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Encyclopedia > Land mine
Land mines
Land mines

A land mine is an explosive device designed to be placed on or in the ground to explode when triggered by an operator or the proximity of a vehicle, person or animal. The name originates from the practice of sapping, where tunnels were dug (much like mining) under enemy fortifications or forces. These tunnels ("mines") were first collapsed to destroy fortifications above, and later filled with explosives and detonated. Land mines generally refer to devices specifically manufactured for this purpose, as distinguished from improvised explosive devices ("IEDs"). Look up minefield in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (813x763, 206 KB) Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Land mine ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (813x763, 206 KB) Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Land mine ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Proximity can be freely translated as closeness. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Undermining. ... Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ...


Land mines are used to secure disputed borders or to restrict enemy movement in times of war. Tactically they serve a purpose similar to barbed wire or concrete dragon's teeth vehicle barriers, slowing or channelling the movement of attacking forces to the advantage of defenders. From a military perspective, land mines serve as force multipliers, because they increase the efficacy or potency of a force without requiring more personnel. Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... A selection of forms of barbed wire. ... During World War II, the term Dragons teeth came to designate square-pyramidal fortifications used to impede the progress of mechanized armies. ... A force multiplier is a military term referring to a factor that dramatically increases (hence multiplies) the combat effectiveness of a military force. ...

Contents

Use

Land mines have two main uses - to create tactical barriers and to act as area-denial weapons. The latter use seeks to deny access to land areas by military and civilian traffic. When used as a tactical barrier, they serve to deter direct attack from or over a defined and marked area. Without land mines in the demilitarized zones (DMZs) of hot spots such as Cyprus and Korea it is conceivable that small raiding parties could cross these zones, since simple physical barriers such as barbed wire may be more easily penetrated. Area denial weapons are used to prevent an adversary occupying or traversing an area of land. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or 조선 in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ...


Anti-personnel land mines or APLs are widely considered to be unethical weapons when used in the area-denial role, because their victims are commonly civilians, who are often killed or maimed long after a war has ended. According to anti–land mine campaigners, in Cambodia alone, area-denial mines have resulted in 35,000 amputees after the cessation of hostilities. Removal of land mines is dangerous, slow and costly; however, some countries maintain that land mines are necessary to protect their soldiers in times of war and to suppress hostilities across demilitarized zones. Hydrema mine clearing vehicle MineWolf tiller-based demining machine deployed in Sudan Digger Mini Flail for Mine Clearance Demining is the process of removing fucklandmines or naval mines from an area. ...


History

Mines mounted to "Rommel's asparagus" obstacles, during the Battle of Normandy.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3404x2480, 2609 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Land mine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3404x2480, 2609 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Land mine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (U.S. 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe...

Premodern development

Forces in ancient Rome sometimes dug small foot-sized holes, covered and armed with a sharpened spike. In the Middle Ages in Europe, small, four-pronged spiked devices called caltrops or crows' feet could be scattered on the ground to delay the advance of an enemy, but these devices were not explosive. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Caltrop used by the Office of Strategic Services. ...


Some sources report that the 3rd century Prime Minister Zhuge Liang of the Kingdom of Shu in China invented a landmine type device in the third century. This claim was made by Jiao Yu in his Huolongjing Quanzhi (Fire-drake Manual in One Complete Volume), his preface written in 1412 AD (although the book was originally printed in the mid 14th century),[1] and that Zhuge had used not only "fire weapons" but landmines in the Battle of Hulugu Valley against the forces of Sima Yi and his son Sima Zhao of the Wei Kingdom.[2] However, this claim is rather dubious and most likely false, considering that gunpowder warfare did not exist in China until the advent of the flamethrower (Pen Huo Qi) in the 10th century, while the land mine was not seen in China until the late 13th century (see also Technology of the Song Dynasty).[3] A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms period, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) era matchlock firearms featuring serpentine levers. ... Sima Yi (179 - 251) was a general, military strategist, and politician of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. ... Sima Zhao (司馬昭) (211-264) was the son of Prime Minister Sima Yi of the Kingdom of Wei, during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. ... The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ... The Pen Huo Qi is a piston based naphtha flamethrower used in 919 in China. ... The Song Dynasty (960–1279) was a period of Chinese history and human history in general that provided some of the most prolific advancements in early science and technology, much of it through talented statsemen drafted by the government (see Imperial examinations). ...


Explosive landmines

East Asia

Explosive landmines were being used in 1277 AD by the Song Dynasty Chinese against an assault of the Mongols, who were besieging a city in southern China. The invention of this detonated "enormous bomb" was accredited to one Lou Qianxia of the 13th century.[4] The famous 14th century Chinese text of the Huolongjing, which was the first to describe hollow cast iron cannonball shells filled with gunpowder,[5] was also the first to describe the invention of the landmine in greater detail than references found in texts written beforehand.[4] This mid 14th century work during the late Yuan Dynasty stated that mines were made of cast iron and were spherical in shape, filled with either 'magic gunpowder', 'poison gunpowder', or 'blinding and burning gunpowder', any one of these compositions being suitable for use.[6] The wad of the mine was made of hard wood, carrying three different fuses in case of defective connection to the touch hole.[6] In those days, the Chinese relied upon command signals and carefully timed calculation of enemy movements into the minefield, since a long fuse had to be ignited by hand from the ambushers in a somewhat far-off location lying in wait.[7] However, the Huolongjing also describes landmines that were set off by enemy movement, called the 'ground-thunder explosive camp', one of the 'self-trespassing' (zifan) types, as the text says: Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... Ming Dynasty musketeers in drill formation. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... Different types of cannon balls recovered from the Vasa, sunk in 1628 Round shot is a type of projectile fired from guns or cannons. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 Ukhaatu Khan History  - establishing the Yuan Dynasty 1271  - Fall of Dadu September 14, 1368 Population  - 1330 est. ...

These mines are mostly installed at frontier gates and passes. Pieces of bamboo are sawn into sections nine feet in length, all septa in the bamboo being removed, save only the last; and it is then bandaged round with fresh cow-hide tape. Boiling oil is next poured into (the tube) and left there for some time before being removed. The fuse starts from the bottom (of the tube), and (black powder) is compressed into it to form an explosive mine. The gunpowder fills up eight-tenths of the tube, while lead or iron pellets take up the rest of the space; then the open end is sealed with wax. A trench five feet in depth is dug (for the mines to be concealed). The fuse is connected to a firing device which ignites them when disturbed.[7]

The Huolongjing describes the trigger device used for this as a 'steel wheel', which directed sparks of flame onto the connection of fuses running to the multiple-laid land mines underneath the carefully-hidden trap.[8] However, further description of how this flint device operated was not made until a Chinese text of 1606 AD revealed that a weight drive (common in medieval clockworks) had been used to work the 'steel wheel'.[8] The way in which the Chinese land mine trigger worked was a system of two steel wheels rotated by a falling weight, the chord of which was wound around their axle, and when the enemy stepped onto the disguised boards they released the pins that dropped the weights.[9] In terms of global significance, the first wheellock musket in Europe was sketched by Leonardo da Vinci around 1500 AD, although no use of metal flint for gunpowder weapons were known before that point in Europe.[8] A flint nodule from the Onondaga limestone layer, Buffalo, New York. ... The massive clock on the Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster, London (commonly known as Big Ben, although Big Ben is the bell inside - the picture is St Stephens Tower). ... Wheellock, Wheel-Lock or Wheel lock, is a mechanism for firing a firearm. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... The Mona Lisa Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer. ...


Besides the use of steel wheels providing sparks for the fuses, there were other methods used as well, such as the 'underground sky-soaring thunder'.[10] The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) text of the Wu Bei Zhi (Treatise on Armament Technology), written by Mao Yuanyi in 1628, outlined the use of land mines that were triggered by the heat of a slow-burning incandescent material in an underground bowl placed directly above the train of fuses leading to the mines buried 3 ft beneath.[11] The booby trap of this mine system had a mound where weapons of halberds, pikes, and lances were dug in, meant to entice the enemy to walk up the small mound and claim their stolen prize of war booty.[10] When the weapons were removed from the mound, this movement disturbed the bowl beneath them where the butt ends of the staffs were, which in turn ignited the fuses.[11] According to the Wubei Huolongjing volume of the 17th century, the formula for this slow-burning incandescent material allowed it to burn continuously for 20 to 30 days without going out.[11] This formula included 1 lb of white sandal wood powder, 3 oz of iron rust (ferric oxide), 5 oz of 'white' charcoal powder (from quicklime), 2 oz of willow charcoal powder, 6 oz of dried, ground, and powdered red dates, and 3 oz of bran.[11] Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Incandescence is the release of electromagnetic radiation from a hot body due to its high temperature. ... This article is about an antipersonnel trap designed for use against humans. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Look up Pike and pike in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... Iron(III) oxide - also known as ferric oxide, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, rouge,or rust - is one of several oxide compounds of iron, and is most notable for its ferromagnetic properties. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ...


The Chinese also employed the use of the naval mine at sea and on the rivers of China and elsewhere in maritime battles. Polish wz. ...


Western world

At Augsburg in 1573, a military engineer by the name of Samuel Zimmermann invented an extremely effective mine known as the fladdermine. It consisted of a fougasse (or later, sometimes a shell fougasse, that is, a fougasse loaded not with stones but with early black powder mortar shells, similar to large black powder hand grenades) activated by a snaphance or flintlock mechanism connected to a tripwire on the surface. Combining the effects of a tripwire activated bounding fragmentation mine with a cluster bomb, it was devastating to massed attackers but required high maintenance due to the susceptibility of black powder to dampness. Consequently it was mainly employed in the defenses of major fortifications, in which role it continued to be used until the 1870s.[12] Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Year 1573 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other meanings, see fougasse (disambiguation). ... Snaphance or Snaphaunce refers to a mechanism for igniting a firearms propellant usually in a muzzleloading gun. ... French courtier Marin le Bourgeoys made the first firearm incoporating a true flintlock mechanism for King Louis XIII shortly after his accession to the throne in 1610. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In Europe in the early eighteenth century, improvised land mines or booby traps were constructed in the form of bombs buried in shallow wells in the earth and covered with scrap metal and/or gravel to serve as shrapnel. Known in French as fougasse, the term is sometimes still used in the present day to describe such devices. This technique was used in several European wars of the eighteenth Century, the American Revolution, and the American Civil War. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For other meanings, see fougasse (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States France Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida Tuscarora Polish volunteers Quebec volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz Kościuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben King George... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


The first modern mechanically fused high explosive anti-personnel land mines were created by Confederate troops of Brigadier General Gabriel J. Raines during the Battle of Yorktown in 1862.[13] (As a Captain, Raines had earlier employed explosive booby traps during the Seminole Wars in Florida in 1840.[14]) Both mechanically and electrically fused "land torpedoes" were employed, although by the end of the war mechanical fuses had been found to be generally more reliable. Many of these designs were improvised in the field, especially from explosive shells, but by the end of the war nearly 2,000 standard pattern "Raines mines" had been deployed. Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan John B. Magruder Joseph E. Johnston Strength 146,000 11,000 Casualties 182 300 The Battle of Yorktown was fought from April 5 to May 4, 1862, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ...


Improved designs of mines were created in Imperial Germany, circa 1912, and were copied and manufactured by all major participants in the First World War. In World War One, land mines were used notably at the start of the battle of Passchendale. Well before the war was over, the British were manufacturing land mines that contained poison gas instead of explosives. Poison gas mines were manufactured at least until the 1980s in the Soviet Union. The United States was known to have at least experimented with the concept in the 1950s. This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres (Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Nuclear mines have also been developed, both land and naval varieties. An example is the British Blue Peacock project, while another was the U.S. Medium Atomic Demolition Munition. A naval mine is a stationary self-contained explosive device placed in water, to destroy ships and/or submarines. ... Blue Peacock—dubbed the chicken-powered nuclear bomb—was the codename of a British project in the 1950s with the goal to store a number of ten-kiloton nuclear mines in the Rhine area in Germany, to be placed at nearby target locations in the case of war. ... Scientists look at a MADM nuclear landmine casing (warhead is at left. ...


Characteristics and functioning

Mine components
Mine components

A land mine typically includes the following components: Image File history File links Mine-components. ... Image File history File links Mine-components. ...

  • firing mechanism or other device (including anti-handling devices)
  • detonator or ignitor (sets off the booster charge)
  • booster charge (may be attached to the fuse, or the ignitor, or be part of the main charge)
  • main charge (in a container, usually forms the body of the mine)
  • casing (contains all of the above parts)

Firing mechanisms and initiating actions

A land mine can be triggered by a number of things including pressure, movement, sound, magnetism and vibration. Anti-personnel mines commonly use the pressure of a person's foot as a trigger, but tripwires are also frequently employed. Most modern anti-vehicle mines use a magnetic trigger to enable it to detonate even if the tires or tracks did not touch it. Advanced mines are able to sense the difference between friendly and enemy types of vehicles by way of a built-in signature catalogue. This will theoretically enable friendly forces to use the mined area while denying the enemy access. The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin in Canberra, Australia. ... Iron filings in a magnetic field generated by a bar magnet A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. ... Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ... Tripwire is a company based in Portland, Oregon which produces change auditing software. ... In telecommunications, identification, friend or foe (IFF) is a crypto identification system designed for command and control. ...


Many mines combine the main trigger with a touch or tilt trigger to prevent enemy engineers from defusing it. Land mine designs tend to use as little metal as possible to make searching with a metal detector more difficult; land mines made mostly of plastic have the added advantage of being very inexpensive. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some types of modern mines are designed to self-destruct, or chemically render themselves inert after a period of weeks or months to reduce the likelihood of civilian casualties at the conflict's end. However, these self-destruct mechanisms are not absolutely reliable, and most land mines laid historically are not equipped in this manner. A self-destruct is a mechanism which causes a device to destroy itself under a predefined set of circumstances. ...


Anti-handling devices (AHD)

Main article: Anti-handling device

Anti-handling devices (as opposed simply booby-trapping the mine) trigger the mine fuse if someone attempts to tamper with or defuse the mine. They are intended to prevent or discourage removing or disarming of the mine. These devices can consist of an additional explosive charge connected to, placed next to, or manufactured as part of the mine. The typical configuration of anti-handling devices used with anti-tank landmines. ... In an explosive, pyrotechnic device or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function. ...


Some countries only employ AHDs on conventional anti-tank mines and not anti-personnel mines. This makes it somewhat safer to remove mines laid by these forces, especially the relatively larger numbers of anti-personnel mines so often the cause of unintended casualties after the cessation of military hostilities.


Anti-tank (AT) mines

Main article: Anti-tank mine
Section of an anti-tank mine. Note the yellow main charge wrapped around a red booster charge, and the secondary fuse well on the side of the mine.
Section of an anti-tank mine. Note the yellow main charge wrapped around a red booster charge, and the secondary fuse well on the side of the mine.

Anti-tank mines are designed to immobilize or destroy vehicles and their occupants. In U.S. military jargon destroying the vehicles is referred to as a catastrophic kill (k-kill) while only disabling its movement is referred to as a mobility kill (m-kill). An Anti-tank mine, or AT mine is similar to a Landmine except generally designed with a less sensitive trigger and more explosive power so as to be able to take out an armored vehicle, and not go off until such a vehicle comes along. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Panzermine_im_Schnitt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Panzermine_im_Schnitt. ... An Anti-tank mine, or AT mine is similar to a Landmine except generally designed with a less sensitive trigger and more explosive power so as to be able to take out an armored vehicle, and not go off until such a vehicle comes along. ... A Catastrophic kill, K-Kill or complete kill refers to damage inflicted on a vehicle by a weapon that renders it both unusable and unrepairable. ... A mobility kill (or M-kill) in armoured warfare refers to damage inflicted by a weapon on a vehicle that immobizes it, but does not totally destroy it, leaving the vehicles crew able to use its weapons. ...


Anti-tank mines are typically larger than anti-personnel mines and require more pressure to detonate. The high trigger pressure (normally 100 kg (220 lb.)) prevents them from being set off by infantry or smaller vehicles of lesser importance. More modern anti-tank mines use shaped charges to focus and increase the armour penetration of the explosives. The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin in Canberra, Australia. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... Sectioned HEAT round with the inner shaped charge visible A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosives energy. ...


Anti-personnel (AP) mines

Main article: Anti-personnel mine

Anti-personnel mines are designed to kill or injure enemy combatants as opposed to destroying vehicles. They are often designed to injure rather than kill in order to increase the logistical support (evacuation, medical) burden on the opposing force. Some types of anti-personnel mines can also damage the tracks or wheels of armoured vehicles. Italian Valmara 69 bounding type of Anti-personnel. ...


Under the Ottawa Treaty, signatory countries undertake not to manufacture, stockpile or use anti-personnel mines. As of 2007, it has been signed/accessioned by 155 countries. Forty states, including the People's Republic of China, Russian Federation and the United States, are not party to the Convention.  State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The Ottawa Treaty or the Mine Ban Treaty, formally the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, bans completely all anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines). ...


Mine warfare

U.S. Army soldier removes fuse from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq.
U.S. Army soldier removes fuse from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq.

In military science, minefields are considered a defensive or harassing weapon, used to slow the enemy down, to help deny certain terrain to the enemy, to focus enemy movement into kill zones, or to reduce morale by randomly attacking materiel and personnel. In some engagements during World War II, anti-tank mines accounted for half of all vehicles disabled. U.S. Army Sgt. ... U.S. Army Sgt. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Since combat engineers with mine-clearing equipment can clear a path through a minefield relatively quickly, mines are usually considered effective only if covered by fire. A US army combat engineer setting up a communications cable. ...


The extents of minefields are often marked with warning signs and cloth tape, to prevent friendly troops and non-combatants from entering them. Of course, sometimes terrain can be denied using dummy minefields. Most forces carefully record the location and disposition of their own minefields, because warning signs can be destroyed or removed, and minefields should eventually be cleared. Minefields may also have marked or unmarked safe routes to allow friendly movement through them.


Placing minefields without marking and recording them for later removal is considered uncivilized and is illegal under international conventions.


Artillery and aircraft scatterable mines allow minefields to be placed in front of moving formations of enemy units, including the reinforcement of minefields or other obstacles that have been breached by enemy engineers. They can also be used to cover the retreat of forces disengaging from the enemy, or for interdiction of supporting units to isolate front line units from resupply. In most cases these minefields consist of a combination of anti-tank and anti-personnel mines, with the anti-personnel mines making removal of the anti-tank mines more difficult. Mines of this type used by the United States are designed to self destruct after a preset period of time, reducing the requirement for mineclearing to only those mines whose self destruct system did not function.


Terrorism

None of the conventional tactics and norms of mine warfare applies when they are employed in a terrorist role:

  • The mines are not used in a defensive role (for specific position or area).
  • Mined areas are not marked.
  • Mines are usually placed singly and not in groups covering an area.
  • Mines are often left unattended (not covered by fire).

The normal aim of terrorism - and to a certain extent guerilla warfare is to spread fear and panic. This can be achieved by a single mine left on a civilian road to be detonated by a civilian target which is clearly quite different from the normal military application. Terrorist redirects here. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ...


One example where such tactics were in employed is in the various Southern African conflicts during the 1970s and 1980s, specifically Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ...


Laying mines

Minefield warning on the Golan Heights, still valid more than 40 years after creation of the field by the Syrian army
Minefield warning on the Golan Heights, still valid more than 40 years after creation of the field by the Syrian army

Minefields may be laid by several means. The preferred, but most labour-intensive, way is to have engineers bury the mines, since this will make the mines practically invisible and reduce the number of mines needed to deny the enemy an area. Mines can be laid by specialized mine-laying vehicles. Mine-scattering shells may be fired by artillery from a distance of several tens of kilometres. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x607, 133 KB) Summary Minefield warning on the Golan Heights, still walid more than 40 years after creation of field by Syrian army. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x607, 133 KB) Summary Minefield warning on the Golan Heights, still walid more than 40 years after creation of field by Syrian army. ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ...


Mines may be dropped from helicopters or airplanes, or ejected from cluster bombs or cruise missiles. A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors, each rotor consisting of two or more rotor blades. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ...


Anti-tank minefields can be scattered with anti-personnel mines to make clearing them manually more time-consuming; and anti-personnel minefields are scattered with anti-tank mines to prevent the use of armoured vehicles to clear them quickly. Some anti-tank mine types are also able to be triggered by infantry, giving them a dual purpose even though their main and official intention is to work as anti-tank weapons.


Some minefields are specifically booby-trapped to make clearing them more dangerous. Mixed anti-personnel and anti-tank minefields, double-stacked anti-tank mines, anti-personnel mines under anti-tank mines, and fuses separated from mines have all been used for this purpose. Star Trek: The Next Generation, see Booby Trap (TNG episode). ...


Another specific use is to mine an aircraft runway immediately after it has been bombed in order to delay or discourage repair. Some cluster bombs combine these functions, one example is the British JP233 cluster bomb which includes munitions to damage (crater) the runway as well as anti-personnel mines in the same cluster bomb. The JP233 was a British submunition delivery system consisting of a pair of large pods carrying several hundred submunitions designed to attack runways. ...


Demining (Detecting and removing)

Main article: Demining
School posters in Karabakh educating children on mines and UXO
School posters in Karabakh educating children on mines and UXO

Whereas the placing and arming of landmines is relatively inexpensive and simple, the process of detecting and removing them is typically expensive, slow, and dangerous. This is especially true of irregular warfare where mines were used on an ad hoc basis in unmarked areas. Anti-personnel mines are most difficult to find, due to their small size and the fact that many are made almost entirely of non-metallic materials (specifically to avoid detection from metal detectors). New detection systems are being developed in response to this, including the use of rats because certain rats have a highly developed sense of smell and are light enough that they do not trigger the mines (see APOPO Landmine Removal Rats). Hydrema mine clearing vehicle MineWolf tiller-based demining machine deployed in Sudan Digger Mini Flail for Mine Clearance Demining is the process of removing fucklandmines or naval mines from an area. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 450 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 450 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Anthem Azat ou Ankakh Artsakh Free and Independent Artsakh Capital Stepanakert (Khankendi) Official languages Armenian1 Government Unrecognized  -  President Arkady Ghoukasyan  -  Prime Minister Anushavan Danielyan Independence from Azerbaijan   -  Referendum December 10, 1991   -  Proclaimed January 6, 1992   -  Recognition none2  Area  -  Total 4,400 km²  1,699 sq mi  Population  -  March 2007 estimate... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ...


Ironically, the laying of land mines inadvertently proved a positive development in Argentina and The Falkland Islands. This is because the mine fields laid by the sea during the Falklands War have become favourite places for penguins, which are too light to detonate the mines, and are therefore able to breed safely in areas where humans do not enter. These odd sanctuaries have proven so popular and lucrative for ecotourism that there has been some effort to prevent having the mines removed by offering to finance mine removal in regions with human populations where mines are a persistent danger, such as in Cambodia.[1] Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... Ecotourism means ecological tourism, where ecological has both environmental and social connotations. ...


Efforts to ban anti-personnel mines

Main article: Ottawa Treaty
Party states to the Ottawa Treaty
Party states to the Ottawa Treaty

The Ottawa Treaty (Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction) came into force on March 1, 1999. The treaty was the result of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, launched in 1992. The campaign and its leader, Jody Williams, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997 for its efforts.  State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The Ottawa Treaty or the Mine Ban Treaty, formally the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, bans completely all anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 26 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Land mine International Campaign to Ban Landmines Ottawa Treaty ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 26 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Land mine International Campaign to Ban Landmines Ottawa Treaty ...  State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The Ottawa Treaty or the Mine Ban Treaty, formally the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, bans completely all anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...  State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of non-governmental organizations whose goal is to abolish the production and use of anti-personnel mines. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Jody Williams (born October 9, 1950 in Putney, Vermont) is an American teacher and aid worker who received the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with the campaign she led, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL). ... The Nobel Peace Prize (where Nobel is pronounced with the stress on the second syllable) is one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ...


The treaty does not include anti-tank mines, cluster bombs or claymore-type mines operated in command mode and focuses specifically on anti-personnel mines, because these pose the greatest long term (post-conflict) risk to humans and animals since they are typically designed to be triggered by any movement or pressure of only a few kilograms, whereas anti-tank mines require much more weight (or a combination of factors that would exclude humans). Existing stocks must be destroyed within four years of signing the treaty. An Anti-tank mine, or AT mine is similar to a Landmine except generally designed with a less sensitive trigger and more explosive power so as to be able to take out an armored vehicle, and not go off until such a vehicle comes along. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Parts of the M18A1 Claymore The M18A1 Claymore Antipersonnel Mine is a weapon often used by many countries around the world, named after the large Scottish sword, by the inventor, Norman A. MacLeod. ...


Signatories of the Ottawa Treaty agree that they will not use, develop, manufacture, stockpile or trade in anti-personnel land mines. There were originally 122 signatories in 1997; currently, it has been signed by 155 countries and ratified by 153. Another 40 have yet to sign on.  State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The Ottawa Treaty or the Mine Ban Treaty, formally the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, bans completely all anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines). ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


There is a clause in the treaty, Article 3, which permits countries to retain land mines for use in training or development of countermeasures. 64 countries have taken this option.


As an alternative to an outright ban, 10 countries follow regulations that are contained in a 1996 amendment of Protocol II of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW). The countries are China, Finland, India, Israel, Morocco, Pakistan, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and the United States. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The United Nations Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or that have indiscriminate effects. ...


Manufacturers

The ICBL has identified the following countries as manufacturing land mines as of August 2004. None are signatories of the Ottawa Treaty. [2]

Of other states which are thought to have manufactured landmines recently: Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Turkey is now a signatory of the Ottawa Treaty.[14]
  • Egypt has unofficially stated that production ceased in 1988. [15]
  • The United States has not manufactured anti-personnel mines since 1997, but a government statement in February 2004 stated that, "The United States will continue to develop non-persistent anti-personnel and anti-tank landmines." [16]
  • South Korea has stated that no mines have been produced since 2000. [17]
  • An official from China stated in September 2003 that production has ceased there, since they have an ample stockpile. [18]
  • In March 2004, a Libyan official stated that the country has never produced anti-personnel mines, but is known to have laid landmines in the 1970s and 1980s [19]
  • A United Nations assessment mission to Peru reported that production of landmines in the country ceased in January 1999. Peru was one of the original signatories and to the treaty came into force for them in March 1999. [20]
  • Denmark has officially declared having 6 factories producing landmines in 1995. But production has ceased since ratifying the Ottawa treaty. [21]

Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...

See also

Minesweeper clothes
Minesweeper clothes
Mine-clearing organizations;
Landmine Victim Assistance
Anti-mine organizations

Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 665 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 665 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This is a complete list of landmines. ... Hydrema mine clearing vehicle MineWolf tiller-based demining machine deployed in Sudan Digger Mini Flail for Mine Clearance Demining is the process of removing fucklandmines or naval mines from an area. ... cheese clearance agencies – also known as de-cheesing agencies, decheesing agencies. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Polish wz. ... The HALO Trust is a registered British charity and registered American non-profit organization whose purpose is to remove the debris left behind by war, in particular, landmines and unexploded ordinance that might present a danger to local civilians. ... DEMIRA Deutsche Minenräumer e. ... The Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF), established in 1980, is a Washington, D.C. based international humanitarian organization that addresses the consequences of war and conflict around the world. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Clear Path International (CPI) is a non-profit organization based in the United States. ... Roots of Peace is a humanitarian organization dedicated to the removal of landmines. ...  State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of non-governmental organizations whose goal is to abolish the production and use of anti-personnel mines. ... Adopt-A-Minefield is a global partnership for mine action with campaigns in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Sweden. ... The No More Landmines Trust is an UK organization working against land mines. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 27.
  2. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 28.
  3. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 8.
  4. ^ a b Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 192.
  5. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 264.
  6. ^ a b Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 192-193.
  7. ^ a b Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 193.
  8. ^ a b c Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 199.
  9. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 200.
  10. ^ a b Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 204.
  11. ^ a b c d Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 203.
  12. ^ The Origins of Military Mines, Major William C. Schneck, Engineer Bulletin July 1998
  13. ^ op cit.
  14. ^ HISTORICAL USES OF anti-personnel LANDMINES: IMPACT ON LAND FORCE OPERATIONS, Roger L. Roy and Shaye K. Friesen, Department of National Defence Canada, October 1999

The Department of National Defence, frequently referred to by its acronym DND, is the department within the government of Canada with responsibility for Canadas military, known as the Canadian Forces. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Part 7. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

External links

  • E-Mine Electronic Mine Information Network by United Nations Mine Action Services
  • Women, War, Peace and Landmines by UNIFEM
  • Mine Action Investments by United Nations
  • Afghanistan’s New Beginnings Programme (ANBP) of UNDP
  • Mine Clearnace in Cambodia by UNDP
  • Goal 9 - De-mining, UXO and victim assistance from Cambodia Millennium Development Goals
  • Landmine Monitor
  • Landmine Action

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