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Encyclopedia > Lakota
Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899.
Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899.

The Lakota (IPA: [laˈkˣota]) (also Lakhota, Teton, Titonwon) are a Native American tribe. They form one of a group of seven tribes (the Great Sioux Nation) and speak Lakota, one of the three major dialects of the Sioux language. Image File history File links EddiePlentyHoles. ... Image File history File links EddiePlentyHoles. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... An Aani (Atsina) named Assiniboin Boy. ... The Great Sioux Nation is a general term sometimes applied to the Sioux generally or the Lakota specifically. ... Lakota (also Lakhota, Teton, Teton Sioux) is the largest of the three languages of the Sioux, of the Siouan family. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ... Lakota or Lakhota (as it is also commonly spelled) is the largest of the five major dialects of the Sioux language. ...


The Lakota are the westernmost of the three Sioux groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota. The seven branches or "sub-tribes" of the Lakota are Brulé, Oglala, Sans Arcs, Hunkpapa, Miniconjou, Blackfoot and Two Kettles. The Sioux (also: Lakota) are a Native American people. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Part of indian genealogy tree (more informations at http://www. ... Oglala can refer to the following: Oglala is a town located in Shannon County, South Dakota. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... The Hunkpapas were a Native American group, one of the seven branches of the Sioux tribe. ... Miniconjou are a Native American people constituting a subdivision of the Lakota Sioux, who formerly inhabited an area from the Black Hills in South Dakota to the Platte River, with a present-day population in west-central South Dakota. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Two Kettles was a sub division of the Lakota tribe of Native Americans. ...


The Lakota name now joins Sioux, Kiowa, Apache, Dakota, Cherokee and other American Indian names that have been given to aircraft. The UH-145 has been selected as the American Army's new Light Utility Helicopter, and has been named the Lakota. The Sioux (also: Lakota) are a Native American people. ... The Kiowa are a nation of Native Americans who lived mostly in the plains of west Texas, Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico at the time of the arrival of Europeans. ... Group of Apaches Apachean tribes ca. ... Dakota (borrowed from the autonym of the Sioux people) may refer to: A group of Amerindian tribes (see Sioux), or lands named after them: The related tribes in Minnesota known as the Santee or Dakota Oyate (Nation), including the Prairie Island (Mdewakanton and Wahpekute) Indian Community, the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... EC145 Eurocopter EC145 of the Rega. ... AW139 on display at the Farnborough Air Show in July 2006, one of the losers of the LUH program EC145, the military version of this won In 2004, the Department of Defense and the US Army made the decision to terminate the RAH-66 Comanche program. ...

Contents

History

Akta Lakota Museum in Chamberlain, South Dakota.
Akta Lakota Museum in Chamberlain, South Dakota.

The Lakota are closely related to the western Dakota of Minnesota. After their adoption of the horse, šųká-wakhą́ ([ˈʃũka waˈkˣã]) ('dog [of] power/mystery/wonder') in the early 18th century, the Lakota became part of the Great Plains culture with their eventual Algonkin-speaking allies, the Tsitsistas (Cheyenne), living in the northern Great Plains. Their society centered on the buffalo hunt with the horse. There were 20,000 Lakota in the mid-18th century. The number has now increased to about 70,000, of whom about 20,500 still speak their ancestral language. (See Languages in the United States). Image File history File links AktaLakotaMuseum. ... Image File history File links AktaLakotaMuseum. ... Chamberlain is a city located in Brule County, South Dakota. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... // Although the United States currently has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language. ...


After 1720, the Lakota branch of the Seven Council Fires split into two elements, the Saone who moved to the Lake Traverse area on the South Dakota-North Dakota-Minnesota border, and the Oglala-Brulé who occupied the James River Valley. By about 1750, however, the Saone had moved to the east bank of the Missouri, followed 10 years later by the Oglala and Brulé (Sičangu). Lake Traverse is the southernmost body of water in the Hudson Bay watershed of North America. ...


The large and powerful Arikara, Mandan, and Hidatsa villages had prevented the Lakota from crossing the Missouri for an extended period, but when smallpox and other diseases nearly destroyed these tribes, the way was open for the first Lakota to cross the Missouri into the drier, short-grass prairies of the High Plains. These Saone, well-mounted and increasingly confident, spread out quickly. In 1765, a Saone exploring and raiding party led by Chief Standing Bear discovered the Black Hills (which they called the Paha Sapa). Just a decade later, in 1775, the Oglala and Brulé also crossed the river, following the great smallpox epidemic of 1772-1780, which destroyed three-quarters of the Missouri Valley populations. In 1776, they defeated the Cheyenne as the Cheyenne had earlier defeated the Kiowa, and gained control of the land which became the center of the Lakota universe. Pre-contact distribution of Arikara Mandan and Arikara delegation. ... The Mandan are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the banks of the Missouri River and its tributaries, the Heart and Knife rivers in present-day North and South Dakota. ... Pehriska-Ruhpa of the Dog Band of the Hidatsa. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) was a highly contagious viral disease unique to humans. ... This article is about the place in South Dakota. ... Paha Sapa means Black Hills. To the Sioux Indians, it is a sacred place, the center of the world, and the place of the gods. ...


Initial contacts between the Lakota and the United States, during the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804-06, were friendly. But as more and more settlers crossed Lakota lands, this changed. In Nebraska on September 3, 1855, 700 soldiers under American General William S. Harney avenged the "Grattan Massacre" by attacking a Lakota village, killing 100 men, women, and children. Other wars followed; and in 1862-1864, as refugees from the "Sioux Uprising" in Minnesota fled west to their allies in Montana and Dakota Territory, the war followed them. The Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806) was the first American overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... William Selby Harney (22 August 1800 - 9 May 1889) was a cavalry officer in the U.S. Army during the Mexican-American War and the Indian Wars. ... The Grattan massacre of August 17, 1854 occurred east of Fort Laramie, Nebraska Territory, USA (in present-day Goshen County, Wyoming). ... Chief Taoyateduta, known as Chief Little Crow The Sioux Uprising, also known as the Dakota Conflict or the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862, was an armed conflict between the United States and several eastern bands of the Dakota people (often referred to as the Santee Sioux) that began on...


Because the Black Hills are sacred to the Lakota, they objected to mining in the area, which had been attempted since the early years of the 19th century. In 1868, the US government signed the Fort Laramie Treaty, exempting the Black Hills from all white settlement forever. 'Forever' lasted only four years, as gold was publicly discovered there, and an influx of prospectors descended upon the area, abetted by army commanders like General George Armstrong Custer. The latter tried to administer a lesson of noninterference with white policies, resulting in the Black Hills War of 1876-77. This article is about the place in South Dakota. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... ... The Treaty of Fort Laramie was an agreement between the United States and the Lakota nation, signed in 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, guaranteeing to the Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and further land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... George Armstrong Custer George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 – June 25, 1876) was a United States Army cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... The Black Hills War was a United States civil war between the Lakota Native American tribe and the United States government from 1876 until 1877. ...


The Lakota with their allies, the Arapaho and the Cheyenne, defeated the U.S. 7th Cavalry in 1876 at the Battle at the Greasy Grass or Little Big Horn, killing 258 soldiers and inflicting more than 50% casualties on the regiment. But like the Zulu triumph over the British at Isandlwana in Africa three years later, it proved to be a pyrrhic victory. The Teton were defeated in a series of subsequent battles by the reinforced U.S. Army, and were herded back onto reservations, prevented from hunting buffalo and forced to accept government food distribution, which went to 'friendlies' only. The Lakota were compelled to sign a treaty in 1877 ceding the Black Hills to the United States, but a low-intensity war continued, culminating, fourteen years later, in the killing of Sitting Bull (December 15, 1890) at Standing Rock and the Massacre of Wounded Knee (December 29, 1890) at Pine Ridge. Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... 7th Cavalry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia The 7th United States Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George Armstrong Custer â€  Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties ~200 killed (according to Yellow Horse, Red Horse and Little Buck Elk), 40 killed per the National Park... The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are an African ethnic group of about 11 million people who live mainly in the province KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Isandlwana (also sometimes seen as Isandlwhana) is an isolated hill in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. ... A Pyrrhic victory (pronounced pirric) is a victory which comes at heavy cost to the victor. ... Sitting Bull Sitting Bull Monument, Fort Yates, North Dakota. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... The Standing Rock Indian Reservation is a Lakota Indian reservation in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States. ... The Wounded Knee Massacre or the Battle of Wounded Knee was the last armed conflict between the Great Sioux Nation and the United States of America. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ...


Today, the Lakota are found mostly in the five reservations of western South Dakota: Rosebud (home of the Upper Sičangu or Brulé), Pine Ridge (home of the Oglala), Lower Brulé (home of the Lower Sičangu), Cheyenne River (home of several other of the seven Lakota bands, including the Sihasapa and Hunkpapa), and Standing Rock, also home to people from many bands. But Lakota are also found far to the north in the Fort Peck Reservation of Montana, the Fort Berthold Reservation of northwestern North Dakota, and several small reserves in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, where their ancestors fled to "Grandmother's [i.e. Queen Victoria's] Land" (Canada) during the Minnesota or Black Hills War. Large numbers of Lakota also live in Rapid City and other towns in the Black Hills, and in Metro Denver. Lakota elders joined the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO) seeking protection and recognition for their cultural and land rights. Logo of the UNPO The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is a democratic, international organization. ...


Ethnonyms

The name Lakota comes from the Lakota autonym, lakhóta "feeling affection, friendly, united, allied". The early French literature does not distinguish a separate Teton division, instead lumping them into a "Sioux of the West" group with other Santee and Yankton bands. An ethnonym (Gk. ...


The names Teton and Tintowan comes from the Lakota name thíthųwą (the meaning of which is obscure). This term was used to refer to the Lakota by non-Lakota Sioux groups. Other derivations include: Ti tanka, Tintonyanyan, Titon, Tintonha, Thintohas, Tinthenha, Tinton, Thuntotas, Tintones, Tintoner, Tintinhos, Ten-ton-ha, Thinthonha, Tinthonha, Tentouha, Tintonwans, Tindaw, Tinthow, Atintons, Anthontans, Atentons, Atintans, Atrutons, Titoba, Tetongues, Teton Sioux, Teeton, Ti toan, Teetwawn, Teetwans, Ti-t’-wawn, Ti-twans, Tit’wan, Tetans, Tieton, Teetonwan, etc.


As noted above, the early French sources call the Lakota Sioux with an additional modifier, such as Scioux of the West, West Schious, Sioux des prairies, Sioux occidentaux, Sioux of the Meadows, Nadooessis of the Plains, Prairie Indians, Sioux of the Plain, Maskoutens-Nadouessians, Mascouteins Nadouessi, and Sioux nomades.


Today many of the tribes continue to officially call themselves Sioux which the Federal Government of the United States applied to all Dakota/Lakota/Nakota people in the 19th and 20th centuries. However, some of the tribes have formally or informally adopted traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is also known as the Sičangu Oyate (Brulé Nation), and the Oglala often use the name Oglala Lakota Oyate, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST. (The alternate English spelling of Ogallala is deprecated, even though it is closer to the correct pronunciation.) The Lakota have names for their own subdivisions.


Notable persons include Sitting Bull (Tatanka Iyotake) from the Hunkpapa band and Crazy Horse (Tašunka Witko), Red Cloud (Maĥpiya Luta), Black Elk (Hehaka Sapa) and Billy Mills from the Oglala band. Sitting Bull Sitting Bull Monument, Fort Yates, North Dakota. ... Crazy Horse (Lakota: T‘aÅ¡unka Witko, pronounced tkhashúnka witkó), (December 4, 1840 – September 5, 1877) was a respected member of the Oglala Sioux Native American tribe. ... Red Cloud Red Cloud Red Cloud (Lakota: Makhpyia-luta), (1822 – December 10, 1909) was a war leader of the Oglala Lakota (Sioux). ... Black Elk (Hehaka Sapa) (c. ... For the Irish poet, see Billy Mills (poet) William Billy Mills (born June 30, 1938) is the only American ever to win an Olympic gold medal in the 10,000 m run which he did at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. ...


Recent evidence indicates that Tašunka Witko was of the Miniconjou band. [citation needed]


Reservations

Today, one half of all Enrolled Sioux live off the Reservation. BIA map of reservations in the United States Tribal sovereignty: Map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ...


Lakota reservations recognized by the US government include:

Some Lakota also live on other Sioux reservations in eastern South Dakota, Minnesota, and Nebraska: Alternative meaning: Lakota, Côte dIvoire is a département of Côte dIvoire. ... Oglala Sioux tribal flag Pine Ridge Indian Reservation is an Oglala Sioux Native American reservation located in the U.S. state of South Dakota. ... Part of indian genealogy tree (more informations at http://www. ... The Rosebud Indian Reservation is home of the Sicangu Oyate, also known as the Sicangu Lakota, the Upper Brule Sioux Nation, and the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. ... The Hunkpapas were a Native American group, one of the seven branches of the Sioux tribe. ... The Standing Rock Indian Reservation is a Lakota Indian reservation in North Dakota and South Dakota in the United States. ... The Cheyenne River, highlighted in a map of the Missouri River watershed The Cheyenne River is a tributary of the Missouri River in the U.S. states of Wyoming and South Dakota. ... Miniconjou are a Native American people constituting a subdivision of the Lakota Sioux, who formerly inhabited an area from the Black Hills in South Dakota to the Platte River, with a present-day population in west-central South Dakota. ... The Cheyenne River, highlighted in a map of the Missouri River watershed The Cheyenne River is a tributary of the Missouri River in the U.S. states of Wyoming and South Dakota. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... The Cheyenne River, highlighted in a map of the Missouri River watershed The Cheyenne River is a tributary of the Missouri River in the U.S. states of Wyoming and South Dakota. ... Two Kettles was a sub division of the Lakota tribe of Native Americans. ... The Cheyenne River, highlighted in a map of the Missouri River watershed The Cheyenne River is a tributary of the Missouri River in the U.S. states of Wyoming and South Dakota. ...

  • Santee, in Nebraska
  • Crow Creek in Central South Dakota
  • Yankton in Central South Dakota
  • Flandreau in Eastern South Dakota
  • Sisseton-Wahpehton in Northeastern South Dakota and Southeastern North Dakota
  • Lower Sioux in Minnesota
  • Upper Sioux in Minnesota
  • Shakopee in Minnesota
  • Prairie Island in Minnesota

In addition several Lakota live on Wood Mountain Indian Reserve often Wood Mountain First Nation northwest of Wood Mopuntain Post now a Saskatchewan historic site. A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... The Crow Creek Indian Reservation is located on the east bank of the Missouri River in central South Dakota. ... Yankton is the name of: A county in South Dakota, or The county seat of Yankton County. ... The Lower Sioux Indian Reservation is located along the southern bank of the Minnesota River in Redwood County, Minnesota. ... The Upper Sioux Indian Reservation is located along the Minnesota River in Yellow Medicine County, Minnesota five miles (8 km) south of Granite Falls. ... The Shakopee-Mdewakanton Indian Reservation is located within the city of Prior Lake in Scott County, Minnesota, and was previously known as Prior Lake Indian Reservation until it was modified by the Indian Reorganization Act on November 28, 1969. ... Prairie Island Indian Community is a Mdewakanton Sioux Indian reservation in Goodhue County, Minnesota along the Mississippi River, near Red Wing. ... History The North West Mountain Police were sent to the Wood Mountian area to establish the Queens Law in the frontier west of early Canada. ... In Canada, an Indian reserve is specified by the Indian Act as a tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band. ...


See also

A starship, the USS Lakota, was named for them in the Star Trek universe. Lakota (also Lakhota, Teton, Teton Sioux) is the largest of the three languages of the Sioux, of the Siouan family. ... The Lakota (also Sioux, Dakota) are a Native American tribe located in the Great Plains area of the United States. ... Star Trek is an American science-fiction franchise spanning six television series, ten feature films, hundreds of novels, computer and video games, and other fan stories. ...


External links

Commons logo
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lakota
  • Dakota Blues: The History of The Great Sioux Nation
  • Lakhota.Com The Leading Lakota Sioux Resource teaching Language and History since 1995 - run by members of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe
  • The Teton Sioux (Edward S. Curtis)
  • Lakota Language Consortium (Indiana)
  • Lakota Winter Counts a Smithsonian exhibit of the annual icon chosen to represent the major event of the past year

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Bibliography

  • Christafferson, Dennis M. (2001). Sioux, 1930-2000. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 2, pp. 821-839). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-050400-7.
  • DeMallie, Raymond J. (2001a). Sioux until 1850. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 2, pp. 718-760). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-050400-7.
  • DeMallie, Raymond J. (2001b). Teton. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 2, pp. 794-820). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-050400-7.
  • Hein, David (Advent 2002). "Episcopalianism among the Lakota / Dakota Indians of South Dakota." The Historiographer, vol. 40, pp. 14-16. [The Historiographer is a publication of the Historical Society of the Episcopal Church and the National Episcopal Historians and Archivists.]
  • Hein, David (1997). "Christianity and Traditional Lakota / Dakota Spirituality: A Jamesian Interpretation." The McNeese Review, vol. 35, pp. 128-38.
  • Parks, Douglas R.; & Rankin, Robert L. (2001). The Siouan languages. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 94-114). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-050400-7.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lakota - Dakota - Sioux Nation - Crystalinks (3358 words)
The Lakota [lakxo'ta] came from the western Dakota of Minnesota who, after the adoption of the horse, ('power/mystery dog'), became part of the Great Plains Culture with their Minnesota Algonkin-speaking allies, the Tsitsistas (Cheyenne), living in the northern Great Plains, which centered on the buffalo hunt with the horse.
Instead, the Lakota with their allies, the Arapaho and the Cheyenne, defeated the 7th U.S. Cavalry in 1876 at the Battle at the Greasy Grass/Battle of the Little Bighorn, known also as Custer's Last Stand, since he and all 300 of his troopers perished there.
As caravans of miners and settlers began to cross the Lakota's land, Red Cloud was haunted by the vision of Minnesota's expulsion of the Eastern Lakota in 1862 and 1863.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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