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Encyclopedia > Lancelot

In the Arthurian legend, Sir Lancelot (Lancelot du Lac, also Launcelot) is one of the Knights of the Round Table. In most of the French prose romances and works, he is characterized as the greatest and most trusted of Arthur's knights, and plays a part in many of Arthur's victories – but Arthur's eventual downfall is also brought about in part by Lancelot, whose affair with Arthur's wife Guinevere destroys the unity of Arthur's court. Lancelot from The Book of Knowledge, p. ... The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, centering around King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... For the film, see Knights of the Round Table (film). ... King Arthur presides the Round Table. ... For other uses, see Guinevere (disambiguation). ...


Lancelot is a popular character, and has been the subject of many poems, stories, plays, and films as a famous figure in the Arthurian cycle of romances. To the great majority of English readers the name of no knight of King Arthur's court is so familiar as is that of Sir Lancelot. The mention of Arthur and the Round Table at once brings him to mind to moderns as the most valiant member of that brotherhood and the secret lover of the Queen. Lancelot, however, is not an original member of the cycle, and the development of his story is still a source of considerable disagreement between scholars.


According to legend Lancelot's father is King Ban of Benioic and his mother's name is Elaine; his illegitimate half-brother is Hector de Maris, King Bors is his uncle, and Sir Bors and Sir Lionel are his cousins. With the Fisher King's daughter Elaine, he becomes the father of Galahad (in some sources, Galahad is also Lancelot's own baptismal name). His home is the castle Joyous Guard. In Arthurian legend, Ban is the King of Benwick or Benoic. ... Elaine (a form of Helen) is a name shared by several different characters in Arthurian Legend. ... Sir Ector de Maris is a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... In Arthurian Legend, Sir Bors was a Knight of the Round Table. ... In Arthurian Legend, Sir Bors was a Knight of the Round Table. ... Bors chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Sir Lionel is the younger son of King Bors of Gaunnes (or Gaul) and brother of Bors the Younger in Arthurian legend. ... This article is about the Fisher King from Arthurian legend. ... Elaine (a form of Helen) is a name shared by several different characters in Arthurian Legend. ... A portrait of Sir Galahad by George Frederick Watts. ...

Contents

Early prose and poetry

Briefly summarized, the outline of his career, as given in the French Prose Lancelot and the German Lanzelet by Ulrich von Zatzikhoven is as follows: The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend. ... Lanzelet is a medieval romance written by Ulrich von Zatzikhoven sometime after 1194. ... Lanzelet is a medieval romance written by Ulrich von Zatzikhoven sometime after 1194. ...


Lancelot was the only child of King Ban (Pant) of Benoic (Genewis) and his queen Helaine (Clarine). While yet an infant, his father was driven from his kingdom, either by a revolt of his subjects, caused by his own harshness (Lanzelet), or by the action of his enemy Claudas de la Deserte (Lancelot). King and queen flee, carrying the child with them, and while the wife is tending her husband, who dies of a broken heart on his flight, the infant is carried off by a friendly water-fay, the Lady of the Lake, who brings the boy up in her mysterious kingdom. In the German poem this is a veritable “Isle of Maidens,” where no man ever enters, and where it is perpetual spring. In the prose Lancelot, on the other hand, the Lake is but a mirage, and the Lady's court does not lack its complement of gallant knights; moreover the boy has the companionship of his cousins, Lionel and Bors (sons of his father's younger brother Bors), who, like himself, have been driven from their kingdom by Claudas. When he reaches the customary age (fifteen or eighteen by different texts and calculations), the young Lancelot, suitably equipped, is sent out into the world. In both versions his name and parentage are unknown to him. In the Lanzelet he also lacks of all knightly accomplishments (not unnatural when we remember he has here been brought up entirely by women) and his inability to handle a steed are insisted upon. Here he rides forth in search of what adventure may bring. In the prose Lancelot he goes with a fitting escort and equipment to Arthur's court where the Lady of the Lake asks that he be knighted. In Arthurian legend, Ban is the King of Benwick. ... Elaine (a form of Helen) is a name shared by several different characters in Arthurian Legend. ... King Claudas is a fictional Frankish king and an opponent to King Arthur, Lancelot, and Bors in Arthurian legend. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The subsequent adventures differ widely, but in both tales he rides about the land accompanied by a woman who later abandons him and in both he eventually learns his true name and lineage. In both he eventually regains his rightful heritage peaceably because none dares stand against him. But in the Prose Lancelot the tale is stretched out by a war of Claudas against the Knights of the Round Table in which neither side gains the upper hand until word comes that Arthur and Lancelot themselves are coming with reinforcements. Claudas immediately flees alone into exile.


In Lanzelet the hero then reigns in peace over a land inherited though his wife Iblis (while King Ban's kingdom is ruled by an uncle) and both Lancelot and his wife live to see their children's children, and die on the same day. In fact, the whole of Lanzelet has much more the character of folklore than that of a knightly romance. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the prose version, Lancelot, from his first appearance at court, conceives a passion for the queen, who is very considerably his senior, his birth taking place some time after her marriage to Arthur. This infatuation colours all his later career. He frees her from imprisonment in the castle of Meleagant, who kidnapped her — (a similar adventure is related in Lanzelet, where he fights a duel against a would-be abductor Valerin, but when Valerin later succeeds in taking the queen, Lanzelet is not the rescuer). Although he recovers his kingdom from Claudas, he prefers to remain a simple knight of Arthur's court along with his cousins and illegitimate half-brother Hector de Maris who also refused to retire from knighthood to take on lordship. Tricked into a liaison with the Fisher King's daughter (called Elaine in a few later texts), he becomes the father of Galahad, the Grail winner, and, as a result of the queen's jealous anger at his relations with the lady, goes mad (for the third time), and remains an exile from the court for some years. He takes part, fruitlessly, in the Grail quest, being granted only a fleeting glimpse of the sacred Vessel, which, however, is sufficient to cast him into unconsciousness, in which he remains for as many days as he has spent years in sin. Finally, his relations with Guenevere are revealed to Arthur by the sons of King Lot, Gawain, Guerrehet and Gaheriet (in Malory Gawain, Gaheris, and Gareth) taking no part in the disclosure. Surprised together with the queen, Lancelot escapes, and the queen is condemned to be burnt alive. As the sentence is about to be carried into execution Lancelot and his kinsmen come to her rescue, but in the fight that ensues many of Arthur's knights, including three of Gawain's brothers, are slain. Thus converted into an enemy, Gawain urges his uncle to make war on Lancelot, and there follows a desperate struggle between Arthur and the race of Ban. This is interrupted by an invasion of Gaul by the Romans. But no sooner has Arthur defeated the Romans then there comes tidings of Mordred's treachery. Lancelot, taking no part in the last fatal conflict, outlives both king and queen, and the downfall of the Round Table. Finally, retiring to a hermitage, he ends his days in the odour of sanctity. Maleagant (also spelled Malagant or Meleagant) is a villian from Arthurian legend. ... Sir Ector de Maris is a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... This article is about the Fisher King from Arthurian legend. ... Elaine (a form of Helen) is a name shared by several different characters in Arthurian Legend. ... A portrait of Sir Galahad by George Frederick Watts. ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... Lot in Arthurian Legend was the king of Lothian, Orkney, and Norway which leads to his name which essentially means King of Lothian. He is the father of most popularly Gawain, Gareth, and in Welsh tradition, Mordred. ... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Gawain (Gwalchmei, Gawan, Gauvain, Walewein etc. ... Gaheris is a figure of Arthurian legend, a knight of the Round Table, and a son of Morgause and King Lot of Orkney and Lothian. ... Sir Gareth was a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian Legend. ... For other uses, see Mordred (disambiguation). ...


The process whereby the independent hero of the Lanzelette (who, though his mother is Arthur's sister, has but the slightest connection with the British king), the faithful husband of Iblis, became converted into the principal ornament of Arthur's court, and the devoted lover of the queen, is by no means easy to follow, nor do other works of the cycle explain the transformation. In the pseudo-chronicles, the Historia of Geoffrey and the translations by Robert Wace and Layamon, Lancelot does not appear at all; the queen's lover, whose guilty passion is fully returned as far as are told, is Mordred. Wace (c. ... Layamon, or Laȝamon (using the archaic letter yogh), was a poet of the early 13th century, whose Brut (c. ...


Chrétien de Troyes' treatment of Lancelot is contradictory; in Erec and Enide, his earliest extant poem, Lancelot's name appears as third on the list of the knights of Arthur's court. (Of course Gawain is first and Erec, the hero of the tale, is second, so third position indicates Lancelot's general high status.) In Chrétien's Cligès Lancelot actually makes an appearance as one of the formidable knights the story's hero must overcome. In Le Chevalier de la Charrette, however, which followed Cligès, Lancelot is the hero of the poem and so now of course the best knight of the court and also lover of the queen; this is precisely the position he occupies in the prose romance, where, indeed, the section dealing with this adventure is, as Gaston Paris clearly proved, an almost literal adaptation of Chrétien's poem. The subject of the poem is the rescue of the queen from her abductor Meleagant; and what makes the matter more perplexing is that Chrétien handles the situation as one with which his hearers are already familiar; it is Lancelot, and not Arthur or another, to whom the office of rescuer naturally belongs. In Perceval, le Conte du Graal, Chrétien's last work, he does not appear at all, and yet much of the action passes at Arthur's court. Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. ... Erec and Enide (French: Erec et Enid) is Chrétien de Troyess first romance, completed around 1170. ... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Gawain (Gwalchmei, Gawan, Gauvain, Walewein etc. ... Cligès is a poem by the medieval French poet Chrétien de Troyes, dating from around 1176. ... Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart (French: Lancelot, le Chevalier de la Charrette) is an Old French poem by Chrétien de Troyes. ... Bruno Paulin Gaston Paris (August 9, 1839 - March 6, 1903), was a French scholar, the son of Alexis Paulin Paris. ... Maleagant (also spelled Malagant or Meleagant) is a villian from Arthurian legend. ... Perceval, the Story of the Grail (French:Perceval, le Conte du Graal) is the unfinished fifth romance of Chrétien de Troyes. ...

Lancelot fighting the lions, from a medieval illumination.
Lancelot fighting the lions, from a medieval illumination.

In the Continuations added at various times to Chrétien's unfinished work the role assigned to Lancelot is equally modest. Among the fifteen knights selected by Arthur to accompany him to Chastel Orguellous he only ranks ninth. In a Tristan episode inserted by Gerbert de Montreuil in his continuation, Lancelot is just one of the knights publicly overthrown and shamed by Tristan. Image File history File links Lancelotdulac. ... Image File history File links Lancelotdulac. ... This article is about the Knight of the Round Table. ... Gerbert de Montreuil was a French poet that lived in the thirteenth century. ...


Nowhere outside of Le Chevalier de la Charette is Lancelot treated with anything approaching the importance assigned to him in the prose romances. Welsh tradition does not know him (Roger Sherman Loomis posited that Lancelot derived from the character Lloch Llawwynnyawc or Lugh Llenlleawg found in Culhwch and Olwen and referenced in the poems Pa Gur and Preiddeu Annwfn, and claimed he could be traced back to Lleu Llaw Gyffes or even the Celtic god Lugh or Lugus, but this view is no longer widely accepted). Nor do early Italian records, which have preserved the names of Arthur and Gawain, have any reference to Lancelot. What appears to be the most probable solution is that Lancelot was the hero of an independent and widely diffused folk-tale, which, owing to certain special circumstances, was brought into contact with, and incorporated in, the Arthurian tradition. This much has been proved certain of the adventures recounted in the Lanzelet; the theft of an infant by a water-fairy; the appearance of the hero three consecutive days, in three different disguises, at a tournament; the rescue of a queen, or princess, from an Other-World prison, all belong to one well known and widely spread folk-tale, variants of which are found in almost every land, and of which numerous examples have been collected alike by Emmanuel Cosquin in his Contes Lorrains, and by J. F. Campbell in his Tales of the West Highlands. This article is about the country. ... Roger Sherman Loomis (1887-1966) was an American scholar of Arthurian literature. ... Culhwch and Olwen (Welsh: Culhwch ac Olwen) is a Welsh tale about a hero connected with Arthur and his warriors that survives in only two manuscripts: a complete version in the Red Book of Hergest, ca. ... Preiddeu Annwfn (English: The Spoils of Annwfn) is a short, enigmatic poem found in the Welsh Book of Taliesin. ... In Welsh mythology, Lleu Llaw Gyffes (sometimes called Llew Llaw Gyffes) is a character appearing in the fourth of the Four Branches of the Mabinogion, the tale of Math fab Mathonwy. ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... For other subjects with similar names, see Lug. ... Lugus was a deity widely hypothesized to have been worshipped in Gaul, Britain, Ireland, Spain and other ancient Celtic regions. ... Emmanuel Cosquin (1841 - 1919) was a French folklorist. ...


The story of the loves of Lancelot and Guinevere, as related by Chrétien, has about it nothing spontaneous and genuine; in no way can it be compared with the story of Tristan and Iseult. It is the exposition of a relation governed by artificial and arbitrary rules, to which the principal actors in the drama must perforce conform. Chrétien states that he composed the poem (which he left to be completed by Godefroi de Leigni) at the request of the countess Marie de Champagne, who provided him with matière et san. Marie was the daughter of Louis VII of France and of Eleanor of Aquitaine, subsequently wife of Henry II of Anjou and England. Both mother and daughter were active agents in fostering that view of the social relations of the sexes which found its most famous expression in the "Courts of Love", and which was responsible for the dictum that love between husband and wife was impossible. The logical conclusion appears to be that the Charrette poem is a Tendenz-Schrift, composed under certain special conditions, in response to a special demand. The story of Tristan and Iseult, immensely popular as it was, was too genuine to satisfy the taste of the court for which Chrétien was writing. Moreover, the Arthurian story was the popular story of the day, and Tristan did not belong to the magic circle, though he was ultimately introduced, within its bounds. The Arthurian cycle must have its own love-tale; Guenevere, the leading lady of that cycle, could not be behind the courtly ladies of the day and lack a lover; one had to be found for her. Lancelot, already popular hero of a tale in which an adventure parallel to that of the Charrette figured prominently, was pressed into the service. Mordred, Guinevere's earlier lover, being too unsympathetic a character; moreover, was required for the final role of traitor. For other uses, see Guinevere (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Knight of the Round Table. ... Iseult of Ireland as portrayed Sophia Myles in Tristan & Isolde, 2006. ... Godefroi de Leigni was a clerk and an associate of Chrétien de Troyes during the 12th century, presumably at the court of Marie de Champagne. ... Marie of France, or Marie Capet, Countess of Champagne (1145 – March 11, 1198), was the elder daughter of Louis VII of France and his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1] – April 1, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Modern département of Maine-et-Loire, which largely corresponds to Anjou Anjou is a former county (c. ... Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... For other uses, see Mordred (disambiguation). ...


But to whom is the story to be assigned? Here we must distinguish between the Lancelot proper and the Lancelot/Guinevere versions; so far as the latter are concerned, we cannot get behind the version of Chrétien. Nowhere, prior to the composition of the Chevalier de la Charrette is there any evidence of the existence of such a story. Yet Chrétien does not claim to have invented the situation. Did it spring from the fertile brain of some court lady, Marie, or another? The authorship of the Lancelot proper, on the other hand, is frequently ascribed to Walter Map, the chancellor of Henry II, but so also are the majority of the Arthurian prose romances. However, Walter had died before the prose Lancelot could have been composed. Some, however, accept Map as the possible author of a Lancelot romance, which formed the basis for later developments, and there is a growing tendency to identify this hypothetical original Lancelot with the source of the German Lanzelet. The author, Ulrich von Zatzikhoven, tells us that he translated his poem from a French (welsches) book in the possession of Hugo de Morville, one of the English hostages, who, in 1194, replaced Richard Coeur de Lion in the prison of Leopold V of Austria. The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend. ... Walter Map (fl. ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Lanzelet is a medieval romance written by Ulrich von Zatzikhoven sometime after 1194. ... 13th century depiction of Thomas Beckets murder; Hugh de Morvile was among the assassins Hugh de Morville (died c. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 to 6 April 1199. ... Leopold V (1157-December 31, 1194), the Virtuous, was a Babenberg duke of Austria from 1177 to 1194 and Styria from 1192 to 1194. ...


To the student of the earliest medieval Arthurian romances Lancelot is an infinitely less interesting hero than Gawain, Perceval or Tristan, each of whom possesses a well-marked personality, and is the centre of what we may call individual adventures. Saving and excepting the incident of his being stolen and brought up by a water-fairy (from a Lai relating which adventure the whole story probably started), there is nothing much, in the material common to the French and German tales, to distinguish him from any other romantic hero of the period. Percival or Perceval is one of King Arthurs legendary Knights of the Round Table. ...


But in the Perlesvaus, possibly the earliest French prose Arthurian romance, Lancelot's love affair with Guenevere suddenly re-emerges and Lancelot plays a part in this Grail romance almost equal to that of Perceval the hero and Gawain. But Lancelot in this romance, unlike Perceval, Gawain and Arthur, never sees the Grail. Perlesvaus, also called Li Hauz Livres du Graal (The High History of the Holy Grail), is an Old French Arthurian romance dating to the first decade of the 13th century. ...


The language of the prose Lancelot itself is good, easy and graceful, but except for the earlier sections involving Lancelot and his friend Galehot, most of Lancelot's own adventures lack originality and interest. Situations repeat themselves in a wearisome manner. English readers, who until recently knew the story only through the medium of Malory's prose and Tennyson's verse, carry away an impression entirely foreign to that produced by the original literature. The Lancelot story, in its rise and development, belongs exclusively to the later stage of Arthurian romance; it was a story for the court, not for the folk, and it lacks alike the dramatic force and human appeal of the genuine popular tale. Galehaut, Sire des Lointaines Isles (Lord of the Distant Isles) appears for the first time in Arthurian literature in the early-thirteenth-century Prose Lancelot, the central work in the series of anonymous French prose romances collectively called the Lancelot-Grail or Arthurian Vulgate Cycle. ... Sir Thomas Malory (c. ... Alfred, Lord Tennyson Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and is one of the most popular English poets. ...


The prose Lancelot was frequently printed; J. C. Brunet chronicles editions of 1488, 1494, 1513, 1520 and 1533; of this last date there are two, one published by Jehan Petit, the other by Philippe Lenoire, this last by far the better, being printed from a much fuller manuscript. There is now a critical edition in nine volumes by Alexandre Micha, as well as an edition by Elspeth Kennedy of an alternative Old French version. There is also a translation into English by a team of scholars directed by Norris J. Lacy; the only version available for the general reader of French is the modernized and abridged text published by Paulin Paris in vols. iii. to v. of Romans de la Table Ronde. A Dutch verse translation of the 13th century was published by W. J. A. Jonckbloet in 1850, under the title of Roman van Lanceleet. This only begins with what Paulin Paris terms the Agravain section, all the part previous which contained Guenevere's rescue from Meleagant having been lost; but the text is an excellent one, agreeing closely with the Lenoire edition of 1533. The Books devoted by Malory to Lancelot are also drawn from this latter section of the romance; there is no sign that the English translator had any of the earlier part before him. Malory's version of the Charrette adventure differs in many respects from any other extant form, and the source of this special section of his work is still a question of debate among scholars. Alexis Paulin Paris (March 25, 1800 - February 13, 1881), was a French scholar and author. ... Willem Jozef Andreas Jonckbloet (6 July 1817, The Hague-19 October1885, Wiesbaden) was a Dutch historian, best known for work on medieval poetry. ...


Further reading

  • Lancelot and the Grail: A Study of the Prose Lancelot, Elspeth Kennedy (Clarendon Press, 1986)
  • Lancelot Do Lac, the Non-Cyclic Old French Prose Romance, Two Volumes, Elspeth Kennedy (ed.) (OUP, 1980)
  • Lancelot of the Lake, Introduction Elspeth Kennedy. Translation and notes Corin Corley (Oxford World's Classics)
  • William Cole. "First and Otherwise Notable Editions of Medieval French Texts Printed from 1742 to 1874: A Bibliographical Catalogue of My Collection". Sitges: Cole & Contreras, 2005.

Elspeth Mary Kennedy, MA, DPhil, FSA (1921 — March 10, 2006) was a British academic and a prominent medievalist. ...

Modern interpretations

In the modern world, interpretations of Lancelot have varied with him most stereotypically being portrayed in novels and film as a near-perfect warrior, skilled, handsome, and charismatic. In most films, Guinevere and Arthur are the same age as Lancelot.


In books

  • Book Three of T. H. White's tetrology, The Once and Future King, is titled The Ill-Made Knight (Chevalier Mal Fet) in reference to Lancelot. White's Lancelot is introverted and has difficulty dealing with people. He is also described as being immensely ugly.
  • In Marion Zimmer Bradley's The Mists of Avalon, Lancelot is a bisexual whose love for Guinevere is partly fueled by his hidden love for Arthur (though the miniseries adaptation ignores this).
  • In Bernard Cornwell´s historical fiction trilogy, The Warlord Chronicles, Lancelot is portrayed as a cowardly traitor. Cornwell's narrator explains Lancelot's later fame as the result of the prince bribing poets and minstrels to make up songs about him, in which he takes credit for the deeds of others.
  • In Stephen R. Lawhead's "historical fantasy" series, the Pendragon Cycle, Lancelot appears as an Irish warrior named Llwch Llenlleawg (following the theories of Roger Loomis). In battle, he goes into a berserker frenzy, much like the Irish hero Cúchulainn; in the fourth book, Pendragon, he is nicknamed "Llencelyn", from the Irish word for "storm" (as Lawhead has it), due to his prowess in battle.
  • Jack Whyte calls him "Clothar the Frank" in his historical fiction series, A Dream of Eagles (known as The Camulod Chronicles outside Canada).
  • In Roger Zelazny's The Last Defender of Camelot, Lancelot had been made immortal by Merlin's magic. When Lancelot revives Merlin in the 20th century, the wizard finds that the centuries have made Lancelot wiser and more cynical.
  • In Mary Stewart's Arthurian novels, particularly The Wicked Day, Lancelot does not appear. Instead, his role as Arthur's best warrior and lover to Guinevere is given to Bedwyr (Bedivere), who was apparently part of the legends from the start.
  • In Guy Gavriel Kay's trilogy The Fionavar Tapestry, Lancelot appears alongside Arthur and Guinevere (Jennifer Lowell).
  • Douglas Clegg's Mordred, Bastard Son portrays the character as a mysterious loner who eventually saves Guinevere from a murderous plot with the help of his lover, a misunderstood and heroic Mordred.

Terence Hanbury White (May 29, 1906 – January 17, 1964) was an English writer, born in Bombay (now Mumbai), India. ... The Once and Future King is an Arthurian fantasy novel written by T.H. White. ... Marion Eleanor Zimmer Bradley (June 3, 1930 – September 25, 1999) was an American author of fantasy novels such as The Mists of Avalon and the Darkover series, often with a feminist outlook. ... The Mists of Avalon is a 1979 novel by Marion Zimmer Bradley, in which she relates the Arthurian legends from the perspective of the female characters. ... “Bisexual” redirects here. ... The Mists of Avalon is a 2001 miniseries based on the novel of the same name by Marion Zimmer Bradley. ... Bernard Cornwell OBE (born February 23, 1944) is a prolific and popular English historical novelist. ... Look up historical fiction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Warlord Chronicles is a trilogy of books written by Bernard Cornwell about Arthurian Britain. ... Stephen R. Lawhead (born July 2, 1950) is an American writer known for novels, both fantasy and science fiction and more recently his works of historical fiction. ... The Pendragon Cycle is a series of fantasy or semi-historical books based on the Arthurian legend, written by Stephen R. Lawhead. ... Berserkers in the kings hall, illustration by Louis Moe, 1898 Berserkers (or Berserks) were Norse warriors who were commonly understood to have fought in an uncontrollable rage or trance of fury; the berserkergang. ... Young Cúchulainn (as Sétanta), 1912 illustration by Stephen Reid. ... Jack Whyte (Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, 1939) is an author and writer born and raised in Scotland, but living in Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada since 1967. ... Roger Joseph Zelazny (May 13, 1937 – June 14, 1995) was an American writer of fantasy and science fiction short stories and novels. ... For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... For the Canadian freestyle swimmer, see Mary Stewart (swimmer). ... The Wicked Day is a novel written by Mary Stewart. ... How Sir Bedivere Cast the Sword Excalibur into the Water. ... Canadian author Guy Gavriel Kay Guy Gavriel Kay (born November 7, 1954) is a Canadian author of fantasy fiction. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Douglas Clegg (born 1 April 1958) is an American horror and dark fantasy author, and a pioneer in the field of e-publishing. ... For other uses, see Mordred (disambiguation). ...

In film

  • Lancelot was the hero of the 1950s British television series The Adventures of Sir Lancelot, where he was played by William Russell. This was the first British television series ever to be made in colour.
  • In the 1953 film Knights of the Round Table, Lancelot (Robert Taylor) and Guinevere's (Ava Gardner) affair is limited to a kiss, and he defeats Mordred (Stanley Baker) after Arthur (Mel Ferrer) dies.
  • Lancelot du Lac, a French film by Robert Bresson.
  • In the 1975 comedy film Monty Python and the Holy Grail, "Sir Lancelot the Brave" (played by John Cleese) is a marvellously violent knight known to attack castle walls, farm animals, wedding guests, and flowers. At the end of the film, he is the first one to cross the Bridge of Death, but is ultimately arrested by police looking for the murderer of the historian shortly afterwards. In the 2005 Broadway version of this film, Spamalot, Lancelot's quest leads him to discover that he is gay and ends up "marrying" the effeminate Prince Herbert (his homosexuality was alluded to during the end of Galahad's quest in the original movie where Galahad accused Lancelot of being gay, but the latter claimed that he's not).
  • In John Boorman's 1981 film, Excalibur, Lancelot (Nicholas Clay) is portrayed much in the same manner as in Malory, but carries out actions usually assigned to other knights. Like Tristan he is sent to escort the king's betrothed and falls in love with her on the way. When Arthur (Nigel Terry) first meets Lancelot the two fight and Excalibur is broken (but later fixed by the Lady of the Lake). This reflects Arthur's fight with King Pellinore in Malory, where he breaks the Sword from the Stone and the Lady replaces it with Excalibur. Later, Arthur discovers the lovers in a forest, but spares them, leaving Excalibur standing between their bodies (again, from the legends of Tristan and Isolde, and similar to Pelleas' response to finding his love in the arms of Gawaine). Lancelot is driven mad by remorse, and lives as a wild man (Much as he does in Malory, and like Tristan, who temporarily suffered from amnesia - and a similar remorse-fuelled period of madness occurs to Lancelot in T. H. White's Once and Future King series) during the quest for the Grail. Later, he re-emerges during the final battle against Mordred, where he dies, reconciled with Arthur.
  • The animated series King Arthur and the Knights of Justice features a 20th century New York football team called the Knights, who are led by quarterback Arthur King. Arthur and the New York Knights are transported to Camelot by Merlin to temporarily replace the real Arthur and his knights, who have been magically imprisoned by Morgana le Faye's magic. Lancelot's counterpart is unsurprisingly named Lance, and he wields a lance.
  • In the 1995 film First Knight, Lancelot (Richard Gere), comes to the court of King Arthur (Sean Connery) as a fearless fighter without master. He rescues Guinevere (Julia Ormond) from Sir Malagant's brigands early in the film and falls in love with her at their first meeting. Following the death of Arthur, Lancelot and Guinevere marry and rule the kingdom justly. Notably, Arthur is noticeably older than both Lancelot and Guinevere.
  • In the 2004 film King Arthur, Lancelot (Ioan Gruffudd) is portrayed as an atheist, in contrast to Arthur (Clive Owen), who is a devout Catholic, though a follower of the Pelagian heresy. Lancelot is also a Sarmatian, whose origins are of the Black Sea area of Eastern Europe. He is forced into service in Britain by tradition of the Roman Empire. In this version, his affair with Guinevere is almost non-existent - there is clearly chemistry, but they never act on their attraction.
  • In the 2007 film Shrek the Third, Lancelot is seen as the high school's head jock who bullies Artie and makes him the dummy in jousting training (voiced by John Krasinski).

The Adventures of Sir Lancelot was a British television series of the 1950s, produced by Sapphire Films for ITC Entertainment and screened on the ITV network. ... William Russell (born Russell Enoch on November 19, 1924 in Sunderland, England, UK) is a British actor, mainly known for his television work. ... For the film, see Knights of the Round Table (film). ... Robert Taylor (August 5, 1911 – June 8, 1969), was an American actor. ... Ava Lavinia Gardner (December 24, 1922 – January 25, 1990) was an Academy Award-nominated American film and television actress. ... Sir Stanley Baker (February 8, 1927 - June 28, 1976) was a Welsh actor. ... Mel Ferrer (born August 25, 1917 in Elberon, New Jersey) is an American actor, film director and film producer. ... Lancelot du Lac is a stylistic 1974 French film of the fall of Camelot directed and written by Robert Bresson. ... Robert Bresson (French IPA: ) (September 25, 1901 – December 18, 1999) was a French film director known for his spiritual, ascetic style. ... Monty Python and the Holy Grail is a 1975 film written and performed by the comedy group Monty Python (Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin), and directed by Gilliam and Jones. ... “Cleese” redirects here. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Monty Pythons Spamalot is a comedic musical lovingly ripped off from the film Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975). ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... John Boorman (born January 18, 1933 in Shepperton, Surrey, United Kingdom), is a British filmmaker, currently based in Ireland, best known for his feature films such as Point Blank, Deliverance, Excalibur, and The General. ... Excalibur is a 1981 film which retells the legend of King Arthur. ... Nicholas Anthony Phillip Clay (September 18, 1946 - May 25, 2000) was a British actor. ... This article is about the Knight of the Round Table. ... Nigel Terry as King Arthur in Excalibur Nigel Terry (born August 15, 1945 in Bristol, England) is a British stage and film actor probably best known by movie audiences for his portayal of King Arthur in John Boormans Excalibur. ... For other uses, see Excalibur (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... King Pellinore is the king of Listenoise or of the Isles (possibly Anglesey, or perhaps the medieval kingdom of the same name), according to the Arthurian legend. ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mordred (disambiguation). ... An animated series or cartoon series is a television series produced by means of animation. ... The King Arthur and the Knights of Justice Logo King Arthur and the Knights of Justice was a Saturday morning cartoon which lasted for 2 seasons (totaling 26 episodes) and was produced by Bohbot Entertainment. ... This article is about the state. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Navy quarterback Aaron Polanco sets up to throw. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... First Knight is a 1995 film based on Arthurian legend. ... Richard Tiffany Gere[1] (born August 31, 1949) is an American actor. ... Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born 25 August 1930) is a retired Scottish actor and producer who is perhaps best known as the first actor to portray James Bond in cinema, starring in seven Bond films. ... Master is an English title. ... Julia Ormond (born on 4 January 1965 in Epsom, Surrey, England) is a British actress with many stage and screen credits to her name. ... Maleagant (also spelled Malagant or Meleagant) is a villian from Arthurian legend. ... Image File history File links Lancelot_from_King_Arthur_2004. ... Image File history File links Lancelot_from_King_Arthur_2004. ... King Arthur is a film first released in the United States on June 28, 2004, dubbed as The Untold True Story That Inspired The Legend by Touchstone Pictures. ... Ioan Gruffudd (pronounced , yoe-an gri-fidh) (born October 6, 1973) is a British actor from Wales. ... King Arthur is a film first released in the United States on June 28, 2004, dubbed as The Untold True Story That Inspired The Legend by Touchstone Pictures. ... Ioan Gruffudd (pronounced , yoe-an gri-fidh) (born October 6, 1973) is a British actor from Wales. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Clive Owen (born October 3, 1964) is a Golden Globe and BAFTA winning critically acclaimed English actor, now a regular performer in Hollywood and independent American films. ... Pelagianism is a belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil with no Divine aid whatesoever. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the film. ... John Burke Krasinski (b. ...

See also

‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... The Arthurian legend featured many characters, whose names often differed from version to version, and language to language. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... Sir Ector (sometimes Hector, Antor, or Ectorius) is the father of Sir Kay and the foster father of King Arthur in the Arthurian legend. ... For other uses, see Guinevere (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mordred (disambiguation). ... Morgan le Fay, by Anthony Frederick Sandys (1829 - 1904), 1864 (Birmingham Art Gallery): A spell-brewing Morgaine distinctly of Tennysons generation Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain, Morgana and other variants, is a powerful sorceress and sometime antagonist of King Arthur and Guinevere in the Arthurian legend. ... In Arthurian legend, Morgause or Morgase (also known as Anna-Morgause or Ann-Morgause) is the half-sister of King Arthur who slept with him and produced Mordred, the incestuous heir that would lead to Camelots downfall. ... Uther Pendragon (French: Uter Pendragon; Welsh: Wthyr Bendragon, Uthr Bendragon, Uthyr Pendraeg) is a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur. ... For the film, see Knights of the Round Table (film). ... King Arthur presides the Round Table. ... Sir Agravain or Sir Agravaine was a knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... How Sir Bedivere Cast the Sword Excalibur into the Water. ... In Arthurian Legend, Sir Bors was a Knight of the Round Table. ... Sir Calogrenant, sometimes known in English as Colgrevance, is a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... Gaheris is a figure of Arthurian legend, a knight of the Round Table, and a son of Morgause and King Lot of Orkney and Lothian. ... A portrait of Sir Galahad by George Frederick Watts. ... For other uses, see Gareth (disambiguation). ... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Gawain (Gwalchmei, Gawan, Gauvain, Walewein etc. ... Geraint, with his wife Enid, from The Idylls of the King Geraint is a character from Welsh folklore and Arthurian legend, a king of Dumnonia and a valiant warrior. ... Sir Kay, son of Sir Ector, was one of the Knights of the Round Table and King Arthurs foster brother. ... Sir Lamorak was the son of King Pellinore and the brother of Sir Tor, Sir Aglovale, Sir Dornar, Sir Percival, and Dindrane. ... Palamedes, (also called Palamede, Palomides or some other variant) was a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... Percival or Perceval is one of King Arthurs legendary Knights of the Round Table. ... Sir Sagramore is a Knight of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend. ... This article is about the Knight of the Round Table. ... Ywain rescues the lion Sir Ywain (also called Owain, Yvain, Ewain or Uwain) is a Knight of the Round Table and the son of King Urien in Arthurian legend. ... For other uses, see Excalibur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... King Arthur presides the Round Table. ... The following is a list and assessment of sites and places associated with King Arthur and the Arthurian legend in general. ... For other uses, see Avalon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mythical castle. ... Corbenic (also Carbonek and Corbin) is the name of the castle of the Holy Grail in the Lancelot-Grail cycle and Thomas Malorys Le Morte dArthur. ... The Arthurian legend is one of the most popular literary subjects of all time, and has been adapted numerous times in every form of media. ... This is a list of books about King Arthur, or his related world, family, friends or enemies. ... Films based on the Arthurian legend are many and varied. ...

External links

  • The Charrette Project 2 at Baylor University

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lancelot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3367 words)
Lancelot, however, is not an original member of the cycle, and the development of his story is still a source of considerable disagreement between scholars.
The Lancelot story, in its rise and development, belongs exclusively to the later stage of Arthurian romance; it was a story for the court, not for the folk, and it lacks alike the dramatic force and human appeal of the genuine popular tale.
Lancelot is driven mad by remorse, and lives as a wild man (again, like Tristan, who temporarily suffered from amnesia) during the quest for the Grail.
Lancelot (537 words)
Lancelot is the son of the King of Benoic, Ban.
While Lancelot is the guest of the Grail-keeper Pelles, Pelles contrives magically to have the knight sleep with his daughter Elaine in the guise of the Queen, whom he has led Lancelot to believe is in the area.
Lancelot sleeps with Elaine and the result of their union is Galahad, the chosen Grail-knight.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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