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Encyclopedia > Land of Oz
Land of Oz Portal

Oz is a fairy country (fantasy region) containing four lands under the rule of one monarch. Image File history File links Portal. ... A fantasy world is a type of fictional universe in which magic or other similar powers work. ... A high king is a king who holds a position of seniority over a group of other kings. ...


It was first introduced in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) by L. Frank Baum, one of many fairy countries that he created for his books. It achieved a popularity that none of his other works attained, and after four years, he returned to it. The land was described and expanded upon in the Oz Books.[1] An attempt to cut off the production of the series with The Emerald City of Oz, by ending the story with Oz being isolated from the rest of the world, did not succeed owing to readers' reactions and Baum's financial need to write successful books.[2] The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) is a childrens book written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ... Lyman Frank Baum (May 15, 1856 – May 6, 1919) was an American author, actor, and independent filmmaker best known as the creator, along with illustrator W. W. Denslow, of one of the most popular books in American childrens literature, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, better known today as simply... The Oz books form a book series that begins with The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, and that relates the history of the Land of Oz. ... The Emerald City of Oz is the sixth of L. Frank Baums fourteen Land of Oz books. ...


The land of Oz is unquestionably real in the books depicting it, unlike the 1939 movie adaptation, which transformed it into an ambiguous dream of Dorothy's.[3] The Wizard of Oz (film) redirects here. ...


In all, Baum wrote fourteen children's books about Oz and its odd inhabitants. After his death, Ruth Plumly Thompson and other writers continued the series. Basic Characteristics There is some debate as to what constitutes childrens literature. ... Ruth Plumly Thompson (1891-1976) was an American writer of childrens stories. ...

Contents

"Oz as History"

In Baum's time, it was common for authors to present works of fiction as true accounts (compare Sherlock Holmes and Tarzan for other examples). While Baum presented Oz as fiction in some of his forewords such as that of the first book, in other books he presented it as a true account related to him by those involved. Most notably, in The Emerald City of Oz he attempted to end the series on the basis of a letter he had claimed to have received from Dorothy Gale, the main character. In the following book, The Patchwork Girl of Oz, he explained that after some difficulty he had re-established communication with the characters by wireless telegraph. Baum also began signing himself as "Royal Historian of Oz," a title which several other authors of the series have taken on after his death. A portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Sidney Paget from the Strand Magazine, 1891 Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, who first appeared in publication in 1887. ... For other uses, see Tarzan (disambiguation). ... The Emerald City of Oz is the sixth of L. Frank Baums fourteen Land of Oz books. ... For the Doctor Who character, see Ace (Doctor Who). ... The Patchwork Girl of Oz by L. Frank Baum, is a childrens novel, the seventh set in the Land of Oz. ... Wireless is an old-fashioned term for a radio receiver, referring to its use as a wireless telegraph. ...


Because Baum himself wrote from an in-universe standpoint, many fans of the series treat the books as if they were true, known among the fans as the "Oz as History" standpoint. Any confusion or contradiction between the different versions of their histories is said to be the fault of the historian making an honest mistake, of the editors for removing parts which they did not consider suitable for the child audience, or of the characters involved who reported the incidents in question back to the historian. This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ...


There are many discussions founded on clues in the series in Oz fan group Regalia[1] (and previously Nonestica[2] and the Ozzy Digest[3]) on how large Oz is, its population, and many other details not addressed explicitly in the books themselves. Articles of the sort frequently appear in The Baum Bugle as well. The Baum Bugle: A Journal of Oz is the official journal of The International Wizard of Oz Club. ...


While some fans enjoy trying to explain the various inconsistencies in the books, others prefer to ignore them, since apparently the inconsistencies weren't important to Baum himself. These fans prefer to view Oz from the contrasting, but more traditional, Oz as Literature standpoint. Many fans enjoy both standpoints, and it is not uncommon for new ideas about Oz to be examined from both standpoints by the same people. For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ...


Characteristics

Oz is, in the first book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, distinguished from Dorothy's native Kansas by not being civilized; this explains why Kansas does not have witches and wizards, while Oz does.[4] In the third book, Ozma of Oz, Oz is described as a "fairy country", new terminology that remained to explain its wonders.[5] The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) is a childrens book written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ... The original 1907 book cover by John R. Neill. ...


Geography

The Land of Oz

The Land of Oz; note that the map is a mirror image of "actual" locations, but that the compass rose shows east on the right-hand side.
The Land of Oz; note that the map is a mirror image of "actual" locations, but that the compass rose shows east on the right-hand side.

Oz is roughly rectangular in shape, and divided along the diagonals into four countries: Munchkin Country (but commonly referred to as 'Munchkinland' in adaptations) in the East, Winkie Country (called 'The Vinkus' in Gregory Maguire's Wicked) in the West, (sometimes West and East are reversed on maps of Oz, see West and East below) Gillikin Country in the North, and Quadling Country in the South. In the center of Oz, where the diagonals cross, is the fabled Emerald City, capital of the land of Oz and seat to the monarch of Oz, Princess Ozma.[6] JPEG version of map. ... JPEG version of map. ... Munchkin Country (or Munchkinland in the 1939 film and its imitators) is a region in the fictional Land of Oz in L. Frank Baums Oz books, first described in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... The Winkie Country is a division of the fictional Land of Oz. ... Gregory Maguire (born June 9, 1954 in Albany, New York) is an American author. ... Wicked, or Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, is a parallel novel by Gregory Maguire. ... Oz is a fairy country (fantasy region) containing four lands under the rule of one monarch. ... The Gillikin Country is the northern division of L. Frank Baums land of Oz. ... The Quadling Country is the southern division of L. Frank Baums Land of Oz. ... For other uses, see Emerald City (disambiguation). ... Princess Ozma Princess Ozma is a fictional character in the Land of Oz universe created by L. Frank Baum. ...


The regions have a color schema: blue for Munchkins, yellow for Winkies, red for Quadlings, green for the Emerald city, and (in works after the first) purple for the Gillikins, which region was also not named in the first book.[7] (This contrasts with Kansas; Baum, describing it, used "gray" nine times in four paragraphs.[8]) In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, this is merely the favorite color, used for clothing and other man-made objects, and having some influence on their choice of crops, but the basic colors of the world are natural colors.[9] The effect is less consistent in later works. In The Marvelous Land of Oz, the book states that everything in the land of the Gillikins is purple, including the plants and mud, and a character can see that he is leaving when the grass turns from purple to green, but it also describes pumpkins as orange and corn as green in that land.[10] Baum, indeed, never used the color schema consistently; in many books, he alluded to the colors to orient the characters and readers to their location, and then did not refer to it again.[11] His most common technique was to depict the man-made articles and flowers as the color of the country, leaving leaves, grass, and fruit their natural colors.[12] The Marvelous Land of Oz, commonly shortened to The Land of Oz, published in 1904, is the second of L. Frank Baums books set in the Land of Oz, and the sequel to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ...


Most of these regions are settled with prosperous and contented people. However, this naturally is lacking in scope for plot. Numerous pockets throughout the land of Oz are cut off from the main culture, for geographic or cultural reasons. Many have never heard of Ozma, making it impossible for them to acknowledge her as their rightful queen. These regions are concentrated around the edges of the country, and constitute the main settings for books that are set entirely within Oz.[13] The Lost Princess of Oz, for instance is set entirely in rough country in Winkie Country, between two settled areas.[14] In Glinda of Oz, Ozma speaks of her duty to discover all these stray corners of Oz.[15] The Lost Princess of Oz is the eleventh book set in Oz written by L. Frank Baum. ... Glinda of Oz is the fourteenth Land of Oz book written by childrens author L. Frank Baum. ...


In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, a yellow brick road leads from the lands of the Munchkins to the Emerald City. Other such roads featured in other works: one from Gillikin Country in The Marvelous Land of Oz, and a second one from Munchkin Land in The Patchwork Girl of Oz.[16] The road of yellow brick is an element in the novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum. ...


Oz is completely surrounded on all four sides by a desert, which insulates the citizens of Oz from discovery and invasion. In the first two books, this is merely a desert, with only its extent to make it dangerous to the traveler.[17] Indeed, in The Marvelous Land of Oz, Mombi tries to escape through it and Glinda chases her over the sands. Still, it is the dividing land between the magic of Oz and the outside world, and the Winged Monkeys can not obey Dorothy's command to carry her home because it would take them outside the lands of Oz.[18] In Ozma of Oz, it has become a magical desert, the Deadly Desert with life-destroying sands (reported but never depicted, unlike in the film, Return to Oz), a feature that remained constant through the rest of the series.[19] The desert has nonetheless been breached numerous times, both by children from our world (mostly harmless), by the Wizard of Oz himself, and by more sinister characters, such as the Nome King, who attempted to conquer Oz. After such an attempt in The Emerald City of Oz, the book ends with Glinda creating a barrier of invisibility around the Land of Oz, for further protection.[20] This was, indeed, an earnest effort on Baum's part to escape the series, but the insistence of the readers meant the continuation of the series, and therefore the discovery of many ways for people to pass through this barrier as well as over the sands.[21] Despite this continual evasion, the barrier itself remained; nowhere in any Oz book did Baum hint that the inhabitants were even considering removing the magical barrier.[22] Winged monkeys (often referred to in adaptations and pop culture as flying monkeys) are characters from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, of enough impact between the books and the 1939 movie to have taken their own place in pop culture, regularly referenced in comedic or ironic situations as a source... The original 1907 book cover by John R. Neill. ... The Deadly Desert is the magical desert that completely surrounds the Land of Oz. ... For other uses, including the 1964 film of the same name, see Return to Oz (disambiguation). ... Cover of The Gnome King of Oz (1927) by Ruth Plumly Thompson. ... The Emerald City of Oz is the sixth of L. Frank Baums fourteen Land of Oz books. ... Glinda depicted on the cover of Glinda of Oz Glinda (or Glinda the Good Witch) is a fictional character in the Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ...


West and East

The first known map of Oz was a glass slide used in Baum's Fairylogue and Radio-Play traveling show, showing the blue land of the Munchkins in the east and the yellow land of the Winkies in the west. These directions are confirmed by the text of all of Baum's Oz books, especially the first, in which The Wicked Witch of the East rules over the Munchkins, and The Wicked Witch of the West rules over the Winkies. The Wicked Witch of the East is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his classic books. ... Munchkin Country (or Munchkinland in the 1939 film and its imitators) is a region in the fictional Land of Oz in L. Frank Baums Oz books, first described in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... The Wicked Witch of the West (or simply The Wicked Witch) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his childrens books. ... The Winkie Country is a division of the fictional Land of Oz. ...


Like traditional western maps, the Fairylogue and Radio-Play map showed the west on the left, and the east on the right. However, the first map of Oz to appear in an Oz book had those directions reversed, and the compass rose adjusted accordingly.[23] It is believed that this is a result of Baum copying the map from the wrong side of the glass slide, effectively getting a mirror image of his intended map. When he realized he was copying the slide backward, he reversed the compass rose to make the directions correct. However, an editor at Reilly and Lee reversed the compass rose, thinking he was fixing an error and resulting in further confusion.[24] Most notably, this confused Ruth Plumly Thompson, who frequently reversed directions in her own Oz books as a result. A common compass rose as is found on a nautical chart showing both true and magnetic north with magnetic declination A compass rose is a figure displaying the orientation of the cardinal directions, north, south, east and west on a map or nautical chart. ...


Another speculation stems from the original conception of Oz, which at first appeared to be situated in an American desert. If Baum thought of the country of the Munchkins as the nearest region to him, it would have been in the east while he lived in Chicago, but when he moved to California, it would have be in the west.[25]


Modern maps of Oz are almost universally drawn with the Winkies in the west and the Munchkins in the east, although west and east often appear reversed. Many Oz fans believe this is the correct orientation, perhaps as a result of Glinda's spell, which has the effect of confusing most standard compasses; perhaps resembling its similarity to the world Alice found through the looking glass in which everything was a mirror image; or perhaps just reflecting the alien nature of Oz. In Robert A. Heinlein's book The Number of the Beast he explains that Oz is on a retrograde planet, meaning that it spins in the opposite direction of Earth so that the sun seems to rise on one's left as one faces north. March Laumer's The Magic Mirror of Oz attribues the changes to a character named Till Orangespiegel attempting to turn the Land of Oz orange. Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a work of childrens literature by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), and is the sequel to Alices Adventures in Wonderland. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... The Number of the Beast is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1980. ... Direct motion is the motion of a planetary body in a direction similar to that of other bodies within its system, and is sometimes called prograde motion. ... March Laumer was brother to science fiction writer Keith Laumer. ...


Location

Oz, like all of Baum's fantasy countries, was presented as existing as part of the real world, albeit protected from civilization by natural barriers.[26] Indeed, in the first books, nothing indicated that it was not hidden in the deserts of the United States.[27] It gradually acquired neighboring magical countries, often from works of Baum's that had been independent, as Ix from Queen Zixi of Ix, and Mo from The Magical Monarch of Mo.[28] The first of these is Ev, introduced in Ozma of Oz.[29] Queen Zixi of Ix, or The Story of the Magic Cloak is a 1905 childrens book written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by Frederick Richardson. ... The Magical Monarch of Mo (1903) is a childrens fantasy book by L. Frank Baum. ... The original 1907 book cover by John R. Neill. ...

Oz and Surrounding Countries
Oz and Surrounding Countries

In Tik-Tok of Oz, Baum included maps in the endpapers which definitively situated Oz in a continent with its neighboring countries.[30] Oz is the largest country on the continent of Nonestica, which also includes the countries of Ev, Ix, and Mo, which has also been known as Phunniland, among others. Nonestica is, according to the map, an island in the Nonestic Ocean. A fair amount of evidence in the books point to this continent as being envisioned as somewhere in the southern Pacific Ocean.[31] At the opening of Ozma of Oz, Dorothy Gale is sailing to Australia with her Uncle Henry when she is washed overboard (in a chicken coop, with Billina the yellow hen), and lands on the shore of Ev—a rare instance in which an outsider reaches the Oz landmass through non-magical (or apparently non-magical) means. Palm trees grow outside the Royal Palace in the Emerald City, and horses are not native to Oz, both points of consistency with a South-Pacific location; illustrations and descriptions of round-shaped and domed Ozian houses suggest a non-Western architecture. Conversely, Oz has technological, architectural, and urban elements typical of Europe and North America around the turn of the twentieth century; but this may involve cultural input from unusual external sources (see History below). Ruth Plumly Thompson asserts in her first Oz book, The Royal Book of Oz, that the language of Oz is English, which also suggests European or American influence. JPEG version of map. ... JPEG version of map. ... Tik-Tok of Oz is the eighth Land of Oz book written by L. Frank Baum. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The original 1907 book cover by John R. Neill. ... For the Doctor Who character, see Ace (Doctor Who). ... Uncle Henry is a fictional character from The Oz Books by L. Frank Baum. ... Billina is a hen tossed overboard in a storm with Dorothy Gale in the novel Ozma of Oz, the third Oz book, and a sequel to L. Frank Baums The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... The Royal Book of Oz (1921) is the fifteenth Oz book in the Famous Forty, and the first to be written by Ruth Plumly Thompson after L. Frank Baums death. ...


An argument against the South Pacific is that the seasons in Oz are shown as the same seasons in the United States at the same time. In addition, in The Wishing Horse of Oz, Pigasus follows the North Star when he flies to Thunder Mountain, which could only be done in the Northern Hemisphere. Cover of The Wishing Horse of Oz The Wishing Horse of Oz (1935) is the twenty-ninth of the Oz books created by L. Frank Baum and the fifteenth written by Ruth Plumly Thompson. ... Steinbecks pigasus The Pigasus was used by John Steinbeck as a personal stamp with the Latin motto Ad astra per alia porci (to the stars on the wings of a pig). ... For other uses, see North Star (disambiguation). ...


Inspiration

Baum's creation of the Emerald City may have been inspired by the White City of the World Columbian Exposition, which he visited frequently. Its quick building, in less than a year, may have been an element in the quick construction of the Emerald City in the first book.[32] One-third scale replica of The Republic, which once stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The World Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds fair, was held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbuss discovery...


Schematically, Oz is much like the United States, with the Emerald City taking the place of Chicago: to the East, mixed forest and farmland; to the West, treeless plains and fields of wheat; to the South, warmth and lush growth, and red earth.[33]


It has also been speculated since The Wizard of Oz was first written that Oz may have been based on China.[34] Either way, the oriental influence on Oz has been noted by more than one scholar. [35]


Ruth Plumly Thompson took a different direction with her Oz books, introducing European elements such as the title character of The Yellow Knight of Oz, a knight straight out of Arthurian Legend. Cover of The Yellow Knight of Oz. ... The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, centering around King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ...


Inhabitants

Fairies

The word "fairy" is used in several ways throughout the Oz books. "Fairy people" is often used to describe the people of Oz, who seem to be nothing more than human inhabitants of a fairy country. A number of supernatural creatures are also called fairies, from female spirits of nature who live in mist and on the rainbow, to the nomes, who are seemingly all male, yet also described as earth fairies.


The most powerful kind of fairy is never known by any other name in the books, although some fans have taken to differentiating them by spelling Fairy with a capital F. The Fairies seem to be the most powerful race, with seemingly limitless power. They travel in bands ruled over by Fairy Queens, and spend their time primarily in helping mortals and dancing.


Lurline is a Fairy Queen, and she and her band were the ones who made Oz a fairyland. According to Baum's later books, Ozma is a member of Lurline's band. There are no other Fairies of the highest sort in the Oz books, although The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus and Queen Zixi of Ix, which take place in lands neighboring Oz, both mention other Fairy Queens and their bands. It has been suggested that Kilter be merged into this article or section. ... Queen Zixi of Ix, or The Story of the Magic Cloak is a 1905 childrens book written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by Frederick Richardson. ...


Witches and wizards

At the time of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, the lands in the North, South, East and West of Oz are each ruled by a witch; the Witches of the North and South are Good, while the Witches of the East and West are Wicked. Glinda, the Good Witch of the South, is later revealed to be the most powerful of the four. After Dorothy's house crushes the Wicked Witch of the East, thereby liberating the Munckins from bondage, the Good Witch of the North tells Dorothy that she (the Witch of the North) is not as powerful as the Wicked Witch of the East had been, or she would have freed the Munchkins herself. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) is a childrens book written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ... Glinda depicted on the cover of Glinda of Oz Glinda (or Glinda the Good Witch) is a fictional character in the Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... The Wicked Witch of the East is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his classic books. ... The Good Witch of the North is a fictional character in the Land of Oz, created by American author L. Frank Baum. ...


During the first scene in Oz in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, the Good Witch of the North (Locasta or Tattypoo) explains to Dorothy that Oz still has witches and wizards, not being civilized, and goes on to explain that witches and wizards can be both good and evil, unlike the evil witches that Dorothy had been told of.[36] That book contained only the four witches (besides the humbug wizard), but despite Ozma's prohibition on magic, many more magicians feature in later works.


Baum tended to capitalise the word "Witch" when referring to the Witches of the North, South, East or West, but did not do so when referring to witches in general (eg. In the afore-mentioned first scene of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Locasta (or Tattypoo) thanks Dorothy for killing the "Wicked Witch of the East", and introduces herelf as "the Witch of the North", with the word "Witch" capitalised in both cases. However, when she goes on to tell Dorothy that "I (the Witch of the North) am a good witch, and the people love me", the word "witch" is not capitalised).


White is the traditional color of witches in Oz. The Good Witch of the North wears a pointed white hat and a white gown decorated with stars, while Glinda, the Good Witch of the South (called a "sorceress" in later books), wears a pure white dress. Dorothy is taken for a witch not only because she had killed the Wicked Witch of the East, but because her dress is blue and white checked.[37]


Ozma, once on the throne, prohibits the use of magic by anyone other than Glinda the Good, the Wizard, and herself -- as, earlier, the Good Witch of the North had prohibited magic by any other witch in her domains.[38] The illicit use of magic is a frequent feature of villains in later works in the series, appearing in The Scarecrow of Oz, Rinkitink in Oz, The Lost Princess of Oz, The Tin Woodman of Oz, and The Magic of Oz.[39] Glinda depicted on the cover of Glinda of Oz Glinda (or Glinda the Good Witch) is a fictional character in the Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... The Wizard, on the cover of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz The Wizard of Oz (or simply The Wizard) is a fictional character in the Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum and further popularized by the classic 1939 movie. ... The Scarecrow of Oz is the ninth book set in the Land of Oz written by L. Frank Baum. ... The original 1916 book cover by John R. Neill, reproduced for a modern facsimile edition. ... The Lost Princess of Oz is the eleventh book set in Oz written by L. Frank Baum. ... Title page of The Tin Woodman of Oz. ... The Magic of Oz is the thirteenth and final Land of Oz book written entirely by L. Frank Baum. ...


Mortals

Although Baum did not often use the word 'mortal,' Thompson seemed far more fond of it as a way of describing the people who had come to Oz from the great outside world. Since Oz was a land much like any other prior to Lurline's enchantment, it seems that the only mortals in Oz are those who were not in Oz at the time it was enchanted, and were not born in Oz thereafter.


The Wizard was the first mortal in Oz described in Baum's books, followed by Dorothy and all the characters she met in her travels. Apart from the Wizard, the only mortals who originally found their way to Oz without Dorothy in Baum's books were Trot, Cap'n Bill, and Betsy Bobbin.


Nomes/Gnomes

Baum introduced the Nomes in Ozma of Oz, and they served as antagonists throughout the rest of the series. Baum always spelled their name without the traditional silent G, perhaps to Americanize the name, or to make it easier for his child audience to pronounce. Thompson later "corrected" Baum's spelling in her first book, and retained it throughout all the Oz books she wrote.


The Nomes are subterranean people who spend their time mining precious stones from the earth. They consider all of the mineral wealth of the world to be their own rightful property, which often leads to conflicts with other races; as, for instance, when the Shaggy Man's brother disappears in a mine, it is because the Nomes have captured him.[40] They have a massive army, but not much innate magical ability. Although they play a major role in the Oz series, throughout a major part of the series, there are no Nomes actually living in Oz. Shaggy Man is a character in the Oz books by L. Frank Baum. ...


Other races

There is a multitude of other races living in the land of Oz, many of which only appear once. Among these are:

  • The Flatheads - Humans who carry their brains in cans
  • The Cuttenclips - Living paper dolls
  • The Hammerheads - An armless race with extensible necks
  • The bun people of Bunbury
  • The bunnies of Bunnybury
  • The living kitchen utensils of Utensia
  • The Fuddles - Anthropomorphic jigsaw puzzles

Outside of them are many other strange races who are often found living in the wilderness of Oz. Despite the overlordship of Ozma, many of the communities live autonomously; Oz has great tolerance for eccentricity and oddness.[41] Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ...


Many characters in Oz are animated objects. Such figures as the Glass Cat and the Scarecrow are common.[42] Entire regions are the homes of such animated beings. The Dainty China Country is entirely filled with creatures of china, who would freeze into figurines if removed; the China princess lives in fear of breaking, because she would never be as pretty even if repaired.[43] The Scarecrow is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum and illustrator William Wallace Denslow. ...


Many other characters are highly individual, even unique members of a species. Many such people from the outer worlds find refuge in Oz, which is highly tolerant of eccentricity.[44]


History

Prehistory

The history of Oz prior to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (often called the prehistory of Oz as it takes place before Baum's "histories") is often the subject of dispute, as Baum himself gave conflicting accounts. In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, the title character recounts that he was a ventriloquist and a circus balloonist from Omaha, and during one flight the rope for his parachute vent became tangled, preventing him from descending until the next morning, when he awoke floating over a strange land. When he landed, the people thought he was a great wizard because of his ability to fly. He didn't disabuse them of this notion, and with his new power over them, he had them build a city with a palace in the center of Oz. He also ordered them to wear green glasses so it would appear to be made entirely of emeralds.[45] However, in the later Oz books the city is depicted as actually being made of emerald or other green materials.[46] The Wizard was a young man when he first arrived in Oz, and grew old while he was there.[47] Afraid of the Wicked Witches of the West and the East, who, unlike him, could do real magic, the Wizard hid away in a room of his palace and refused to see visitors. He lived in this way until the arrival of Dorothy in the first book. Omaha redirects here. ... Hot air balloons are the oldest successful human flight technology, dating back to the Montgolfier brothers invention in Annonay, France in 1783. ...


Another piece of prehistory was included in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, to explain the Golden Cap that controlled the winged monkeys: it was made by a princess named Gayelette because the man she was to marry, Quelala, had suffered a prank at their hands. Quelala had ordered them to stop making mischief, but after they had died, the cap fell into the hands of the Wicked Witch.[48] Winged monkeys (often referred to in adaptations and pop culture as flying monkeys) are characters from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, of enough impact between the books and the 1939 movie to have taken their own place in pop culture, regularly referenced in comedic or ironic situations as a source...


In The Marvelous Land of Oz the prehistory was changed slightly. Glinda, the Good Witch of the South, reveals that the Wizard usurped the previous king of Oz, Pastoria, and hid away his daughter Ozma. This was Baum's reaction to the popular stage play based on The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, in which the Wizard took the role of the main antagonist and the Wicked Witch of the West was left out.[49] The Marvelous Land of Oz, commonly shortened to The Land of Oz, published in 1904, is the second of L. Frank Baums books set in the Land of Oz, and the sequel to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... Pastoria is a fictional character in the Oz books by L. Frank Baum. ...


The wizard, however, had been more popular with his readers than he thought. In Ozma of Oz, he omitted any mention of the Wizard's having usurped the throne of Ozma's father,[50] but the largest changes occurred in the next book. The original 1907 book cover by John R. Neill. ...


In the preface to Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz Baum remarks that the Wizard had turned out to be a popular character with the children who had read the first book, and so he brought the Wizard back. During it, the Wizard relates yet another account of his history in Oz, telling Ozma that his birth name was Oscar Zoroaster Phadrig Isaac Norman Henkle Emmanuel Ambroise Diggs, which, being a very long and cumbersome name, and as his other initials spelled out "PINHEAD," he preferred to leave just as O.Z. The balloon part of his story was unchanged, except for the detail added by Ozma, that the people probably saw his initials on his balloon and took them as a message that he was to be their king. She relates that the country was already named Oz (a word which in their language means "great and good"), and that it was typical for the rulers to have names that are variations of Oz (King Pastoria being a notable exception to this rule). Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz is the fourth book set in the Land of Oz (though most of the action is outside of it) written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by John R. Neill. ...


Ozma elaborates further, saying that there were once four Wicked Witches in Oz, who leagued together to depose the King, but the Witches of the North and South were conquered by Good Witches before the Wizard arrived in Oz. According to this version, the King at the time was Ozma's grandfather. This version of prehistory restores the Wizard's reputation,[51] but adds the awkwardness of both Ozma and her father having been born in captivity.


In The Tin Woodman of Oz Baum writes how Oz came to be a fairyland: Title page of The Tin Woodman of Oz. ...

Oz was not always a fairyland, I am told. Once it was much like other lands, except it was shut in by a dreadful desert of sandy wastes that lay all around it, thus preventing its people from all contact with the rest of the world. Seeing this isolation, the fairy band of Queen Lurline, passing over Oz while on a journey, enchanted the country and so made it a Fairyland. And Queen Lurline left one of her fairies to rule this enchanted Land of Oz, and then passed on and forgot all about it.

Thenceforward, no one in Oz would ever age, get sick, or die. After becoming a fairyland, Oz harbored many Witches, Magicians and Sorcerers until the time when Ozma made magic illegal without a permit. In yet another inconsistency, it is implied that Ozma was the fairy left behind by Queen Lurline to rule the country, contradicting the story where she was Pastoria's daughter. This is later confirmed in Glinda of Oz: Glinda of Oz is the fourteenth Land of Oz book written by childrens author L. Frank Baum. ...

"If you are really Princess Ozma of Oz," the Flathead said, "you are one of that band of fairies who, under Queen Lurline, made all Oz a Fairyland. I have heard that Lurline left one of her own fairies to rule Oz, and gave the fairy the name of Ozma."

While this explains why no one dies or ages, and nevertheless there are people of differing ages in Oz, it is completely inconsistent with the earlier versions of the prehistory.[52]


Maguire, author of Wicked addresses this inconsistency by saying that the people of Oz believe that Ozma is reincarnated—that her spirit was left behind by Lurline, but her body is reborn to different mortal queens. Wicked, or Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, is a parallel novel by Gregory Maguire. ...


In Jack Snow's The Magical Mimics in Oz, the prehistory story is retold. This version relates that Ozma was given to the king of Oz as an adoptive daughter, for he was old and had no children. Jack Snow (1907 – July 13, 1956) was a radio writer, as well as a scholar of the works L. Frank Baum. ... Cover of The Magical Mimics in Oz. ...


History through the first six books

Eventually, Dorothy Gale and her whole house are blown into Oz from Kansas by a tornado. When the house lands, it crushes the Wicked Witch of the East (in Gregory Maguire's book, Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, she is given a name, Nessarose), ruler of the Munchkins. In an attempt to get back to her home, she journeys to the Emerald City. Along the way, she meets the Tin Woodman, the Cowardly Lion, and the Scarecrow, all of whom accompany her. Once there, they become the first people to gain an audience with the Wizard since he went into seclusion, although he disguises himself because Dorothy now has the Wicked Witch of the East's magic silver slippers, and he is afraid of her. The Wizard sends Dorothy and her party to destroy the Wicked Witch of the West and in exchange promises to grant her request to be sent home as a way of disposing of a political rival. Surprisingly, Dorothy destroys the Witch by throwing a pail of water on her. Defeated, the Wizard reveals to the group that he is in fact not a real wizard and has no magical powers, but he promises to grant Dorothy's wish and take her home himself in his balloon. He leaves the Scarecrow in his place to rule Oz. This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Wicked Witch of the East is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his classic books. ... Alternate meanings: see Munchkin (disambiguation) The word munchkin was first coined by L. Frank Baum in his 1900 novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... The Tin Woodman (also known as The Tin Man or The Tin Woodsman (the latter appearing only in adaptations)) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... Cover of The Cowardly Lion of Oz (1929) by Ruth Plumly Thompson. ... The Scarecrow is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum and illustrator William Wallace Denslow. ... The Wicked Witch, as portrayed by Margaret Hamilton in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz The Wicked Witch of the West (or simply The Wicked Witch) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his childrens books. ...


Finally, it is discovered that the wizard had given the daughter of the last king of Oz, Princess Ozma, to the old witch Mombi to have her hidden away. Mombi had turned Ozma into a boy named Tip, whom she raised. When all of this is revealed Tip is turned back into Ozma and takes her rightful place as the benevolent ruler of all of Oz. Ozma successfully wards off several attempts by various armies to overthrow her. To prevent any upheaval of her rule over Oz, she outlaws the practice of all magic in Oz except by herself, the returned and reformed wizard, and by Glinda, and she has Glinda make all of Oz invisible to outsiders. Ozma remains the ruler of Oz for the entirety of the series. Mombi is a character from the L Frank Baum Oz Books series, and appears in the book The Marvelous Land of Oz. ...

The Royal flag of Oz, as described in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz
The Royal flag of Oz, as described in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz is the fourth book set in the Land of Oz (though most of the action is outside of it) written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by John R. Neill. ...

Economy and politics

Some political analysts have claimed that Oz is a thinly disguised socialist utopia, though most Baum scholars disagree strongly.[53] Advocates of this theory support it using this quotation from The Emerald City of Oz: Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... The Emerald City of Oz is the sixth of L. Frank Baums fourteen Land of Oz books. ...

"There were no poor people in the land of Oz, because there was no such thing as money, and all property of every sort belonged to the Ruler. Each person was given freely by his neighbors whatever he required for his use, which is as much as anyone may reasonably desire. Every one worked half the time and played half the time, and the people enjoyed the work as much as they did the play, because it is good to be occupied and to have something to do. There were no cruel overseers set to watch them, and no one to rebuke them or to find fault with them. So each one was proud to do all he could for his friends and neighbors, and was glad when they would accept the things he produced."

This is a revision of the original society: in the first books, the people of Oz lived in a money-based economy.[54] For instance, the people of the Emerald City use "green pennies" as coinage.[55] Money was not abolished in the course of the series, but excised from the conception of Oz.[56] Indeed, in The Magic of Oz, a character from Oz gets into trouble when he goes to Ev because he was unaware of the concept of money.[57] This decision to remove money from Oz may reflect Baum's own financial difficulties in the times when he was writing these books.[58] The Magic of Oz is the thirteenth and final Land of Oz book written entirely by L. Frank Baum. ...


Since Oz is ruled by a monarch, benevolent though she may be, Oz is closer in nature to a benevolent dicatorship than a welfare state or a Marxist one.[59] When she was first introduced, Ozma was the monarch specifically of the Emerald City, but in the description of Ozma of Oz, Oz is presented as a federal state, rather like the United States, in monarchies rather than republics: having an overall ruler in Ozma, and individual kings and queens of smaller portions.[60] For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Definition Benevolence characterizes the true goodness of the mind, the unbiased kindness to do good. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... A high king is a king who holds a position of seniority over a group of other kings. ...


The society grew steadily more Utopian, in that its peace and prosperity were organized, but from the first book, it was a stupendously wealthy country, in contrast to Kansas's crop failures, droughts, and mortgages -- just as it also is colorful to contrast with Kansas's gray.[61] On the other hand, despite the presence of the Emerald City, Oz is an agrarian country, similar to Kansas; the story has been interpreted as a Populist parable, and certainly contains many Populist themes.[62] Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the...


In The Wonder City of Oz Princess Ozma (called "Queen Ozma" in this book) is seen running for election ("ozlection") to her office as ruler against Jenny Jump, a half-fairy newcomer from New Jersey. However, this book is not part of the original canon. Cover of The Wonder City of Oz. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The rulers of Oz's territories have grander titles than would normally be customary, but this is done mostly for the satisfaction of the incumbents. The ruler of the Winkie Country is the Emperor, the Tin Woodman. The ruler of the Quadling Country is Queen Glinda the Good. The Quadling Country is the southern division of L. Frank Baums Land of Oz. ...


Defense

Oz is mostly a peaceful land and the idea of subversion is largely unknown to its people. Most military positions are only formal. This has caused many problems, such as in the The Marvelous Land of Oz when the Emerald City, which was only guarded by an elderly doorman (who was the Royal Army of Oz at the time) was easily conquered by the Army of Revolt led by General Jinjur. This army was in turn overwhelmed by another army of girls, lead by Glinda. The Marvelous Land of Oz, commonly shortened to The Land of Oz, published in 1904, is the second of L. Frank Baums books set in the Land of Oz, and the sequel to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... Jinjur is a character in the Oz books by L. Frank Baum. ...


Security of Oz is mostly maintained by magic, such as Glinda's spell making Oz completely invisible. Oz also has somewhat of a natural barrier in the four deserts that surround it: anyone who touches them turns to sand. The Nome King has tried to conquer Oz on several occasions. A nominal army does exist, but it is composed entirely of rather cowardly officers. Only one brave soldier exists; and he is later promoted to Captain General. Cover of The Gnome King of Oz (1927) by Ruth Plumly Thompson. ...


In the movie Return to Oz, the mechanical man Tik-Tok is the entire royal army of Oz. For other uses, including the 1964 film of the same name, see Return to Oz (disambiguation). ... Tik-Tok of Oz For the novel by John Sladek, see Tik-Tok (novel). ...


Characters

Recurring characters in the series include:

See also: List of characters in the Oz books For the Doctor Who character, see Ace (Doctor Who). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Tin Woodman (also known as The Tin Man or The Tin Woodsman (the latter appearing only in adaptations)) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... The Scarecrow is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum and illustrator William Wallace Denslow. ... For other uses, see Emerald City (disambiguation). ... The Wizard, on the cover of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz The Wizard of Oz (or simply The Wizard) is a fictional character in the Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum and further popularized by the classic 1939 movie. ... Omaha redirects here. ... The Enchanted Garden of Messer Ansaldo by Marie Spartali Stillman: a magician makes his garden bear fruit and flowers in winter. ... Cover of The Cowardly Lion of Oz (1929) by Ruth Plumly Thompson. ... Princess Ozma Princess Ozma is a fictional character in the Land of Oz universe created by L. Frank Baum. ... cover of Jack Pumpkinhead of Oz (1929) by By Ruth Plumly Thompson Jack Pumpkinhead is a character from the fictional Oz book series by L. Frank Baum. ... Tik-Tok of Oz For the novel by John Sladek, see Tik-Tok (novel). ... Gear with escapment mechanism For other uses, see Clockwork (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... The Patchwork Girl (aka Scraps) is a character from the fantasy Oz Book series by L. Frank Baum. ... For other uses, see Doll (disambiguation). ... Shaggy Man is a character in the Oz books by L. Frank Baum. ... Glinda depicted on the cover of Glinda of Oz Glinda (or Glinda the Good Witch) is a fictional character in the Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... The Quadling Country is the southern division of L. Frank Baums Land of Oz. ... This is a list of characters in the Oz books of L. Frank Baum, Ruth Plumly Thompson, John R. Neill, Jack Snow, Rachel Cosgrove Payes, Eloise Jarvis McGraw and Lauren McGraw, Dick Martin, and Eric Shanower // A-B-Sea Serpent Aa, the Salt Sorcerer of Oz Abatha (Good Witch of...


Alternate Lands of Oz

The 1939 MGM film's Oz

The Land of Oz as portrayed in the 1939 MGM film is quite different from that portrayed in the books. The most notable difference is that in the film the entire land of Oz appears to be dreamed up by Dorothy (thus making it a dream world), although, Dorothy earnestly corrects the adults at the end that she was indeed there. The apparent message is that one should appreciate one's home, no matter how dull it may be. This contrasts sharply with the books, in which Dorothy and her family are eventually invited to move to Oz due to a bank foreclosure on the farm, showing both that Oz is a real place, and that it is a Utopia compared to Kansas. Difference between the book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and the 1939 film version The Wizard of Oz are numerous, but largely minor. ... The Wizard of Oz (film) redirects here. ... Dream worlds are a commonly used plot device in fictional works, most notably in science fiction and fantasy fiction. ...


There are many other small differences between the books and the movie. For example, the first witch Dorothy meets in Oz in the book is the Good Witch of the North, a minor character that only had one other appearance in Baum's books, and no other lines. In the movie this character is absent entirely, replaced by Glinda, who is the Good Witch of the South in the books, but changed to Good Witch of the North in the movie.


It is also worthy of note that the Dorothy of the books is a brave and resourceful leader of adults, whereas the Dorothy of the movie (although portrayed as much as ten years older) spends most of the film crying and being told by others what to do. This is more consistent with Thompson's portrayal of Dorothy—Baum was known for his strong female characters.[63]


The Wicked Witch of the West also changes significantly between books and movie. In the books no mention is ever made of her skin color, whereas in the movie she is green without explanation, although the Winkies she has enslaved are also oddly colored. In the book she is portrayed as having only one eye, which could see distant objects like a telescope, but in the movie she uses a crystal ball to watch Dorothy from afar. The 1939 MGM film makes the first reference to The Witches of the East and West being sisters, which was not the case in the book.


The Wizard of Oz doesn't resort to anywhere near as much trickery in the movie as the book. In the book he entertains each member of Dorothy's party on a different day, and takes a different form for each. In the movie he takes only one form—that of a giant head.


The nature of the Emerald City is also changed in the film. In the book, the city is not actually green, but everyone is forced to wear green spectacles (ostensibly to protect their eyes from the dazzling splendor of the city), thus making everything appear green. In the film, the city is actually green. The architecture of the Emerald City in the movie uses a much more futuristic style than Baum had imagined.


The movie also replaces the silver shoes of the book with ruby slippers. This was because there were few films made in color at the time, and MGM wanted to show off the process.[64]Due to the popularity of the movie, the green witch and the ruby slippers are more well known than their book counterparts, and are even considered iconic.


Gregory Maguire's revisionist Oz

In his revisionist Oz novels Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West and Son of a Witch, Gregory Maguire portrays a very different version of the Land of Oz. Maguire's Oz is not Baum's utopia, but a land troubled by political unrest and economic hardship. One political issue in Maguire's novels is the oppression of the Animals (Maguire distinguishes speaking Animals from non-speaking animals by the use of capital letters). There are many religious traditions in Maguire's Oz, including Lurlinism (which regards the Fairy Lurline as Oz's creator), Unionism, which worships the Unnamed God, and the pleasure faiths which had swept Oz during the time that the wicked witches were at Shiz. An example of the pleasure faiths were tic-toc (where creatures were enchanted to tell secrets or the future and run by clockwork), and sorcery. Wicked, or Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, is a parallel novel by Gregory Maguire. ... Son of a Witch book cover Son of a Witch is a sequel to Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, and the fifth revisionist novel written by Gregory Maguire. ... Gregory Maguire (born June 9, 1954 in Albany, New York) is an American author. ...


Maguire's presentation of Oz's geography is also politically tinged. A large political prison, Southstairs, exists in caverns below the Emerald City. Gillikin, home of Shiz University, has more industrial development than other parts of Oz. Munchkinland is Oz's breadbasket and at one point declares its independence from the rule of the Emerald City. Quadling Country is largely marshland, inhabited by the artistic and sexually free Quadlings. And the Vinkus (Maguire's name for Winkie Country) is largely open grassland, populated by semi-nomadic tribes. Shiz University is a fictional university located in the Land of Ozwhich is a fictiona paradise in Gregory Maguires revisionist novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West. ...


The musical Wicked, based on Maguire's first Oz novel, portrays an Oz slightly closer to the version seen in Baum's novels and the 1939 film. The oppression of the Animals is still a theme, but the geographical and religious divisions portrayed in Maguire's novel are barely present. Wicked is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Schwartz and a libretto by Winnie Holzman. ... The Wizard of Oz (film) redirects here. ...


In both the book and musical, several characters from the traditional Oz stories are present, but named differently, Glinda is originally called Galinda, before changing her name to Glinda, The Wicked Witch of the West is called Elphaba, the Wicked Witch of the East is called Nessarose. In the musical, Boq becomes the Tin Man, and Fiyero becomes the Scarecrow, but this only happens in the musical not the book. Elphaba is the name given to the Wicked Witch of the West in Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West by Gregory Maguire, as well as in the Broadway adaptation, Wicked. ... Spoiler warning: Boq is a character in author Gregory Maguires 1995 novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West. ... Norbert Leo Butz as Fiyero in the Original Broadway Cast of the musical Wicked, with Idina Menzel as Elphaba. ...


Alexander Melentyevich Volkov's Magic Land

Alexander Melentyevich Volkov was a Russian author best known for his translation of The Wizard of Oz into Russian, and for writing his own original sequels, which were based only loosely on Baum's. Volkov's books have been translated into many other languages, and are better known than Baum's in some countries. The books, while still aimed at children, feature many mature political and ethical elements. They have been retranslated into English, partially by March Laumer, who used elements of them in his own books.


March Laumer's Oz

March Laumer was one of the first authors to continue the Oz series after the Famous Forty. His books were written with the permission of Contemporary Books, who owned Reilly & Lee, the original publisher.[65] His canon includes everything he knew of that was set in the land of Oz, including Volkov's Russian Oz, the MGM movie, the Disney sequel, and many of Baum's own books that most fans do not consider canonical. March Laumer was brother to science fiction writer Keith Laumer. ...


Laumer also made several controversal changes to Oz. He married off several of the major characters, often to unlikely prospects. For example, the intelligent and mature sorceress Glinda was married to Button Bright, who had been a small and dim-witted child throughout Baum's books. He also aged Dorothy to a teenager to make her a romantic prospect for several characters, made Ozma a lesbian based on her upbringing as a boy, and made the Shaggy Man an ephebophile based on his frequent travels with young girls. This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... Ephebophilia (in Greek ephebos έφηβος = teenager and philia φιλία = friendship), also known as hebephilia or Lolita syndrome, is the sexual attraction of an adult to adolescents. ...


Laumer's books do not portray one consistent version of Oz. Because most of his books were collaborations, he often included elements of other author's visions of Oz which may have been inconsistent with his own. For example, while he explicitly made Dorothy sixteen in A Fairy Queen in Oz, he had her physically eight in Aunt Em and Uncle Henry in Oz; and while he portrayed Volkov's Oz as a parallel universe in Farewell to Oz he also showed Volkov's characters living in Baum's Oz in many of his other books, such as Aunt Em and Uncle Henry in Oz. Despite these discrepancies, many of his books are consistent with each other, and characters introduced in some often appear in others.[66]


Philip José Farmer's Oz

Philip José Farmer portrays a very different Oz in his book A Barnstormer in Oz. The premise is that nothing after the first book occurred--Dorothy never returned to Oz, and instead grew up, got married, and had a son. Her son, Hank Stover, is the main character, a World War I veteran flier and the titular barnstormer. While flying in his Curtiss JN-4 biplane he enters a green haze and emerges in the civil war-stricken land of Oz. Philip José Farmer (born January 26, 1918) is an American author, principally known for his science fiction and fantasy novels and short stories. ... A Barnstormer in Oz is a 1982 novel by Philip José Farmer and is based on the setting and characters of L. Frank Baums The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... 1st Aero Squadron on the Mexican US border, 1916 A veteran reconditioned Standard J-1, which is often confused with the Curtiss JN-4 Printed upside-down in error, the Curtiss JN-4 appears on a famous stamp; the stamp is known as the Inverted Jenny. The Curtiss JN-4... Reproduction of a Sopwith Camel biplane flown by Lt. ...


Farmer portrays the land of Oz as a science fiction author, attempting to explain scientifically many of the "magical" elements of Baum's story. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ...


Robert A. Heinlein's Oz

Robert A. Heinlein's book, The Number of the Beast passes through many famous fictional worlds including those of Alice in Wonderland, Gulliver's Travels, and Ringworld, as well as some of Heinlein's own works, and of course the land of Oz. Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... The Number of the Beast is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1980. ... Alice in Wonderland is the widely known and used title for Alices Adventures in Wonderland, a book written by Lewis Carroll -- as well as several movie adaptations of the book -- and is also the setting for several short stories. ... For other uses, see Gullivers Travels (disambiguation). ... Ringworld is a Hugo and Nebula award-winning 1970 science fiction novel by Larry Niven, set in his Known Space universe. ...


The Oz portrayed in the book is very close to Baum's Oz, although Heinlein does make an attempt to explain some things from the standpoint of a science fiction author. He explains that Oz is on a retrograde planet, where the direction of rotation relative of the poles is reversed, resulting in the sun seeming to rise in what would normally be the west.


Heinlein also explains that the population remains steady in Oz despite the lack of death because it is impossible for children to be born in Oz. When the population does increase through immigration, Glinda just extends the borders an inch or two in each direction, which makes more than enough space for all additional people.


The Outer Zone (Tin Man)

The 2007 Sci Fi television miniseries Tin Man reinvents Oz as the Outer Zone (O.Z.), a parallel universe that was first visited by Dorothy Gale during the latter Victorian Era and is ruled over by her descendants. It is implied, by reference to centuries having elapsed since Dorothy came to the O.Z., that time has progressed at different rates in the O.Z. and "the other side". The re-imagined Oz is described as a place where "the paint has peeled, and what was once the goodness of Oz has become the horrible bleakness of the O.Z."[67] The scenic design of the O.Z. features elements of steampunk, particularly the "1930's fascist realist" decor of the evil sorceress's palace and the computer-generated Central City, analogue of the Emerald City.[68] Sci Fi Pictures original movies are that produced by the Sci Fi Channel. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Tin Man is a three-part television miniseries from RHI Entertainment and Sci Fi Pictures original films that is airing each night on the Sci Fi Channel on December 2-December 4, 2007 at 9 pm Eastern. ... For the Doctor Who character, see Ace (Doctor Who). ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Scenic design also known as Stage design is the creation of theatrical scenery. ... For the comic book, see Steampunk (comics). ... Azkadellia the Sorceress is a character in the 2007 television miniseries Tin Man, played by Kathleen Robertson and Alexia Fast (as Young Azkadellia). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... For other uses, see Emerald City (disambiguation). ...


Magic

Being a fantasy series Oz is rich in magic. In particular, there are many magic items which play an important role in the series.


Powder of Life

Powder of Life is a magic substance from the book series The substance first appears in The Marvelous Land of Oz . The Marvelous Land of Oz, commonly shortened to The Land of Oz, published in 1904, is the second of L. Frank Baums books set in the Land of Oz, and the sequel to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ...


It is a magical powder that brings inanimate objects to life. The witch Mombi first obtained it from a "crooked magician." Later in the series it is revealed that the substance is made by a Dr. Pipt. In order to make the substance, Dr. Pipt had to stir four large cauldrons for six years. Only a few grains of the powder could be made at a time. It is always described as being carried in a pepper box. Witch redirects here. ... Mombi is a character from the L Frank Baum Oz Books series, and appears in the book The Marvelous Land of Oz. ... Dr. Pipt, sometimes called The Crooked Magician is a fictional character from the Oz books series by L. Frank Baum. ... Three-legged iron pots being used to cater for a school-leavers party in Botswana. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ...


Mombi's shaker also contained three "wishing pills" fabricated by Dr. Nikidik. Dr. Pipt, sometimes called The Crooked Magician is a fictional character from the Oz books series by L. Frank Baum. ...


Magic Belt

The Magic Belt is first introduced in Ozma of Oz. The belt is a magical tool with seemingly limitless powers. It is generally used as a universal problem solver, and functions as a deus ex machina solution in several of the books. Originally the belt belonged to the Nome King but was stolen away from him by Dorothy Gale and given to Ozma. Ozma uses the belt several times to magically transport people, and most notably to make all of Oz invisible to outsiders. It offers protection from harm, and gives the wearer exceptional cunning[citation needed], it would appear. The original 1907 book cover by John R. Neill. ... For other uses, see Deus ex machina (disambiguation). ... Cover of The Gnome King of Oz (1927) by Ruth Plumly Thompson. ... For the Doctor Who character, see Ace (Doctor Who). ... Princess Ozma Princess Ozma is a fictional character in the Land of Oz universe created by L. Frank Baum. ...


In the Oz novels, this object is always identified as the Magic Belt -- in capitals -- to distinguish it from any generic magical belts that may exist in the fantasy universe.


In The Lost Princess of Oz, Dorothy states that the Magic Belt only grants one wish a day: she used yesterday's wish on a box of caramels, but saved today's for an emergency. Baum's decision to ration the Magic Belt to one wish a day may be a retcon attempt to limit the Belt's otherwise infinite ability to get his characters out of predicaments; at any rate, this one-per-day wish limit is never mentioned again in any other Oz book. The Lost Princess of Oz is the eleventh book set in Oz written by L. Frank Baum. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Miscellaneous

Death in Oz

In the later Oz books, no one can die. One of the books assures us that while you are in the land of OZ, you can't die. Unfortunately, this information comes after characters in the books have been chopped into pieces, beheaded, melted, and so forth and it's mentioned that you could be transformed into an inanimate object, turned into sand, and buried. Even so, you'd still be alive and presumably conscious. Forever.


Note also the spell which caused this also prevented aging, and took effect on everyone in Oz at the same time; this means that any babies in Oz are eternally babies, and that anyone who was at the moment of death is permanently caught there, and so on...


Theories

Death is treated inconsistently; in some books it is said that it is impossible to die, in others, people die. Problematically, the plot often depends on something either dying, or not being killable.


The Wonderful Wizard of Oz shows an early example of the problem: although the Tin Woodman does not die when his limbs and head are severed, the two wicked witches are killed. When the Tin Woodman rescues the Queen of the Field Mice by chopping off the head of a pursuing wildcat, it seems unlikely the cat's unjoined head and body continue to live independently of each other, although this goes unmentioned. In the same book, the backstory of Gayelette and Quelala, to explain the Golden Cap, concludes with their deaths, that allowed the cap to fall into the Wicked Witch's hands.[69] Again, although the Tin Woodman survived losing all his body, prior to that, he had grown up and lost his parents in a manner inconsistent with later descriptions of Oz.[70] Again, in Ozma of Oz, Jack Pumpkinhead was described as "a little overripe", and in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, he does not appear at all, although all the other characters do reappear; the implication is that he spoiled, as he feared from his creation.[71] The original 1907 book cover by John R. Neill. ... Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz is the fourth book set in the Land of Oz (though most of the action is outside of it) written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by John R. Neill. ...


Both Ozma of Oz and Tik-Tok of Oz describe trees with meat growing on them, so it is possible that no animal was killed for most of the meat eaten in Oz. However, in Tin Woodman of Oz a hungry Jaguar tries to eat a live monkey, suggesting that occasionally (among animals, at least) animal flesh is preferred to that of plants.


Death is a matter of some debate among Oz fans,[72] and there seem to be as many explanations as there are fans, none of which has ever been widely accepted by a majority of the fans because none of them explain all the deaths. For example, in The Road to Oz Baum attempted to explain this inconstancy by saying that only bad people could die. However, he'd already mentioned the death of good King Pastoria in a previous book, and went on to mention the death of good King Kynd in a later book.


Another of Baum's attempts to explain death in Oz is the following passage from The Emerald City of Oz.

No disease of any sort was ever known among the Ozites, and no one ever died unless he met with an accident that prevented him from living.

This passage has been translated by some fans to mean that one ceases to live if one's body is damaged to the extent that it cannot be repaired. However, in Tik-Tok of Oz Baum suggested that Oz people could go on living after being eaten and digested, and also that Nomes would continue to live after being cut into tiny pieces, which disproves the destruction theory.


Any working theory must make Baum wrong about something, but fans may never reach a consensus on exactly what he was wrong about.


The issue of death leads into another issue of much dispute among fans. Baum says in The Emerald City of Oz that no one ever ages in Oz either. Many Oz fans feel that this is unfair as it leaves extremely old people eternally bedridden, and it leaves some families changing diapers and comforting crying infants for eternity. Presumably this includes pre-birth aging, which makes everyone in Oz sterile and fixes the population. However, although pregnancy is never mentioned in Oz, it's also possible that some women are left eternally pregnant, although if Dot and Tot in Merryland is considered canon, babies are delivered by storks.


It has also been questioned whether children continue to be mentally childlike, or remain children only in body.


Talking animals

In Oz, animals such as the Cowardly Lion and the Hungry Tiger can talk, and all native animals appear to be able to.


The treatment of non-native animals was inconsistent. In the first book, the dog Toto never speaks, although brought to Oz. In The Patchwork Girl of Oz Dorothy even outright says that Toto can't talk because he's not a fairy dog. However, in Ozma of Oz, the chicken Billina acquires the ability to speak merely by being swept to the lands near Oz, and in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, the kitten Eureka and the cab horse Jim also gained the ability when reaching the land of Mangaboos, a similarly magical land. In Tik-Tok of Oz, Baum restored the continuity: Toto can speak, and always could, but never bothered to, because it was not needed. Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Terry, the Cairn Terrier who played Toto in the film Toto is the name of a fictional dog in L. Frank Baums Oz series of childrens books, and works derived from them. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Billina is a hen tossed overboard in a storm with Dorothy Gale in the novel Ozma of Oz, the third Oz book, and a sequel to L. Frank Baums The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz is the fourth book set in the Land of Oz (though most of the action is outside of it) written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by John R. Neill. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Tik-Tok of Oz is the eighth Land of Oz book written by L. Frank Baum. ... In fiction, continuity is consistency of the characteristics of persons, plot, objects, places and events seen by the reader or viewer. ...


An additional inconsistency is introduced with Tik-Tok of Oz: Hank the Mule cannot speak until he reaches the land of Oz, although he lands on the shore of Ev first, where Billina the chicken learned to speak. This is probably because Tik-Tok of Oz was originally a stageplay version of Ozma of Oz. Dorothy was replaced by Betsy because he'd sold the stage rights for Dorothy, and Billina was replaced by Hank because a mule could be played by two people in a costume, where a hen would have to be played by a live animal, who couldn't be trusted on stage.[73] Hank probably couldn't talk because Baum already had his spoken comedy characters: the Shaggy Man, and Tik-Tok. Thus Hank would fill a better niche as a visual comedy character.


Origin of the name Oz

A legend of uncertain validity is that when relating bedtime stories (the origin of the Oz novels) Baum was asked by one of his listeners the name of the magical land. He glanced at a nearby filing cabinet which was marked O-Z. Thus he named the land Oz. This story was first told in 1903, but there is little evidence for it.[74] In Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, the name is translated as "great and good", which is roughly equivalent to the meaning of "Öz" in Turkish, although that would be pronounced more like "ohs," which Jack Snow suggested was a possible pronunciation of the name. Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz is the fourth book set in the Land of Oz (though most of the action is outside of it) written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by John R. Neill. ... Jack Snow (1907 – July 13, 1956) was a radio writer, as well as a scholar of the works L. Frank Baum. ...


Another story is that Oz is a corruption of Uz, the homeland of Job in the Old Testament.[75] It is also speculated that Oz was named after the abbreviation for ounce, in the theory that Oz is an allegory for the populist struggle against the illusion (the wizard) of the gold standard. "Os" (with an s) is also Old English for God. Job (Hebrew אִיּוֹב, Arabic: أيوب, Standard Hebrew Iyyov, Tiberian Hebrew ʾIyyôḇ), was the protagonist of the Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about Ounce (unit of mass). ... For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...


Several of Baum's fairy stories that take place in the United States were situated on the Ozark Plateau, and the similarity of name may not be a coincidence.[76] Ozark redirects here. ...


In Wicked, Elphaba researches the etymology of Oz and concludes that it comes from either oasis, because it is surrounded by desert on all sides, or ooze, due to the creation legend of a great flood. Elphaba is the name given to the Wicked Witch of the West in Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West by Gregory Maguire, as well as in the Broadway adaptation, Wicked. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ... A creation myth is a supernatural mytho-religious story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe (cosmogony),[1] usually as a deliberate act of creation by a supreme being. ...


Oz is a common vernacular contraction of Australia (Australia - Aussie - Aus - Oz). Australia is a large continent predominated by desert regions, with pockets of intense green tropical, sub-tropical and sub-alpine greenlands and rainforests. It is quite possible that Baum took the popular nickname of Australia as the national name for his fictional world. Also note that many fans place Oz in the South Pacific, see Location above.


Others have said that Oz stands for New York, since the letters before O and Z respectively are NY. This article is about the state. ...


References

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  2. ^ James Thurber, "The Wizard of Chitenango", p 66 Fantasists on Fantasy edited by Robert H. Boyer and Kenneth J. Zahorski, ISBN 0-380-86553-X
  3. ^ L. Frank Baum, Michael Patrick Hearn, The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p 96, ISBN 0-517-500868
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  5. ^ Michael O. Riley, Oz and Beyond: The Fantasy World of L. Frank Baum, p 138, ISBN 0-7006-0832-X
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  20. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Oz", p 740 ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  21. ^ James Thurber, "The Wizard of Chitenango", p 66 Fantasists on Fantasy edited by Robert H. Boyer and Kenneth J. Zahorski, ISBN 0-380-86553-X
  22. ^ Michael O. Riley, Oz and Beyond: The Fantasy World of L. Frank Baum, p 223, ISBN 0-7006-0832-X
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  28. ^ Michael O. Riley, Oz and Beyond: The Fantasy World of L. Frank Baum, p 228, ISBN 0-7006-0832-X
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  34. ^ Oz is China. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
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  39. ^ Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p 180-1 ISBN 0-415-92151-1
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  41. ^ Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p 165 ISBN 0-415-92151-1
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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Oz wiki and database

  Results from FactBites:
 
Land of Oz - definition of Land of Oz in Encyclopedia (1873 words)
The Land of Oz is roughly rectangular in shape, and divided along the diagonals into four counties: Munchkin Country in the east, Winkie Country in the west, Gillikin Country in the north, and Quadling Country in the south.
In the center of Oz, where the diagonals cross, is the fabled Emerald City, capital of the land of Oz and seat to the monarch of Oz, Princess Ozma.
Also, as Oz is ruled by a monarch, benevolent though she may be, it cannot be a true socialist society.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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