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Encyclopedia > Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia
from space, October 1984
Coordinates 37°42′0″N, 45°18′60″ECoordinates: 37°42′0″N, 45°18′60″E
Lake type salt lake
Primary outflows evaporation
Basin countries Iran
Max length 140 km (87 miles)
Max width 55 km (34 miles)
Surface area 5,200 km² (2,000 mile²)
Max depth 16 m (52 ft)
Islands 102 (see list)

Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. It is the largest lake inside Iran, with a surface area of approximately 5,200 km² (2,000 mile²). At its maximum extent, it is about 140 km (87 miles) long, and 55 km (34 miles) wide. Its deepest point is approximately 16 m (52 ft) deep. Download high resolution version (504x768, 48 KB)Lake Urmia from a NASA satellite image [1] . File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A man-made lake in Keukenhof, Netherlands A lake is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size surrounded by land. ... A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water which has a concentration of salts (mostly sodium chloride) and other minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least 3,000 milligrams of salt per liter). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (yellow outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (blue lines) of a contiguous area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water which has a concentration of salts (mostly sodium chloride) and other minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least 3,000 milligrams of salt per liter). ... East Azarbaijan province enjoys some of Irans most favorable climatic conditions. ... West Azarbaijan (in Persian, آذربایجان ØºØ±Ø¨ÛŒ Azarbāyejān-e-Qarbi; in Kurdish, Azerbaycanî Rojawa; in Azerbaijani, QÉ™rbi AzÉ™rbaycan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by both area and volume,[1] with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres (143,244 mi²) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometres (18,761 mi³).[2] It is a landlocked endorheic body of water and lies between...


The lake is named after the provincial capital city of Urmia, originally a Syriac name meaning city of water. It was called Lake Rezaiyeh (Persian: دریاچه رضائیه) in the early 1930s after Reza Shah Pahlavi, but the lake was renamed 'Urmia' in the late 1970s. Its ancient Persian name was Chichast. Along with lake Van and lake Sevan, it was one of the three great lakes of the Armenian Kingdom, referred to as the seas of Armenia. [1] [2] Map of Iran showing location of Urmia. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ... Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: ÕŽÕ¡Õ¶Õ¡ Õ¬Õ«Õ³) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... View of the lake from space Lake Sevan (Սևանա Õ¬Õ«Õ³ in Armenian), named Gegham Sea (Ô³Õ¥Õ²Õ¡Õ´Õ¡ Õ®Õ¸Õ¾) in ancient times, is the largest lake in Armenia and one of the largest high altitude lakes in the world. ... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ...

Salt crystals, on the shore

Lake Matianus (Latin: Lacus Matianus) is an old name for Lake Urmia. It was known as the Lower Nairi Sea (Lake Van was the Upper Nairi Sea) during the Nairi-Urartu period and as the Lower Armenian Sea after the Armenians displaced the Nairi. It was the center of the Mannaean Kingdom, the capital Hasanlu was on the west side of Lake Matianus. Mannae was overrun by a people who were called Matiani or Matieni, an Iranic people variously identified as Scythian, Saka, Sarmatian, or Cimmerian. It is not clear whether the lake took its name from the people or the people from the lake, but the country came to be called Matiene or Matiane. Image File history File links Lake_urmia,_salt_crystals. ... Image File history File links Lake_urmia,_salt_crystals. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Nairi may refer to one of the following. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Teppe Hasanlu or Tappeh Hasanlu is an ancient archeological site in West Azarbaijan, Iran. ... Matiene was the name of northwestern Iran from the time of the arrival of Iranians, who overran the Kingdom of Mannae. ... Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... The Sakas were Iranian people stock who lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the centuries before 300 AD. They are considered to be a branch of Scythians by most scholars. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... The Cimmerians were an ancient people of Iranian origin, who lived in the south of modern-day Ukraine (Crimea and northern Black sea coast) and Russia (Black Sea coast and Caucasus), at least in the 8th and 7th century BC. Little is known about them, but they were mentioned in... Matiene was the name of northwestern Iran from the time of the arrival of Iranians, who overran the Kingdom of Mannae. ...


The lake is marked by more than a hundred small rocky islands, which are stopover points in the migrations of various kinds of wild bird life (including flamingos, pelicans, spoonbills, ibises, storks, shelducks, avocets, stilts, and gulls). The second largest island, Kaboudi, is the burial place of Hulagu Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan and the sacker of Baghdad, where he had his treasury. Flamingos are gregarious wading birds in the genus Phoenicopterus and family Phoenicopteridae. ... Species Pelecanus occidentalis Pelecanus thagus Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Pelecanus onocrotalus Pelecanus crispus Pelecanus rufescens Pelecanus philippensis Pelecanus conspicillatus A pelican is any of several very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak belonging to the bird family Pelecanidae. ... Genera and Species See text Spoonbills are a group of large, long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae, which also includes the Ibises. ... Genera Threskiornis Pseudibis Thaumatibis Geronticus Nipponia Bostrychia Theristicus Cercibis Mesembrinibis Phimosus Eudocimus Plegadis Lophotibis Ibises are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae. ... Genera See text. ... Species Tadorna ferruginea Tadorna cana Tadorna tadornoides Tadorna variegata Tadorna cristata Tadorna tadorna Tadorna radjah The Shelducks, genus Tadorna, are a group of large birds in the Tadorninae subfamily of the Anatidae, the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl such as the geese and swans. ... Species Recurvirostra avosetta Recurvirostra americana Recurvirostra novaehollandiae Recurvirostra andina The four species of Avocets are waders in the same bird family as the stilts. ... † See also Avocet The stilts are waders in the same bird family as the Avocets. ... Look up gull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217 – 8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The term treasury was first used in classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or the many buildings put up in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states, to impress each other during the Ancient Olympic Games. ...


By virtue of its high levels of salinity, the lake does not sustain any fish species. Nonetheless, Lake Urmia is considered to be one of the largest natural habitats of Artemia, which serve as food source for the migratory birds such flamingos. Most of the area of the lake is considered a national park. Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Species Artemia franciscana Artemia gracilis Artemia monica Artemia parartemia Artemia parthenogenetica Artemia persimilis Artemia salina Artemia sinica Artemia tunesiana Artemia urmiana Brine shrimp (Artemia) are a primitive type of aquatic crustacean. ... Flamingos are gregarious wading birds in the genus Phoenicopterus and family Phoenicopteridae. ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales, UK A national park is a reserve of land, usually declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ...


The lake is a major barrier between two of the most important cities in West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan provinces, Urmia and Tabriz. A project to build a bridge across the lake was initiated in the 1970s but was abandoned after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. The project was revived in the early 2000s, and is due to finish by the end of 2006. West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... East Azarbaijan province enjoys some of Irans most favorable climatic conditions. ... Map of Iran showing location of Urmia. ... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1934, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... A log bridge in the French Alps near Vallorcine. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... This article is becoming very long. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Lake Urmia has been shrinking for a long time, with an annual evaporation rate of 0.6m to 1m (24 to 39 inches). The lake's salts are considered to have medical effects, especially as a cure for rheumatism. Lake Urmia is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Rheumatism or Rheumatic disorder is a non-specific term for medical problems affecting the heart, bones, joints, kidney, skin and lung. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Urmia Lake islands

Satellite image of Lake Urmia, taken in November 2003, the bisctioning of the lake (due to construction of the bridge) is visible in the center of the lake.
Satellite image of Lake Urmia, taken in November 2003, the bisctioning of the lake (due to construction of the bridge) is visible in the center of the lake.
A small island in Urmia Lake.
A small island in Urmia Lake.

Lake Urmia has 102 islands. Their names are as follows: (For a Persian transcription of this list see this link). Download high resolution version (504x768, 48 KB)Lake Urmia from a NASA satellite image [1] . File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (504x768, 48 KB)Lake Urmia from a NASA satellite image [1] . File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...


Arezu, Ashk, Espir, Kabudan, Shahi (Eslami), Espiro, Espirak, Azin, Mehr, Mehran, Mehrdad, Borzu, Borz, Siyavash, Siyah-Tappeh, Tanjeh, Tanjak, Bon-Ashk, Ashksar, Ashku, Chak-Tappeh, Day, Magh, Meydan, Cheshmeh-kenar, Miyaneh, Samani, Azar, Sangan, Sangu, Tak, Jowzar, Jovin, Jodarreh, Sepid, Bastvar, Zirabeh, Bahram, Gorz, Ardeshir, Nahid, Penhan, Shahin, Kenarak, Zartappeh, Khersak, Naviyan, Omid, Garivak, Gordeh, Giv, Kalsang, Golgun, Aram, Panah, Kariveh, Zagh, Meshkin, Sahran, Pishva, Kam, Kameh, Sorush, Sorkh, Shabdiz, Nakhoda, Kuchek-Tappeh, Tus, Borzin, Arash, Atash, Siyah-sang, Karkas, Shurtappeh, Navi, Nahoft, Shush-Tappeh, Iran-Nezhad, Shamshiran, Mahdis, Kakayi-e Bala, Kakayi-ye Miyaneh, Kakayi-e Pain, Takht, Takhtan, Markid, Kaveh, Mahvar, Nadid, Kaman, Zarkaman, Zarkanak, Nahan, Bard, Bardin, Bardak, Tir, Tashbal, Sarijeh, Bon, Kafchehnok.


(List from: Farahang-e Joghrafiyayi-e shahrestânhâ-ye Keshvar (Shahrestân-e Orumiyeh), Tehran 1379 Hs).


References

  1. ^ The Armenians By Elizabeth Redgate, A. E. (Anne Elizabeth) Redgate, 1998, see page 12
  2. ^ The Ancient Orient: An Introduction to the Study of the Ancient Near East By Donald G. Schley, Wolfram von Soden , 1994, see page 122

Basin Rivers

  • Aji Chai
  • Ghaie Chay
  • Alamlou Chay
  • Leylan Chay
  • Zarrineh Rud
  • Simineh Rud
  • Gadar Chay
  • Mahabad Chay
  • Barandouz Chay
  • Shahar Chay
  • Nazlou Chay
  • Rozeh Chay
  • Zola Chay

[1] [2] Aji Chai or Talkheh Rud (Persian: ‎) is river in the East Azerbaijan River. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Saline Systems | Full text | Hydrogeochemistry of seasonal variation of Urmia Salt Lake, Iran (5515 words)
Urmia Lake, geochemically, is highly uniform both to the south and north of the causeway, in both the surface and deep brines.
Bathymetry of the lake, determined during sampling, indicates that the depth of the lake in the southern part is shallower, deepening toward the north (figure 7).
No preferential elevated zone was observed in the lake due to rapid circulation, accelerated by huge amounts of water that flow from all the sides to the lake during the spring (figures 9.3 and 10.3).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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