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Encyclopedia > Lake Van
Lake Van
From space, September 1996
(top of image is roughly northwest)
Coordinates 38°38′N 42°49′ECoordinates: 38°38′N 42°49′E
Lake type saline lake
Primary sources Karasu, Hoşap, Güzelsu, Bendimahi, Zilan and Yeniköprü streams[1]
Primary outflows none
Catchment area 12,500 km²[1]
Basin countries Turkey
Max length 119 km
Surface area 3,755 km²
Average depth 171 m
Max depth 451 m
Water volume 607 km3
Shore length1 430 km
Surface elevation 1640 m
Islands Akdamar,
Çarpanak (İçeriçarpanak),
Adır Adası,
Kuş Adası (Arter Adası)
Settlements Van, Tatvan, Ahlat, Erciş
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Lake Van Armenian: Վանա լիճ (Lake of Van), Վանա ծով (Sea of Van), Արճեշի ծով (Sea of Arčeš), Բզնունեաց ծով (Sea of Bznuni), Ռշտունեաց ծով (Sea of Rshtuni), Տոսպայ լիճ (Lake of Tosp); (Turkish: Van Gölü; Kurdish: Gola Wanê) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. It is a saline and soda lake of volcanic origin with no outlet, receiving water from numerous small streams that descend from the surrounding mountains. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (639x639, 168 KB) Lake Van, Turkey - September 1996 image description here larger version here File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water which has a concentration of salts (mostly sodium chloride) and other minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least 3,000 milligrams of salt per liter). ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ... General view of Akdamar Island Akdamar Island (also known as Aghtamar, Ahktamar, and Aghtamar; Armenian: Ô±Õ²Õ©Õ¡Õ´Õ¡Ö€) is a small island in Lake Van in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey, about 0. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tatvan is the capital city of the identically named district of Bitlis Province in eastern Turkey. ... Ahlat is a district of Bitlis Province of Turkey Categories: | ... ErciÅŸ is a district of Van Province of Turkey. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water which has a concentration of salts (mostly sodium chloride) and other minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least 3,000 milligrams of salt per liter). ...

Contents

Hydrology and chemistry

Lake Van is 119 km across at its widest point, averaging a depth of 171 meters with a maximum recorded depth of 451 meters.[2] The lake surface lies 1640 meters above sea level and the shore length is 430 kilometers. Lake Van has an area of 3,755 km² and a volume of 607 km3.[2] To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ...


The western portion of the lake is deepest, with a large basin deeper than 400 m lying northeast of Tatvan and south of Ahlat. The eastern arms of the lake are shallower. The Van-Ahtamar portion shelves gradually, with a maximum depth of about 250 m on its northwest side where it joins the rest of the lake. The Erciş arm is much shallower, mostly less than 50m, with a maximum depth of about 150 m.[3][4]


The lake water is strongly alkaline (pH 9.7–9.8) and rich in sodium carbonate and other salts, which are extracted by evaporation and used as detergents. The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ...


Geology

Lake Van Landsat photo
Lake Van Landsat photo

The lake's outlet was blocked at some time during the Pleistocene, when lava flows from Nemrut volcano blocked westward outflow towards the Muş Plain (Armenian: Մշո դաշտ). Now dormant, Nemrut Dağı is close to the western shore of the lake, and another dormant stratovolcano, Süphan Dağı (Armenian Nex Masik' (Նեխ Մասիք), Tsipan (Ծիպան), Sipan (Սիփան)), dominates the northern side of the lake. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 204 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 204 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Landsat program is the longest running enterprise for acqusition of imagery of Earth from space. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... In computer programming jargon, lava flow is a problem in which computer code, usually written under less than optimal conditions, is put into production and then built on when still in a developmental state. ... Crater of Nemrut Dağı, satelite view (Feb 2001) Nemrut or Nemrut Dagi (Armenian: Սարակն, Mountain spring, scientific transliteration: Sarakn, Kurdish Çiyayê Nemrud) is a dormant volcano in Eastern Turkey, close to Lake Van, at , . The volcano is named after King Nimrod who ruled this area in about 2100BC.[1] // Description Mt. ... Crater of Nemrut Dağı, satelite view (Feb 2001) Nemrut or Nemrut Dagi (Armenian: Սարակն, Mountain spring, scientific transliteration: Sarakn, Kurdish Çiyayê Nemrud) is a dormant volcano in Eastern Turkey, close to Lake Van, at , . The volcano is named after King Nimrod who ruled this area in about 2100BC.[1] // Description Mt. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... Mount Süphan (Turkish: ), is a mountain located in eastern Turkey, immediately north of Lake Van. ...


The water level of the lake has often altered dramatically: near Tatvan, Oswald (see Geology of Armenia, 1901) noted a raised beach high above the present level of the lake as well as recently drowned trees. Investigation by Degens and others in the early 1980s determined that the highest lake levels (72m above the current height) had been during the last ice age, about 18,000 years ago. About 9,500 years ago there was a dramatic drop to more than 300m below the present level. This was followed by an equally dramatic rise around 6,500 years ago.[2]


Similar but smaller fluctuations have been seen recently. The level of the lake rose by at least three metres during the 1990s, drowning much agricultural land, and (after a brief period of stability and then retreat) seems to be rising again. The level has risen about two meters in the ten years to 2004.[1]


As a deep lake with no outlet, Lake Van has accumulated great amounts of sediment washed in from surrounding plains and valleys, and occasionally deposited as ash from eruptions of nearby volcanoes. This layer of sediment is estimated to be up to 400m thick in places, and has attracted climatologists and vulcanologists interested in drilling cores to examine the layered sediments.


In 1990, an international drilling team retrieved 10 sediment cores from depths up to 446m. Although these cores only penetrated the first few meters of sediment, they provided sufficient varves to give climate data for up to 14,570 years BP.[5] Wiktionary:Varves A layer or series of layers of sediment deposited in a body of still water in one year. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ...


A team of scientists headed by palaeontologist Professor Thomas Litt at the University of Bonn has applied for funding from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) for a new, deeper drilling project to examine the lake's sediments. Litt expects to find that "Lake Van stores the climate history of the last 800,000 years—an incomparable treasure house of data which we want to tap for at least the last 500,000 years."[6] A test drilling in 2004 detected evidence of 15 volcanic eruptions in the past 20,000 years. The main building, viewed from the Hofgarten. ... The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program is a multinational program to further and fund Geosciences in the field of Continental Scientific Drilling. ...


Natural history

The only fish known to live in the brackish water of Lake Van is Chalcalburnus tarichi the Pearl Mullet or inci kefali[7], a Cyprinid fish related to chub and dace, which is caught during the spring floods. In May and June, these fish migrate from the lake to less alkaline water, spawning either near the mouths of the rivers feeding the lake or in the rivers themselves. After spawning season it returns to the lake.[8] For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Brackish redirects here. ... Binomial name (Güldenstädt, 1814) (Pallas, 1811) Synonyms Alburnus tarichi, Pearl Mullet The Incikefali Baligi (Chalcalburnus tarichi) is a species of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family. ... Genera (many, see text) The family Cyprinidae, named after the Greek word for goldfish, consists of the carps and minnows. ... Binomial name Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) Head of a European chub This article is related to the fish. ... A dace is any of a number of species of small cyprinid fish. ...


103 species of phytoplankton have been recorded in the lake including Diatome, Bacteriophyta, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Flagellata and Phaeophyta. 36 species of zooplankton have also been recorded including Rotatoria, Cladocera and Copepoda in the lake. (Selçuk 1992) Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Diatome (1962-1985) was a British-bred Thoroughbred racehorse owned and bred by the French banker, Baron Guy de Rothschild. ... Cyanobacteria (Greek: cyanos = blue) are a phylum of aquatic bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. ... Classes[1] Bryopsidophyceae Chlorophyceae Pedinophyceae Pleurastrophyceae Prasinophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Ulvophyceae Chlorophyta, a division of green algae, includes about 8000 species[2][1] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. ... Flagellata from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Parasitic excavate (Giardia lamblia) Green alga (Chlamydomonas) Flagellates are cells with one or more whip-like organelles called flagella. ... Orders Dictyotales Desmerestiales Fucales Laminariales (kelps) etc. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ... Classes Monogononta Digononta The rotifers make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals. ... Families Suborder Anomopoda Daphniidae Moinidae Bosminidae Macrothricidae Chydoridae Suborder Ctenopoda Sididae Holopedidae Suborder Onychopoda Polyphemidae Cercopagidae Podonidae Suborder Haplopoda Leptodoridae Daphnia are members of the order Cladocera. ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Copepods are small, aquatic animals living in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat, a form of plankton, specifically zooplankton, some copepods are parasitic. ...


In 1991, researchers reported the discovery of 40m tall microbialites in Lake Van. These are solid towers on the lake bed created by mats of coccoid cyanobacteria (Pleurocapsa group) that create aragonite in combination with calcite precipitating out of the lake water.[9] Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... Orders The taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria is currently under revision. ... Aragonite Aragonite is a polymorph of the mineral calcite, both having the chemical composition CaCO3. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ...


The Lake Van region is also the home of the rare Van Kedisi breed of cat, noted for among other things its unusual fascination with water (a very rare trait among cats, which generally dislike being immersed in water). A Van Cat kitten from the village of Agarti (former Ayanis), near Van city The Van Kedisi - Turkish for Van Cat is a distinctive breed of domestic cat that is found mainly in the Lake Van region of present-day Turkey. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ...


Since about 1995 there have been reported sightings of a 'Lake Van monster' about 15 metres in length named Van Canavarı. Unal Kozak, a teaching assistant at Van University, has interviewed about a thousand people who claim to have seen the monster, and has written a book on the subject. Sceptics point out that the region would benefit from tourist revenue and a hoax might attract visitors.[10] The Lake Van Monster (Turkish: Van Gölü Canavarı) was not reported until 1995 in Lake Van, a large alkaline lake in Eastern Turkey. ...


History and culture

Armenian kingdoms

The lake was the centre of the Armenian kingdom of Ararat from about 1000 BC, afterwards of the Satrapy of Armina, Kingdom of Greater Armenia, and the Armenian Kingdom of Vaspurakan. The capital of Urartu, Tushpa, was located near the shores of Lake Van, on the site of what became medieval Van's castle, west of present-day Van city).[11]. The ruins of the medieval city of Van are still visible below the southern slopes of the rock on which Van Castle is located (Van Kalesi) Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... For other uses, see Armenia (disambiguation). ... // Prehistory Archaeologists refer to the Shulaveri-Shomu culture of the central Transcaucasus region, including modern Armenia, as the earliest known prehistoric culture in the area, carbon-dated to roughly 6000 - 4000 BC. However, a recently discovered tomb has been dated to 9000 BC. Another early culture in the Armenian Highland... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Tushpa was an ancient city, (modern Van, on the shore of Lake Van). ... Van is a city in eastern Turkey with a population of 380 000 (2001). ...

Armenian gravestones near Lake Van. 1973.

Along with Lake Sevan in today's Armenia and Lake Urmia in today's Iran, Van was one of the three great lakes of the Armenian Kingdom, referred to as the seas of Armenia (in ancient Assyrian sources: "tâmtu ša mât Nairi" (Upper Sea of Nairi), the Lower Sea being Lake Urmia). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 582 pixelsFull resolution (1872 × 1362 pixel, file size: 278 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo myself in 1993. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 582 pixelsFull resolution (1872 × 1362 pixel, file size: 278 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo myself in 1993. ... View of the lake from space Lake Sevan (Սևանա Õ¬Õ«Õ³ in Armenian), named Gegham Sea (Ô³Õ¥Õ²Õ¡Õ´Õ¡ Õ®Õ¸Õ¾) in ancient times, is the largest lake in Armenia and one of the largest high altitude lakes in the world. ... Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ... Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ...


Along its shores and on several islands (Arter, Lim, Charpanak, etc.) the remains of Armenian churches and monasteries can be found. The best preserved is the tenth-century Church of the Holy Cross (Armenian Սուրբ Խաչ, Surb Khach, scientific transliteration Surb xač') located on Akdamar Island (Armenian: Aghtamar, Աղթամար). It was built by architect Manuel by the order of Gagik Artzruni, king of the Armenian Vaspurakan Kingdom between 915 and 921. It served as a royal church within the king's residence in the medieval town that once existed on the island. Reliefs on it's external walls represent Biblical stories such as Adam and Eve, Jonah and the whale, David and Goliath, etc. Arter, also known as KuÅŸadasi (Bird Island in Turkish), is a small island in Lake Van. ... Look up lim, LIM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Charpanak Island (Turkish: Çarpanak Adası), is a small island in Lake Van. ... General view of Akdamar Island Akdamar Island (also known as Aghtamar, Ahktamar, and Aghtamar; Armenian: Ô±Õ²Õ©Õ¡Õ´Õ¡Ö€) is a small island in Lake Van in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey, about 0. ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... The Prophet Jonah, as depicted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel Jonah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: يونس, Yunus or يونان, Yunaan ; Latin Ionas ; Dove) was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) and Quran who was swallowed by a great fish. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... This article is about the biblical warrior. ...


Byzantine empire

By the 11th century the region around Lake Van was on the border between the Byzantine empire, with its capital at Constantinople, and the Seljuk Turkish empire, with its capital at Isfahan. In the uneasy peace between the two empires, local Armenian-Byzantine landowners employed Turcoman gazis and Byzantine akritoi for protection. However, these mercenaries often turned to looting for their own benefit. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... There are several meanings to Turkmen: Related to the country Turkmenistan Turkmen language Turkmen people A breed of horse called the Turkoman This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ghazw (plural ghazawāt) is an Arabic word meaning an armed incursion for the purposes of conquest, plunder, or the capture of slaves and is cognate with the terms ghāziya and maghāzÄ«. In pre-Islamic times it signified the plundering raids organized by nomadic Bedouin warriors against either...


In the second half of the 11th century the situation on the southeast border of the Byzantine empire had reached such a point that Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes launched a campaign to re-conquer Armenia and head off growing Seljuk control. Diogenes and his large army crossed the Euphrates and confronted a much smaller Seljuk force led by Alp Arslan at the Battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt), north of Lake Van on 26 August 1071. Despite their greater numbers, the cumbersome Byzantine force was defeated by the more mobile Turkish horsemen and Diogenes was captured. Romanus IV (Diogenes), Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071, was a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family, and had risen to distinction in the army, until he was convicted of treason against the sons of Constantine X. While waiting for his execution he was summoned into the presence of the... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic forces... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ...


Seljuk empire

Alp Arslan divided the conquered eastern portions of the Byzantine empire among his Turcoman generals, with each ruled as a hereditary beylik, under overall sovereignty of the Great Seljuq Empire. Alp Arslan gave the region around Lake Van to his commander Sökmen el Kutbî (literally Sökmen the Slave), who set up his capital at Ahlat on the western side of the lake. The dynasty of Ahlatshahs (also known as Sökmenler) ruled this area from 1085 to 1192. Bey is the Turkish word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups In historical accounts, many Turkish and Persian leaders are titled bey, beg or beigh. ... This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Ahlat is a district of Bitlis Province of Turkey Categories: | ... Ahlahshahs were the rulers of an Anatolian Turkish Beylik of the first period founded after the Battle of Malazgirt (Battle of Manzikert) and centered in Ahlat on the northwestern shore of the Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia. ... April 2 - Emperor Zhezong became emperor of Song Dynasty. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ...

The Ahlatshahs were succeeded by the Ayyubid dynasty. The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ...


Architecture

Important historical monuments around the lake include the Church of the Holy Cross (Armenian Սուրբ Խաչ, Surb Khach, scientific transliteration Surb xač') on Akdamar Island near the southern shore, and Van Kalesi (Castle of Van) on the lake's eastern shore near the modern city of Van. General view of Akdamar Island Akdamar Island (also known as Aghtamar, Ahktamar, and Aghtamar; Armenian: Ô±Õ²Õ©Õ¡Õ´Õ¡Ö€) is a small island in Lake Van in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey, about 0. ... Van (Armenian ) is a city in eastern Turkey and the seat of Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. ...


The Ahlatshahs left a large number of historic tombstones in and around the town of Ahlat. Local administators are currently trying to have the tombstones included in UNESCO's World Heritage List [12] , where they are currently listed tentatively. [13] Tombstone most commonly means a headstone marking the grave of a deceased person. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...

Ferry Van approaching Van harbour.
Ferry Van approaching Van harbour.
Sunset in Van from ferry.

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 649 KB) Summary Train ferry Van aproaching Van harbour, Van lake. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 649 KB) Summary Train ferry Van aproaching Van harbour, Van lake. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (1176 × 788 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lake Van during sunset in fall, from th ship. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (1176 × 788 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lake Van during sunset in fall, from th ship. ...

Economy

Agriculture

The lake is surrounded by fruit and grain-growing agricultural areas. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about cereals in general. ...


Railways

The railway connecting Turkey and Iran built in the 1970s uses a train ferry across Lake Van between the cities Tatvan and Van, rather than building railway tracks around the rugged shore line. Transfer from train to ship and back again limits the total carrying capacity. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... A loaded train ferry approaching the dock in Detroit, Michigan, April 1943. ... Tatvan is the capital city of the identically named district of Bitlis Province in eastern Turkey. ... Van is a city in eastern Turkey with a population of 380 000 (2001). ...


See also

Lake Tuz Lake Van Lake Eğirdir Lake Acıgöl Lake Bafa Lake Işıklı Lake Abant Wikimedia Commons has media related to: List of lakes in Turkey Geography of Turkey Regions of Turkey Rivers of Turkey Dams of Turkey Categories: | | ... The Lake Van Monster (Turkish: Van Gölü Canavarı) was not reported until 1995 in Lake Van, a large alkaline lake in Eastern Turkey. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Coskun, M. & Musaoğlu, N. (2004), Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, <http://www.isprs.org/istanbul2004/comm7/papers/52.pdf>
  2. ^ a b c Degens, E.T.; Wong, H.K. & Kempe, S. et al. (June 1984), "A geological study of Lake Van, eastern Turkey", International Journal of Earth Sciences (Springer) 73 (2): 701-734, DOI:10.1007/BF01824978, <http://www.springerlink.com/content/x5285613642v3665/>
  3. ^ Wong, H.K. & Degens, E.T. (1978), "The bathymetry of Lake Van, eastern Turkey", Geology of Lake Van, Ankara: General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, p. 6-10
  4. ^ Tomonaga, Yama; Brennwald, Matthias S. & Kipfer, Rolf (2007), Spatial variability in the release of terrigenic He from the sediments of Lake Van (Turkey), 4th Mini Conference on Noble Gases in the Hydrosphere and in Natural Gas Reservoirs, DOI:10.2312/GFZ.mga.045, <http://www.internal.eawag.ch/~tomonaga/pdf/MINOGA_2007_Poster.pdf>
  5. ^ Landmann, Günter; Reimera, Andreas & Lemcke, Gerry et al. (June 1996), "Dating Late Glacial abrupt climate changes in the 14,570 yr long continuous varve record of Lake Van, Turkey", Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (Elsevier Science B.V.) 122 (1-4): 107-118, DOI 10.1016/j.physletb.2003.10.071
  6. ^ Turkey's Lake Van Provides Precise Insights Into Eurasia's Climate History, 15 March 2007, <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070314110552.htm>
  7. ^ Journal; Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
  8. ^ Inci kefali summary
  9. ^ Kempe, S.; Kazmierczak, J. & Landmann, G. et al. (14 February 1991), "Largest known microbialites discovered in Lake Van, Turkey", Nature 349: 605-608, DOI:10.1038/349605a0, <http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v349/n6310/abs/349605a0.html>
  10. ^ RJ (1997). Sea monster or monster hoax? - June 12, 1997. CNN Interactive - World News. Retrieved on 2006-05-01.
  11. ^ The Concise Encyclopædia of Archaeology - Page 488 by Leonard Cottrell - 1960
  12. ^ Yüksel Oktay. (article) On the Roads of Anatolia - Van (English). Los Angeles Chronicle.
  13. ^ (List) Tentative World Heritage Sites (English). UNESCO.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Elseviers logo. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

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Turkey is a successor state of the Ottoman Empire, a multi-ethnic empire consolidated by gradual conquest during medieval and early modern times (1300-1700). ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Sultanate controlling virtually all of Anatolia Capital Ä°znik Konya Political structure Empire Sultans  - 1060-1077 Kutalmish  - 1303-1308 Mesud II History  - Division from the Great Seljuk Empire 1077  - Internal struggles 1307 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was the Seljuk Turkish sultanate that ruled in direct lineage from 1077 to 1307... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities (beylik) governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia as of the end of the 13th century. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Image File history File links OttomanCoatOfArms. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire are contracts between Ottoman Empire and European powers. ... The Tulip Era is an important period for the Ottoman Empire. ... The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ... Graphical timeline The First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of a Basic Law by Abdülhamid II on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878 when the constitution was suspended. ... Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe marked the better part of the history of southeastern Europe, notably, giving infamy to the Balkans. ... The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of ten wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries United Kingdom Greece France Italy Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: KurtuluÅŸ Savaşı or... Atatürk, modern Turkeys founder and first President The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. ... This page summarizes the history after the Multi-party period. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


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Lake Van - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (419 words)
Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: Վանա լիճ) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country.
Lake Van's waters are rich in sodium carbonate and other salts which are extracted by evaporation and used as detergents.
The lake was in the centre of Urartian kingdom from about 1000 BC and capital of Urartu, Tushpa, was on the shore of Van (approximately on the site of Van city).
Lake Van, Turkey-Adiyamanli.org (547 words)
Lake Van occupies the lowest part of a vast basin bordered by high mountains to the south, by plateaus and mountains to the east, and by a complex of volcanic cones to the west.
Lake Van's catchment area exceeds 5,790 square miles (15,000 square km); it forms the largest interior basin of Turkey except for that of the central Anatolian region.
The lake is fed by rainfall and meltwater as well as by several tributaries, notably the Bendimahi and Zilan rivers, which flow in from the north, and the Karasu and Micinger rivers, which enter the lake from the east.
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