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Encyclopedia > Lamarckism

Lamarckism or Lamarckian evolution refers to the once widely accepted idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring (also known as based on heritability of acquired characteristics or "soft inheritance"). It is named for the French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who incorporated the action of soft inheritance into his evolutionary theories and is often incorrectly cited as the founder of soft inheritance. The inheritance of acquired characters (or characteristics) is the hereditary mechanism by which changes in physiology acquired over the life of an organism (such as muscle enlarged through use) are transmitted to offspring. ... Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ...

Theories of Evolution

It proposed that individual efforts during the lifetime of the organisms were the main mechanism driving species to adaptation, as they supposedly would acquire adaptive changes and pass them on to offspring. After publication of Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, the importance of individual efforts in the generation of adaptation was considerably diminished. Later, Mendelian genetics supplanted the notion of inheritance of acquired traits, eventually leading to the development of the modern evolutionary synthesis, and the general abandonment of the Lamarckian theory of evolution in biology. In a wider context, soft inheritance is of use when examining the evolution of cultures and ideas, and is related to the theory of Memetics. In philosophy, essentialism is the view, that, for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics —all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined. ... Transmutation of species refers to the altering of one species into another. ... In biology, saltation (from Latin, saltus, leap) is a sudden change from one generation to the next, that is large, or very large, in comparison with the usual variation of an organism. ... Orthogenesis, orthogenetic evolution or autogenesis, is the hypothesis that life has an innate tendency to move in a unilinear fashion due to some internal or external driving force. The hypothesis is based on Essentialism, finalism and cosmic teleology and proposes an intrinsic drive which slowly transforms species. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets that underlie much of genetics developed by Gregor Mendel in the latter part of the 19th century. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis refers to a set of ideas from several biological specialities that were brought together to form a unified theory of evolution accepted by the great majority of working biologists. ... Memetics is an approach to evolutionary models of information transfer based on the concept of the meme. ...


While enormously popular during the early 19th century as an explanation for the complexity observed in living systems, the relevance of soft inheritance within the scientific community dwindled following the theories of August Weismann and the formation of the modern evolutionary synthesis. August Weismann Friedrich Leopold August Weismann (b. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis refers to a set of ideas from several biological specialities that were brought together to form a unified theory of evolution accepted by the great majority of working biologists. ...

Contents

History

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Between 1794 and 1796 Erasmus Darwin wrote Zoönomia suggesting "that all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament... with the power of acquiring new parts" in response to stimuli, with each round of "improvements" being inherited by successive generations. Subsequently Jean-Baptiste Lamarck repeated in his Philosophie Zoologique of 1809 the folk wisdom that characteristics which were "needed" were acquired (or diminished) during the lifetime of an organism then passed on to the offspring. He incorporated this mechanism into his thoughts on evolution, seeing it as resulting in the adaptation of life to local environments. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about Erasmus Darwin who lived 1731–1802; for his descendants with the same name see Erasmus Darwin (disambiguation). ... Zoonomia, vol. ... Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Lamarck founded a school of French Transformationism which included Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and which corresponded with a radical British school of comparative anatomy based at the University of Edinburgh which included the surgeon Robert Knox and the anatomist Robert Edmund Grant. Professor Robert Jameson wrote an anonymous paper in 1826 praising "Mr. Lamarck" for explaining how the higher animals had "evolved" from the "simplest worms" – this was the first use of the word "evolved" in a modern sense. As a young student, Charles Darwin was tutored by Grant, and worked with him on marine creatures. An engraving of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Robert Knox (4 September 1791 — 20 December 1862) was a doctor, natural scientist and traveller. ... Greek anatome, from ana-temnein, to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things; thus there is animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytonomy). ... Robert Edmond Grant (1793-1874), born in Edinburgh and educated at Edinburgh University as a doctor, became one of the foremost biologists of the early 19th century at Edinburgh and subsequently a professor at London University, particularly noted for his influence on Charles Darwin. ... For the botanist (1832 - 1908), see Robert Jameson at Gerbera. ... Charles Darwins education gave him knowledge of medicine as well as the theology of current faith based ideas. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...


The Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, authored by Robert Chambers and published anonymously in England in 1844, proposed a theory modelled after Lamarckism, causing political controversy for its radicalism and unorthodoxy, but exciting popular interest and paving the way for Darwin. Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation was a book published anonymously in England in 1844. ... Robert Chambers (10 July 1802 – 17 March 1871), Scottish author and publisher, was born in Peebles. ... Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common standards of ethics and reciprocity. ...


Darwin's Origin of Species proposed natural selection as the main mechanism for development of species, but did not rule out a variant of Lamarckism as a supplementary mechanism.[1] Darwinian called his Lamarckian hypothesis Pangenesis, and explained it in the final chapter of his book Variation in Plants and Animals under Domestication, after describing numerous examples to demonstrate what he considered to be the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Pangenesis, which he emphasised was a hypothesis, was based on the idea that somatic cells would, in response to environmental stimulation (use and disuse), throw off 'gemmules' which travelled around the body (though not in necessarily in the bloodstream). These pangenes were microscopic particles that supposedly contained information about the characteristics of their parent cell, and Darwin believed that they eventually accumulated in the germ cells where they could pass on to the next generation the newly acquired characteristics of the parents. Darwin's half-cousin, Francis Galton carried out experiments on rabbits, with Darwin's cooperation, in which he transfused the blood of one variety of rabbit into another variety in the expectation that its offspring would show some characteristics of the first. They did not, and Galton declared that he had disproved Darwin's hypothesis of Pangenesis, but Darwin objected, in a letter to Nature that he had done nothing of the sort, since he had never mentioned blood in his writings [1]. Indeed, he regarded pangenesis as occurring in plants, which have no blood! With the development of the modern synthesis of the theory of evolution and a lack of evidence for either a mechanism or even the heritability acquired characteristics, Lamarckism largely fell from favor. The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Pangenesis was Charles Darwins hypothetical mechanism for heredity. ... Gemmules In the late 1800s Charles Darwin and others proposed a mechanism of inheritance of acquired characteristics by means of gemmules (a. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Natural” redirects here. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


In the 1920s, experiments by Paul Kammerer on amphibians, particularly the midwife toad, appeared to find evidence supporting Lamarckism, but were discredited as having been falsified. In The Case of the Midwife Toad Arthur Koestler surmised that the specimens had been faked by a Nazi sympathiser to discredit Kammerer for his political views. Paul Kammerer (August 17, 1880 in Vienna, Austria – September 23, 1926 in Puchberg am Schneeberg, Austria) was a well known biologist who studied Lamarckian inheritance. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Species Alytes cisternasii Boscá, 1879. ... Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ...


A form of "Lamarckism" was revived in the Soviet Union of the 1930s when Trofim Lysenko promoted Lysenkoism which suited the ideological opposition of Joseph Stalin to Genetics. This ideologically driven research influenced Soviet agricultural policy which in turn was later blamed for crop failures. Trofim Denisovich Lysenko (Russian: Трофи́м Дени́сович Лысе́нко) (September 29, 1898–November 20, 1976) was a Soviet politician who made pretense of being a biologist. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


Since 1988 certain scientists have produced work proposing that Lamarckism could apply to single celled organisms. The discredited belief that Lamarckism holds for higher order animals is still clung to in certain branches of new-age pseudoscience under the term racial memory. Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... The concepts of racial memory and genetic memory refer to related hypotheses that an individual can inherit knowledge, memory, and/or motivational imperatives from his ancestors, even without contact with them. ...


Neo-Lamarckism is a theory of inheritance based on a modification and extension of Lamarckism, essentially maintaining the principle that genetic changes can be influenced and directed by environmental factors.


Lamarck's theory

The evolution of necks is often used as the example in explanations of Lamarckism.
The evolution of necks is often used as the example in explanations of Lamarckism.

The identification of "Lamarckism" with the inheritance of acquired characteristics is regarded by some as an artifact of the subsequent history of evolutionary thought, repeated in textbooks without analysis. Stephen Jay Gould wrote that late 19th century evolutionists "re-read Lamarck, cast aside the guts of it ... and elevated one aspect of the mechanics - inheritance of acquired characters - to a central focus it never had for Lamarck himself."[2] He argued that "the restriction of "Lamarckism" to this relatively small and non-distinctive corner of Lamarck's thought must be labelled as more than a misnomer, and truly a discredit to the memory of a man and his much more comprehensive system"[3]. Gould advocated defining "Lamarckism" more broadly, in line with Lamarck's overall evolutionary theory. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 778 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2216 × 1708 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 778 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2216 × 1708 pixel, file size: 4. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ...


Lamarck based his theory on two observations, in his day considered to be generally true:

  1. Use and disuse – Individuals lose characteristics they do not require (or use) and develop characteristics that are useful.
  2. Inheritance of acquired traits – Individuals inherit the traits of their ancestors.

Examples of Lamarckism would include:

  • Giraffes stretching their necks to reach leaves high in trees (especially Acacias), strengthen and gradually lengthen their necks. These giraffes have offspring with slightly longer necks (also known as "soft inheritance").
  • A blacksmith, through his work, strengthens the muscles in his arms. His sons will have similar muscular development when they mature.

With this in mind, Lamarck had developed two laws: Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... For other uses, see Acacia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ...

  1. In every animal which has not passed the limit of its development, a more frequent and continuous use of any organ gradually strengthens, develops and enlarges that organ, and gives it a power proportional to the length of time it has been so used; while the permanent disuse of any organ imperceptibly weakens and deteriorates it, and progressively diminishes its functional capacity, until it finally disappears.
  2. All the acquisitions or losses wrought by nature on individuals, through the influence of the environment in which their race has long been placed, and hence through the influence of the predominant use or permanent disuse of any organ; all these are preserved by reproduction to the new individuals which arise, provided that the acquired modifications are common to both sexes, or at least to the individuals which produce the young.

In essence, a change in the environment brings about change in "needs" (besoins), resulting in change in behavior, bringing change in organ usage and development, bringing change in form over time — and thus the gradual transmutation of the species. While such a theory might explain the observed diversity of species and the first law is generally true, the main argument against Lamarckism is that experiments simply do not support the second law — purely "acquired traits" do not appear in any meaningful sense to be inherited. For example, a human child must learn how to catch a ball even though his or her parents learned the same feat when they were children. Transmutation of species refers to the altering of one species into another. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


The argument that instinct in animals is evidence for hereditary knowledge is generally regarded within science as false. Such behaviours are more probably passed on through a mechanism called the Baldwin effect. Lamarck’s theories gained initial acceptance because the mechanisms of inheritance were not elucidated until later in the 19th Century, after Lamarck's death. For other uses, see Instinct (disambiguation). ... The Baldwin effect is a theory of James Mark Baldwin in which individual learning of a characteristic significantly affects the evolution of a species with respect to that characteristic. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ...


Several historians have argued that Lamarck's name is linked somewhat unfairly to the theory that has come to bear his name, and that Lamarck deserves credit for being an influential early proponent of the concept of biological evolution, far more than for the mechanism of evolution, in which he simply followed the accepted wisdom of his time. Lamarck died 30 years before the first publication of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. As science historian Stephen Jay Gould has noted, if Lamarck had been aware of Darwin's proposed mechanism of natural selection, there is no reason to assume he would not have accepted it as a more likely alternative to his "own" mechanism. Note also that Darwin, like Lamarck, lacked a plausible alternative mechanism of inheritance - the particulate nature of inheritance was only to be observed by Gregor Mendel somewhat later, published in 1866. Its importance, although Darwin cited Mendel's paper, was not recognised until the Modern evolutionary synthesis in the early 1900s. An important point in its favour at the time was that Lamarck's theory contained a mechanism describing how variation is maintained, which Darwin’s own theory lacked. For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... “Mendel” redirects here. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis refers to a set of ideas from several biological specialities that were brought together to form a unified theory of evolution accepted by the great majority of working biologists. ...


Neo-lamarckism

Unlike neo-Darwinism, the term neo-Lamarckism refers more to a loose grouping of largely heterodoxical theories and mechanisms that emerged after Lamarck's time, than to any coherent body of theoretical work. The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. ...


In the 1920s, Harvard University researcher William McDougall studied the abilities of rats to correctly solve mazes. He found that children of rats that had learned the maze were able to run it faster. The first rats would get it wrong 165 times before being able to run it perfectly each time, but after a few generations it was down to 20. McDougall attributed this to some sort of Lamarckian evolutionary process.[citation needed] At around the same time, Ivan Pavlov, who was also a Lamarckist, claimed to have observed a similar phenomena in animals being subject to conditioned reflex experiments. He claimed that with each generation, the animals became easier to condition. Neither McDougall or Pavlov suggested a mechanism to explain their observations. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Pavlov (disambiguation). ... Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning) is a type of associative learning. ...


Soma to germ line feedback


In the 1970's the immunologist Ted Steele, formerly of the University of Wollongong, and colleagues, proposed a neo-Lamarckiam mechanism to try and explain why homologous DNA sequences from the VDJ gene regions of parent mice were found in their germ cells and seemed to persist in the offspring for a few generations. The mechanism involved the somatic selection and clonal amplification of newly acquired antibody gene sequences that were generated via somatic hyper-mutation in B-cells. The mRNA products of these somatically novel genes were captured by retroviruses endogenous to the B-cells and were then transported through the blood stream where they could breach the soma-germ barrier and retrofect (reverse transcribe) the newly acquired genes into the cells of the germ line. Although Steele was advocating this theory for the better part of two decades, little more than indirect evidence was ever acquired to support it. An interesting attribute of this idea is that it strongly resembles Darwin's own theory of pangenesis, except in the soma to germ line feedback theory, pangenes are replaced with realistic retroviruses.[4] Prof. ... The University of Wollongong is a large University with approximately 21,000 students in the city of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... The Weismann barrier is the principle that hereditary information moves only from genes to body cells but never in reverse. ... Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme used by all retroviruses and retrotransposons that transcribes the genetic information from the virus or retrotransposon from RNA into DNA, which can integrate into the host genome. ...


Epigenetic inheritance


Forms of 'soft' or epigenetic inheritance within organisms have been suggested as neo-Lamarckian in nature by such scientists as Eva Jablonka and Marion J. Lamb. In addition to 'hard' or genetic inheritance, involving the duplication of genetic material and its segregation during meiosis, there are other hereditary elements that pass into the germ cells also. These include things like methylation patterns in DNA and chromatin marks, both of which regulate the activity of genes. These are considered "Lamarckian" in the sense that they are responsive to environmental stimuli and can differentially effect gene expression adaptively, with phenotypic results that can persist for many generations in certain organisms. Although the reality of epigenetic inheritance is not doubted (as countless experiments have validated it) its significance to the evolutionary process is however uncertain. Most neo-Darwinians consider epigenetic inheritance mechanisms to be little more than a specialized form of phenotypic plasticity, with no potential to introduce evolutionary novelty into a species lineage.[5] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Epigenetics. ... Eva Jablonka - born 1944 - publishes about evolutionary themes. ... For the figure of speech, see meiosis (figure of speech). ... DNA methylation is a type of chemical modification of DNA that can be inherited without changing the DNA sequence. ... Chromatin is the complex of DNA and protein found inside the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. ... We dont have an article called Phenotypic plasticity Start this article Search for Phenotypic plasticity in. ...


Lamarckism and single-celled organisms

While Lamarckism has been discredited as an evolutionary influence for larger lifeforms, some scientists controversially argue that it can be observed among microorganisms.[6] Whether such mutations are directed or not also remains a point of contention. A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ...


In 1988, John Cairns at the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford, England, and a group of other scientists renewed the Lamarckian controversy (which by then had been a dead debate for many years).[7] The group took a mutated strain of E. coli that was unable to consume the sugar lactose and placed it in an environment where lactose was the only food source. They observed over time that mutations occurred within the colony at a rate that suggested the bacteria were overcoming their handicap by altering their own genes. Cairns, among others, dubbed the process adaptive mutagenesis. John Cairns is a British physician biochemist who made significant contibutions to molecular genetics, cancer research, and public health. ... The Radcliffe Infirmary is a hospital in central Oxford, England, named after John Radcliffe. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ...


If bacteria that had overcome their own inability to consume lactose passed on this "learned" trait to future generations, it could be argued as a form of Lamarckism; though Cairns later chose to distance himself from such a position.[8] More typically, it might be viewed as a form of ontogenic evolution. Baldwinian evolution is a theory proposed by United States psychologist James Mark Baldwin which states that organisms can pass on learned abilities to their offspring. ...


There has been some research into Lamarckism and prions. A group of researchers, for example, discovered that in yeast cells containing a specific prion protein Sup35, the yeast were able to gain new genetic material, some of which gave them new abilities such as resistance to a particular herbicide. When the researchers mated the yeast cells with cells not containing the prion, the trait reappeared in some of the resulting offspring, indicating that some information indeed was passed down, though whether or not the information is genetic is debatable: trace prion amounts in the cells may be passed to their offspring, giving the appearance of a new genetic trait where there is none.[9] A prion (IPA: [1] ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle (-on by analogy to virion) — is a type of infectious agent composed only of protein. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... Genetic material is used to store the genetic information of an organic life form. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... In biology, offspring are the product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or more parents. ...


Finally, there is growing evidence that cells can activate low-fidelity DNA polymerases in times of stress to induce mutations. While this does not directly confer advantage to the organism on the organismal level, it makes sense at the gene-evolution level. While the acquisition of new genetic traits is random, and selection remains Darwinian, the active process of identifying the necessity to mutate is considered to be Lamarckian. 3D structure of the DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix motifs in human DNA polymerase beta A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that assists in DNA replication. ...


Lamarckism and societal change

Jean Molino (2000) has proposed that Lamarckian evolution may be accurately applied to cultural evolution. This was also previously suggested by Peter Medawar (1959) and Conrad Waddington (1961). K. N. Laland and colleagues have recently suggested that Human culture can be looked upon as an ecological niche like phenomena, where the effects of cultural niche construction are transmissible from one generation to the next. One interpretation of the Meme theory is that memes are both Darwinian and Lamarckian in nature, as in addition to being subject to selection pressures based on their ability to differentially influence Human minds, memes can be modified and the effects of that modification passed on. Jean Molino is professeur ordinaire at the University of Lausanne and a semiologist. ... Cultural evolution is the structural change of a society and its values over time. ... Sir Peter Brian Medawar (February 28, 1915 – October 2, 1987) was a Brazilian-born English scientist best known for his work on how the immune system rejects or accepts organ transplants. ... Conrad Hal Waddington FRS FRSE (1905 — 1975), known to his friends as Wad, was a developmental biologist, paleontologist, geneticist, embryologist and philosopher. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of... Niche construction is the process in which an organism alters its own environment in order to increase its chance of survival. ... For other uses, see Meme (disambiguation). ...


See also

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... Baldwinian evolution is a theory proposed by United States psychologist James Mark Baldwin which states that organisms can pass on learned abilities to their offspring. ... Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Epigenetics. ... Epigenetics is a term in biology used today to refer to features such as chromatin and DNA modifications that are stable over rounds of cell division but do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... The inheritance of acquired characters (or characteristics) is the hereditary mechanism by which changes in physiology acquired over the life of an organism (such as muscle enlarged through use) are transmitted to offspring. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Memetics is an approach to evolutionary models of information transfer based on the concept of the meme. ... An obsolete scientific theory is a scientific theory that was once commonly accepted but (for whatever reason) is no longer considered the most complete description of reality by mainstream science; or a falsifiable theory which has been shown to be false. ... Orthogenesis, orthogenetic evolution or autogenesis, is the hypothesis that life has an innate tendency to move in a unilinear fashion due to some internal or external driving force. The hypothesis is based on Essentialism, finalism and cosmic teleology and proposes an intrinsic drive which slowly transforms species. ... The concepts of racial memory and genetic memory refer to related hypotheses that an individual can inherit knowledge, memory, and/or motivational imperatives from his ancestors, even without contact with them. ... Prof. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Desmond, A. & Moore, J. (1991) Darwin Penguin Books p.617 "Darwin was loathe to let go of the notion that a well-used and strengthened organ could be inherited"
  2. ^ Gould, Stephen J. "Shades of Lamarck", reprinted in The Panda's Thumb (1980) pp.65-71. Quote from page 66.
  3. ^ Gould, Stephen J. (2002). The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Harvard: Belknap Harvard, pp177-178. ISBN 0-674-00613-5. 
  4. ^ Lamarck's Signature: How Retrogenes Are Changing Darwin's Natural Selection Paradigm. Edward J. Steele, Robyn A. Lindley, Robert V. Blanden. Perseus Books, 1998
  5. ^ Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution: The Lamarckian Dimension. Eva Jablonka, Marion J. Lamb. Oxford University Press, 1995
  6. ^ Adaptive mutation Genetics, Vol. 148, April 1998
  7. ^ http://www.mun.ca/biochem/courses/4103/topics/adaptive_mutation.html Adaptive mutation in bacteria
  8. ^ Adaptive mutation in E. coli, Journal of Bacteriology, August 2004, Vol. 186, No. 15
  9. ^ Lamarckism and prions, New Scientist, 21 August 2004, Issue #2461

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory is a 2002 book by Stephen Jay Gould. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ...

Further references

  • Gould, Stephen J. (2002). The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Harvard: Belknap Harvard, pp170-197 on Lamarck. ISBN 0-674-00613-5. 
  • Medawar, Peter (1959). "The threat and the glory". BBC Reith Lectures No. 6.
  • Molino, Jean (2000). "Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Music and Language". In Brown, Merker & Wallin (Eds.), The Origins of Music, ISBN 0-262-23206-5.
  • Waddington, Conrad (1961). The human evolutionary system. In: Michael Banton (Ed.), Darwinism and the Study of Society. London: Tavistock.
  • Cairns, J., J. Overbaugh, and S. Miller. 1988. Nature 335: 142-145
  • Culotta, Elizabeth; "A Boost for 'Adaptive' Mutation," Science, 265:318, 1994.)
  • Vetsigian K, Woese C, Goldenfeld N. 2006. "Collective Evolution and the Genetic Code." PNAS 103: 10696-10701.
  • Hall Barry G., Adaptive Evolution That Requires Multiple Spontaneous Mutations. I. Mutations Involving an Insertion Sequence

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory is a 2002 book by Stephen Jay Gould. ...

External links


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COMMENTARY     

Georgi+Gladyshev
2nd February 2012
Some attention should be paid to a frequently posed question, namely, which theory is correct—the widely recognized Darwin’s theory or the well known but less generally accepted Lamarck’s theory? Unlike Darwin, Lamarck maintained that the characters acquired by an individual during its lifetime are inherited, that is, passed on to the progeny.
The question I formulated above is not complete or, in terms of the macrothermodynamic theory, even correct. When such questions are asked, one must specify, not only which characters are implied but also the conditions of observation, first of all, set the time scale on which we want to make these observations. If the time period over which we want to examine a certain process (biological processes or phenomena are no exception) is not indicated, asking such questions is often pointless.
The links between molecular structures that retain and transmit genetic information and the structures in different hierarchies can, in the general case (multicellular organisms), be presented as the following simplified scheme:
Molecular structures (nucleic acids -> proteins, other biological polymers) -> Supramolecular structures -> Cells -> Organisms -> Populations -> Communities -> Ecosystems, etc. (1)
In view of the presence of feedback among the structures in different hierarchies, this scheme should be presented as:
Molecular structures (nucleic acids proteins, other biological polymers) Supramolecular structures Cells Organisms Populations Communities Ecosystems, etc. ,
(2)
where arrows indicate the possibility of reading off direct and reverse (backward) information. As was repeatedly stressed, the rate of transmission of reverse information is, for the examined reasons, low as compared with that of direct information.
Scheme (2) (accords with the well-known facts) pointing to the relatively slow effect of the environment on the structure and characteristics of populations (on the time scale of their life) and, in the final analysis, on the supramolecular and chemical structure of nucleic acids.
(Gladyshev G.P. Modern physics B. Vol. 18, Nu. 6, March 10, 2004)
Georgi+Gladyshev
2nd February 2012
Some attention should be paid to a frequently posed question, namely, which theory is correct—the widely recognized Darwin’s theory or the well known but less generally accepted Lamarck’s theory? Unlike Darwin, Lamarck maintained that the characters acquired by an individual during its lifetime are inherited, that is, passed on to the progeny.
The question I formulated above is not complete or, in terms of the macrothermodynamic theory, even correct. When such questions are asked, one must specify, not only which characters are implied but also the conditions of observation, first of all, set the time scale on which we want to make these observations. If the time period over which we want to examine a certain process (biological processes or phenomena are no exception) is not indicated, asking such questions is often pointless.
(Gladyshev G.P. Modern physics B. Vol. 18, Nu. 6, March 10, 2004)

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