Own Photo File links The following pages link to this file: War ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 374 KB) Plaque at center of Melbourne War Memorial Source: Own Photo File links The following pages link to this file: War ... Pacifism is opposition to the practice of war. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ...


The negative view of war has not always been held as widely as it is today. Many thinkers, such as Heinrich von Treitschke saw war as humanity's highest activity where courage, honour, and ability were more necessary than in any other endeavour. At the outbreak of World War I the writer Thomas Mann wrote, "Is not peace an element of civil corruption and war a purification, a liberation, an enormous hope?" This attitude was embraced by many societies from Sparta in Ancient Greece and the Ancient Romans to the fascist states of the 1930s. The defeat and repudiation of the fascist states and their militarism in the Second World War, combined with the unquestioned horror of nuclear war have contributed to the current negative view of war. Heinrich von Treitschke (September 15, 1834 - April 28, 1896), German historian and political writer, was born at Dresden. ... You know what courage is. ... Honour (CwE) or honor (AmE) comprises the reputation, self-perception or moral identity of an individual or of a group. ... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machine guns, and poison gas World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations and... Thomas Mann Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist and essayist, lauded principally for a series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual and... Sparta (Greek Σπάρτη) was a city in ancient Greece, whose territory included, in Classical times, all Laconia and Messenia, and which was the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East between 753 BC and its downfall in AD 476. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... // Events and trends The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the global depression. ... Militarism expounds that the foundation of a societys security is its military capacity, and claims that the development and maintenance of the military to ensure that capacity is the most important goal for that society. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ...


Today, some see only Just Wars as legitimate, and it is the goal of organizations such as the United Nations to unite the world against wars of unjust aggression. Just War theory is an international law doctrine that postulates that a war can be just only if it satisfies a set of moral or legal rules. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945. ...


Limitations on war

At times throughout history, societies have attempted to limit the cost of war by formalizing it in some way. Limitations on the targeting of civilians, what type of weapons can be used, and when combat is allowed have all fallen under these rules in different conflicts. Total war is the modern term for the targeting of civilians and the mobilization of an entire society. A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... A US poster produced during World War II Total war is a 20th century term to describe a war in which countries or nations use all of their resources to destroy another organized countrys or nations ability to engage in war. ...


While culture, law, and religion have all been factors in causing wars, they have also acted as restraints at times. In some cultures, for example, conflicts have been highly ritualized to limit actual loss of life. In modern times, increasing international attention has been paid to peacefully resolving conflicts which lead to war. The United Nations is the latest and most comprehensive attempt to, as stated in the preamble of the U.N. Charter, "save succeeding generations from the scourge of war." The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945. ...


A number of treaties regulate warfare, collectively referred to as the laws of war. The most pervasive of those are the Geneva Conventions, the earliest of which began to take effect in the mid 1800s. A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. ... Development of the Geneva Conventions from 1864 to 1949 The Geneva Conventions consist of four treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ...


Treaty signing has since been a part of international diplomacy, and too many treaties to mention in this scant article have been signed. A couple of examples are: Resolutions of the Geneva International Conference, Geneva, 26 October-29 October 1863 and Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 75 U.N.T.S. 135, entered into force 21 October 1950. It must be noted that in war such treaties are generally thrown to one side if they interfere with the vital interests of either side; some have criticised such conventions as simply providing a fig leaf for the inhuman practice of war. By only illegalising "war against the rules", it is alleged, such treaties and conventions, in effect, sanction certain types of war. A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... The United Nations, with its headquarters in New York City, is the largest international diplomatic organization. ... The Geneva convention signed during the 26-29 October 1863 signed the following treaty. ... Jet dEau in Geneva Geneva (French: Genève) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland, situated where Lake Geneva (known in French as Lac Léman) flows into the Rhône River. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 63 days remaining. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Redefining "war" for legal reasons

Sometimes the term "war" is restricted by legal definition to those conflicts where one or both belligerents have formally declared war. This has resulted in wars (in the sense defined in the introduction to this article) without formal declaration and combatants who officially choose terms other than "war," such as: A Declaration of War is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation, and one or more others. ...

For example, the United States Government referred to the Korean War as a "police action", and the British Government was very careful to use the term "armed conflict" instead of "war" during the Falklands War in 1982 to comply with the letter of international law. Sometimes the term "war" will not be used in order to circumvent national constitutions which restrict the power of the executive to wage war without the agreement of other branches of government. For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... Armed forces are the military forces of a state. ... A police action in military/security studies and international relations, is a military action undertaken without a formal declaration of war, often localized in scope. ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of illegally starting a war. ... The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁/韓國戰爭), from June 25, 1950 to cease-fire on July 27, 1953 (technically speaking, the war has not yet ended), was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ... The Falklands War or the Malvinas War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas), was an armed conflict between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands (also known in Spanish as the Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, between March and June of 1982. ...


Causes of war

There is great debate over why wars happen, even when most people do not want them to. Representatives of many different academic disciplines have attempted to explain war.


Historical theories

Historians tend to be reluctant to look for sweeping explanations for all wars. A. J. P. Taylor famously described wars as being like traffic accidents. There are some conditions and situations that make them more likely but there can be no system for predicting where and when each one will occur. Social scientists criticize this approach arguing that at the beginning of every war some leader makes a conscious decision and that they cannot be seen as purely accidental. Alan John Percivale Taylor (March 25, 1906–September 7, 1990) was a renowned British historian of the 20th century. ...


Psychological theories

Psychologists such as E.F.M. Durban and John Bowlby have argued that human beings, especially men, are inherently violent. While this violence is repressed in normal society it needs the occasional outlet provided by war. This combines with other notions, such as displacement where a person transfers their grievances into bias and hatred against other ethnic groups, nations, or ideologies. While these theories can explain why wars occur, they do not explain when or how they occur. In addition, they raise the question why there are sometimes long periods of peace and other eras of unending war. If the innate psychology of the human mind is unchanging, these variations are inconsistent. A solution adopted to this problem by militarists such as Franz Alexander is that peace does not really exist. Periods that are seen as peaceful are actually periods of preparation for a later war or when war is suppressed by a state of great power, such as the Pax Britannica. Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul or mind, logos/-ology = study of) is an academic and applied field involving the study of mind and behavior. ... John Bowlby (1907-1990) was a British developmental psychologist of the psychoanalytic tradition. ... This article concerns how a man differs from women. ... The term displacement can have one of several meanings, depending on context: Displacement (distance), a physical quantity in kinematics Particle displacement, acoustics of sound in air Displacement (fluid), a different physical quantity, used in fluid mechanics and navigation; used as a measure of a ships size Engine displacement, a... Pax Britannica (Latin for the British Peace, modelled after Pax Romana) refers to a period of British imperialism after the Battle of Waterloo, which led to a period of overseas British expansionism. ...


If war is innate to human nature, as is presupposed by many psychological theories, then there is little hope of ever escaping it. One alternative is to argue that war is only, or almost only, a male activity and if human leadership was in female hands wars would not occur. This theory has played an important role in modern feminism. Critics, of course, point to various examples of female political leaders who had no qualms about using military force, such as Margaret Thatcher or Indira Gandhi. Feminism is advocacy for women, and is comprised of a diverse collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women, especially socially, politically, and economically. ... The Right Honourable Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925), is a British stateswoman. ... Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (इन्दिरा प्रियदर्शिनी गान्धी) (November 19, 1917 – October 31, 1984) was Prime Minister of India from January 19, 1966 to March 24, 1977, and...


Other psychologists have argued that while human temperament allows wars to occur, they only do so when mentally unbalanced men are in control of a nation. This extreme school of thought argues leaders that seek war such as Napoleon, Hitler, and Stalin were mentally abnormal. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ...


A distinct branch of the psychological theories of war are the arguments based on evolutionary psychology. This school tends to see war as an extension of animal behaviour, such as territoriality and competition. However, while war has a natural cause, the development of technology has accelerated human destructiveness to a level that is irrational and damaging to the species. We have the same instincts of a chimpanzee but overwhelmingly more power. The earliest advocate of this theory was Konrad Lorenz. These theories have been criticized by scholars such as John G. Kennedy, who argue that the organized, sustained war of humans differs more than just technologically from the territorial fights between animals. Evolutionary psychology (or EP) proposes that human and primate cognition and behavior can be better understood in light of human and primate evolutionary history. ... Lorenz being followed by his imprinted geese Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (November 7, 1903–February 27, 1989) was an Austrian zoologist, animal psychologist, and ornithologist. ...


In his fictional book Nineteen-Eighty-Four, George Orwell talks about war being used as one of many ways to distract people. War inspires fear and hate among the people of a nation, and gives them a 'legitimate' enemy upon whom they can focus this fear and hate. Thus the people are prevented from seeing that their true enemy is in fact their own repressive government. By this theory, war is another 'opiate of the masses' by which a totalitarian state controls its people and prevents revolution. Nineteen Eighty-Four (sometimes 1984) is a darkly satirical political novel by George Orwell. ... George Orwell, on the cover of a 2005 biography by Gordon Bowker Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was a British author and journalist. ...


Anthropological theories

Several anthropologists take a very different view of war. They see it as fundamentally cultural, learned by nurture rather than nature. Thus if human societies could be reformed, war would disappear. To this school the acceptance of war is inculcated into each of us by the religious, ideological, and nationalistic surroundings in which we live. Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ... The origins of the word religion have been debated for centuries. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... // Nationalism is an ideology which holds that the nation, ethnicity or national identity is a fundamental unit of human social life, and makes certain political claims based upon that belief; above all, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state, and that each nation is...


Many anthropologists also see no links between various forms of violence. They see the fighting of animals, the skirmishes of hunter-gatherer tribes, and the organized warfare of modern societies as distinct phenomena each with their own causes. Theorists such as Ashley Montagu emphasize the top down nature of war, that almost all wars are begun not by popular pressure but by the whims of leaders and that these leaders also work to maintain a system of ideological justifications for war. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Ashley Montagu (June 28, 1905, London, England - November 26, 1999, Princeton, New Jersey), was an English anthropologist and humanist who popularized issues such as race and gender and their relation to politics and development. ...


Sociological theories

Sociology has long been very concerned with the origins of war, and many thousands of theories have been advanced, many of them contradictory. Some use detailed formulas taking into account hundreds of demographic and economic values to predict when and where wars will break out. The statistical analysis of war was pioneered by Lewis Fry Richardson following World War I. More recent databases of wars and armed conflict have been assembled by the Correlates of War Project, Peter Brecke and the Uppsala Department of Peace and Conflict Research. So far none of these formulas have successfully predicted the outbreak of future conflicts. A detailed study by Michael Haas found that no single variable has a strong correlation to the occurrence of wars. One correlation that has found much support is that states that are democracies do not go to war with each other, an idea known as the democratic peace theory. Social interactions of people and their consequences are the subject of sociology studies. ... For Wikipedia statistics, see m:Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... Lewis Fry Richardson (October 11, 1881 - September 30, 1953) was a mathematician, physicist and psychologist. ... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machine guns, and poison gas World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations and... The democratic peace theory or simply democratic peace (often DPT and sometimes democratic pacifism) is a theory in political science and philosophy which holds that democracies—specifically, liberal democracies—never or almost never go to war with one another. ...


Many sociologists have attempted to divide wars into types to get better correlations, but this has also produced mixed results. Data looked at by R.J. Rummel has found that civil wars and foreign wars are very different in origin, but Jonathan Wilkenfield using different data found just the opposite. Rudolph Joseph Rummel (born October 21, 1932) is professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii and alternative historian. ... A civil war is a war in which the competing parties are segments of the same country or empire. ...


Sociology has thus divided into a number of schools. One based on the works of Eckart Kehr and Hans-Ulrich Wehler sees war as the product of domestic conditions, with only the target of aggression being determined by international realities. Thus World War I was not a product of international disputes, secret treaties, or the balance of power but a product of the economic, social, and political situation within each of the states involved. Hans-Ulrich Wehler (September 11, 1931-) is an well-known left-wing German historian. ... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machine guns, and poison gas World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations and...


This differs from the traditional approach of Carl von Clausewitz and Leopold von Ranke that argue it is the decisions of statesmen and the geopolitical situation that leads to war. A young Clausewitz Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz (June 1, 1780 - November 16, 1831) was a Prussian general and influential military thinker. ... Leopold Von Ranke in 1877 Leopold von Ranke (December 21, 1795- May 23, 1886) was one of the greatest German historians of the 19th century, and is frequently considered the founder of scientific history. ...


Information theories

A popular new approach is to look at the role of information in the outbreak of wars. This theory, advanced by scholars of international relations such as Geoffrey Blainey, argues that all wars are based on a lack of information. If both sides at the outset knew the result neither would fight, the loser would merely surrender and avoid the cost in lives and infrastructure that a war would cause. Information is a word which has many different meanings in everyday usage and in specialized contexts, but as a rule, the concept is closely related to others such as data, instruction, knowledge, meaning, communication, representation, and mental stimulus. ... Professor Geoffrey Blainey AO (born 1930 -), is recognised as one of Australias most significant and popular historians. ...


This is based on the notion that wars are reciprocal, that all wars require both a decision to attack and also a decision to resist attack. This notion is generally agreed to by almost all scholars of war since Clausewitz. This notion is made harder to accept because it is far more common to study the cause of wars rather than events that failed to cause wars, and wars are far more memorable. However, throughout history there are as many invasions and annexations that did not lead to a war, such as the U.S.-led invasion of Haiti in 1994, the Nazi invasions of Austria and Czechoslovakia preceding the Second World War, and the annexation of the Baltic states by the Soviet Union in 1940. On the other hand, Finland's decision to resist a similar Soviet aggression in 1939 led to the Winter War. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered a fourth Baltic state. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Winter War (also known as the Soviet-Finnish War or the Russo-Finnish War) broke out when the Soviet Union attacked Finland on November 30, 1939, three months after the start of World War II. As a consequence, the Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations on...


The leaders of these nations chose not to resist as they saw the potential benefits being not worth the loss of life and destruction such resistance would cause. Lack of information may not only be to who wins in the immediate future. The Norwegian decision to resist the Nazi invasion was taken with the certain knowledge that Norway would fall. The Norwegians did not know whether the German domination would be permanent and also felt that noble resistance would win them favour with the Allies and a position at the peace settlement in the event of an Allied victory. If in 1940 it had been known with certainty the Germans would dominate central Europe for many decades, it is unlikely the Norwegians would have resisted. If it had been known for certainty that the Third Reich would collapse after only a few years of war, the Nazis would not have launched the invasion at all.


This theory is predicated on the notion that the outcome of wars is not randomly determined, but fully determined on factors such as doctrine, economies, and power. While purely random events, such as storms or the right person dying at the right time, might have had some effect on history, these only influence a single battle or slightly alter the outcome of a war, but would not mean the difference between victory and defeat.


There are two main objectives in the gathering of intelligence. The first is to find out the ability of an enemy, the second their intent. In theory to have enough information to prevent all wars both need to be fully known. The Argentinean dictatorship knew that the United Kingdom had the ability to defeat them, but their intelligence failed them on the question of whether the British would use their power to resist the annexation of the Falklands. The American decision to enter the Vietnam War was made with the full knowledge that the communist forces would resist them, but did not believe that the guerrillas had the capability to long oppose American forces. The Falkland Islands are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom in the South Atlantic consisting of two main islands known as East Falkland and West Falkland and a number of smaller islands. ... The Vietnam War or Second Indochina War was a conflict between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN, or North Vietnam), allied with the National Liberation Front (NLF, or Viet Cong) against the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, or South Vietnam), and its allies—notably the United States military in support of...


One major difficulty is that in a conflict of interests, some deception or at least not telling everything, is a standard tactical component on both sides. If you think that you can convince the opponent that you will fight, the opponent might desist. For example, Sweden made efforts to deceive Nazi Germany that it would resist an attack fiercely partly by playing on the myth of Aryan superiority, and by making sure that Hermann Göring only saw Elite troops in action, often dressed up as regular soldiers, when he came to visit. Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was an early member of the Nazi party, founder of the Gestapo, and one of the main leaders of Nazi Germany. ...


Economic theories

Another school of thought argues that war can be seen as an outgrowth of economic competition in a chaotic and competitive international system. That wars begin as a pursuit of new markets, of natural resources, and of wealth. Unquestionably a cause of some wars, from the empire building of Britain to the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in pursuit of oil this theory has been applied to many other conflicts. It is most often advocated by those to the left of the political spectrum who argue that such wars serve only the interests of the wealthy but are fought by the poor. Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Street markets such as this one in Rue Mouffetard, Paris are still common in France. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Nazism. ... Oil is a generic term for organic liquids that are not miscible with water. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


Marxist theories

The economic theories also form a part of the Marxist theory of war, which argues that all war grows out of the class war. It sees wars as imperial ventures to enhance the power of the ruling class and divide the proletariat of the world by pitting them against each other for contrived ideals such as nationalism or religion. Wars are a natural outgrowth of the free market and class system, and will not disappear until a world revolution occurs. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... This article is about the organisation and newspaper Class War. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ...


Types of war and warfare

Smaller armed conflicts are often called riots, rebellions, coups, etc. Riots in Newark, New Jersey Riots occur when crowds of people have gathered and are committing crimes or acts of violence. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


When one country sends armed forces to another, allegedly to restore order or prevent genocide or other crimes against humanity, or to support a legally recognized government against insurgency, that country sometimes refers to it as a police action. This usage is not always recognized as valid, however, particularly by those who do not accept the connotations of the term. Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Genocide is defined in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) article 2 as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group... This article is in need of attention. ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... A police action in military/security studies and international relations, is a military action undertaken without a formal declaration of war, often localized in scope. ...


"Conventional warfare" descibes either: Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ...

  • A war between nation-states
  • War where nuclear or biological weapons are not used.

(Compare with unconventional warfare and nuclear warfare.) Unconventional warfare is a broad spectrum of military and paramilitary operations, normally of long duration, predominantly conducted by indigenous or surrogate forces who are organized, trained, equipped, supported, and directed in varying degrees by an external source. ... Nuclear war, or atomic war, is war in which nuclear weapons are used. ...


A war where the forces in conflict belong to the same country or empire or other political entity is known as a civil war. Asymmetrical warfare is a conflict between two populations of drastically different levels of military mechanization. This type of war often results in guerrilla tactics. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a common example of asymmetrical warfare. A civil war is a war in which the competing parties are segments of the same country or empire. ... Asymmetric warfare is a military term to describe warfare in which the two belligerents are mismatched in their military capabilities or accustomed methods of engagement such that the militarily diasadvantaged power must press its special advantages or effectively exploit its enemys particular weaknesses if they are to have any... Mechanization refers to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... Guerrilla War redirects here. ... Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ...


Geographic warfare

The terrain over which a war is fought has a big impact on the type of combat which takes place. This in turn means that soldiers have to be trained to fight in a specific type of terrain. These include:

Arctic warfare is a term used to describe conflict that takes place in an exceptionally cold climate. ... Finnish sissi troops on skis. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Captain John Ericsson invented sub-aquatic warfare. A ship would have the majority of its hull underneath the water The first example is probably the U.S. Moniter which existed during the Civil War Time era. ... A typically white color clothes of a soldier trained for mountain warfare. ... Urban warfare is warfare conducted in populated urban areas such as towns and cities. ... Aerial warfare is the use of aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of warfare. ... Space warfare is warfare that takes place in outer space. ...

Future of warfare

As the world moves into the 21st century, warfare has changed. The state is beginning to pass away as the principal actor in world politics and the world is starting to look more like it did before the rise of nationalism and the ascendancy of the state. The warring forces in the world are beginning to be defined more by cultures rather than political entities. Martin Van Creveld stated that, "Designed, financed and maintained by one state for the purpose of fighting another, present day armed forces are dinosaurs about to disappear...". (Van Creveld, p. 214). In books based on the Demonic Era or Common Era, such as the Gregorian calendar, the 21st century is the current century, as of this writing. ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... Geopolitics analyses politics, history and social science with reference to geography. ... // Nationalism is an ideology which holds that the nation, ethnicity or national identity is a fundamental unit of human social life, and makes certain political claims based upon that belief; above all, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state, and that each nation is... Look up Culture in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikinews has news related to this article: Culture and entertainment Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Cultural Development in Antiquity Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Culture and Civilization in Modern Times Classificatory system for cultures and civilizations, by Dr. Sam Vaknin... Martin van Creveld (1946- ) is an Israeli military historian and theorist. ...


The tactics and methods used in warfare will have to change as the warring parties change and the paradigm of international relations shifts to the earlier model. Soldiers now are trained to be unemotional and clinical, a policy that reflects the state-based notion that war must be undertaken by rational armies who are regulated by agreed upon rules and laws (e.g., the Geneva Convention, the Law of Land Warfare, etc.). As warfare shifts back to the time when civilizations, cultures and religions attempted to obliterate their opponents, soldiers will have to understand the complex nature of the conflicts that surround them and state-based armies will have to undergo massive changes. (Waddell 2004) The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ...


Modern combatants include religious zealots and terrorists and, because they are not defined by the state, cannot be bombed or fought as were the armies of Hitler or Napoleon. Some suggest that western culture, which employs the majority of these state-based militaries, will have to fight using elite forces that appeal across national lines to broader cultural similarities if it is to effectively fight modern wars. (Waddell 2004) Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


See also

General
Lists
Military knowlegebase
Other

War Cycles Wars are complex phenomena with multiple determinants. ... List of wars - List of wars before 1000 - List of wars 1000-1499 - List of wars 1500-1799 - List of wars 1800-1899 - List of wars 1900-1944 - List of wars 1945-1989 - List of wars 1990-2002 - List of wars 2003-current - Ongoing wars Armed insurgents in Cote d... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... History -- Military history -- Lists of battles This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of orders of battle. ... This is a list of both successful and repelled international invasions ordered by date. ... See also: Military History // Antiquity Cyrus the Great (King of Persia who conquered Babylon) Artaphernes (Persian general) Sun Tzu (Chinese general and author of The Art of War) Themistocles (Athenian admiral during the Persian Wars) Miltiades (Athenian general during the Persian Wars) Callimachus (Athenian general during the Persian Wars) Leonidas... Military science concerns itself with the study and of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Military strategy in the Waterloo campaign Military strategy is a collective name for planning the conduct of warfare. ... Military tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... The Philosophy of War examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, into what war means for humanity and human nature, and also the ethics of war. ... The bayonet, still used in war as both knife and spearpoint. ... A civil war is a war in which the competing parties are segments of the same country or empire. ... For the generic term for a high-tension struggle between countries, see cold war (war). ... The term military-industrial complex usually refers to the combination of the U.S. armed forces, arms industry and associated political and commercial interests, which grew rapidly in scale and influence in the wake of World War II, although it can also be used to describe any such relationship of... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) comprises the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, economic or political noncooperation, civil disobedience and other methods, without the use of physical violence. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869–January 30, 1948) (Devanagari, Hindi: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी,Gujarati:મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was the spiritual and political leader of India who led the struggle for Indias independence from the British Empire, empowered by tens of millions of Indians. ... Iraq administrator L. Paul Bremer flanked by private military contractors Private military contractors or private military companies (PMCs) are companies that provide logistics, manpower, and other expenditures for a military force; when involved with logistics, companies may be described more generally as defense contractors. ... A war profiteer is any person or organization that makes profits (rightly or wrongly) from warfare or by selling weapons and other goods to one or even both of the parties at war in their own or in foreign countries. ...

References

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • Small, Melvin & Singer, David J. (1982). Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars, 1816- 1980, Sage Publications. ISBN 0803917775.
  • Van Creveld, M. (2000). The Art of War: War and Military Thought, Cassell, Wellington House. ISBN 0304362115.

Image File history File links i would like to see some quotations by or about goebbels. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Asymmetric warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2181 words)
Asymmetric warfare is a military term describing warfare in which the two belligerents are mismatched in their military capabilities or their accustomed methods of engagement.
Usually in warfare at the start of the conflict, the belligerents deploy forces of a similar type and the outcome of the war can be determined by the quality and quantity of the opposing forces.
Similarly, laws of warfare prohibit combatants from using civilian settlements, populations or facilities as military bases, but when an inferior power uses this tactic, it depends on the superior power respecting the law that they are violating, and not attacking that civilian target.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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