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Encyclopedia > Lake Toba
Lake Toba
Landsat photo
Location North Sumatra, Indonesia
Coordinates 2°37′N, 98°49′E
Lake type Volcanic/ tectonic
Primary outflows Asahan River
Basin countries Indonesia
Max length 100 km
Max width 30 km
Surface area 1,130 km²
Max depth 505 m[1]
Water volume 240 km³
Surface elevation 905 m
Islands Samosir

Lake Toba (Indonesian: Danau Toba) is a lake, 100 km long and 30 km wide, and 505 m. (1,666 ft.) at its deepest point, in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra with a surface elevation of about 900 m (3,000 feet), stretching from 2.88° N 98.52° E to 2.35° N 99.1° E. It is the largest volcanic lake in the world.[citation needed] Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia - Landsat satellite photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... The Landsat program is the longest running enterprise for acqusition of imagery of Earth from space. ... Map of North Sumatra province within Indonesia North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... Blowdown Lake in the mountains near Pemberton, British Columbia A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... Samosir is a large volcanic island in Lake Toba. ... Blowdown Lake in the mountains near Pemberton, British Columbia A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ...

Contents

Geology

In 1949 the Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen reported that Lake Toba was surrounded by a layer of ignimbrite rocks, and that it was a large volcanic caldera. Later researchers found rhyolite ash similar to that in the ignimbrite around Toba (now called Young Toba Tuff to distinguish it from layers deposited in previous explosions) in Malaysia and India, 3,000 km away. Oceanographers discovered Toba ash, with its characteristic chemical "fingerprint", on the floor of the eastern Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... Reinout Willem van Bemmelen (April 14, 1904 Batavia (Dutch East Indies) - November 19, 1983 Unterpirkach (Austria)) was a Dutch geologist. ... Ignimbrite is a volcanic pyroclastic rock, often of dacitic or rhyolitic composition. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Rhyolite This page is about a volcanic rock. ... Welded tuff at Golden Gate in Yellowstone National Park Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The eruption

Location of Lake Toba shown in red on map.
Location of Lake Toba shown in red on map.

The Toba eruption (the Toba event) occurred at what is now Lake Toba about 71,500 ± 4000 years ago. It had an estimated Volcanic Explosivity Index of 8 (described as "mega-colossal"), making it possibly the largest explosive volcanic eruption within the last twenty-five million years. Bill Rose and Craig Chesner of Michigan Technological University deduced that the total amount of erupted material was about 2800 cubic km (670 cubic miles) — around 2,000 km³ of ignimbrite that flowed over the ground and around 800 km³ that fell as ash, with the wind blowing most of it to the west. By contrast, the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens ejected around 1.2 cubic km of material, whilst the largest volcanic eruption in historic times, at Mount Tambora in 1815, emitted the equivalent of around 100 cubic kilometres of dense rock and created the "Year Without a Summer" as far away as North America. Eruption column rising, Mount Redoubt, Alaska According to the Toba catastrophe theory, modern human evolution was affected by a recent, large volcanic event. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... William I. Rose is a professor of minerology, petrology and meteorology at Michigan Technological University. ... Michigan Technological University (abbr. ... Ignimbrite is a volcanic pyroclastic rock, often of dacitic or rhyolitic composition. ... The 1980 eruption of Mount St. ... Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Development of global average temperatures during the last 1000 years. ...


The Toba eruption was the latest of a series of at least three caldera-forming eruptions which have occurred at the volcano. Earlier calderas were formed around 700,000 and 840,000 years ago.[2] Satellite image of Santorini. ...


To give an idea of its magnitude, consider that although the eruption took place in Indonesia, it deposited an ash layer approximately 15 cm (6 in) thick over the entire Indian subcontinent; at one site in central India, the Toba ash layer today is up to 6 m (20 feet) thick[3] and parts of Malaysia were covered with 9 m of ashfall.[4] In addition it has been calculated that 1010 metric tons of sulphuric acid was ejected into the atmosphere by the event, causing acid rain fallout.[5] Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The term acid rain or more accurately acid precipitation is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, dew, or dry particles. ...

Landsat photo of Sumatra surrounding Lake Toba
Landsat photo of Sumatra surrounding Lake Toba

The subsequent collapse formed a caldera that, after filling with water, created Lake Toba. The island in the center of the lake is formed by a resurgent dome. Download high resolution version (843x610, 113 KB)Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia - Landsat satellite photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... Download high resolution version (843x610, 113 KB)Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia - Landsat satellite photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... The Landsat program is the longest running enterprise for acqusition of imagery of Earth from space. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... In geology, a resurgent dome is a volcanic dome that is swelling or rising due to movement in the magma chamber. ...


Though the year can never be precisely determined, the season can: only the summer monsoon could have deposited Toba ashfall in the South China Sea, implying that the eruption took place sometime during the northern summer.[6] The eruption lasted perhaps two weeks, but the ensuing "volcanic winter" resulted in a decrease in average global temperatures by 3 to 3.5 degrees Celsius for several years. Greenland ice cores record a pulse of starkly reduced levels of organic carbon sequestration. Very few plants or animals in southeast Asia would have survived, and it is possible that the eruption caused a planet-wide die-off. There is some evidence, based on mitochondrial DNA, that the human race may have passed through a genetic bottleneck within this timeframe, reducing genetic diversity below what would be expected from the age of the species. According to the Toba catastrophe theory proposed by Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1998, human populations may have been reduced to only a few tens of thousands of individuals by the Toba eruption. Bold text[[ // [[Image:Media:Example. ... Ice Core sample taken from drill. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... Eruption column rising, Mount Redoubt, Alaska According to the Toba catastrophe theory, modern human evolution was affected by a recent, large volcanic event. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest and largest campus in the University of Illinois system. ...


More recent activity

Children playing in Lake Toba
Children playing in Lake Toba

Smaller eruptions have occurred at Toba since. The small cone of Pusukbukit has formed on the southwestern margin of the caldera and lava domes. The most recent eruption may have been at Tandukbenua on the northwestern caldera edge, since the present lack of vegetation could be due to an eruption within the last few hundred years.[7] Download high resolution version (480x640, 42 KB)Kids Playing in the Lake Toba Took while i was traveling in Sumatra Indonesia, more pictures of Sumatra and Toba Lake can be found here : http://www. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 42 KB)Kids Playing in the Lake Toba Took while i was traveling in Sumatra Indonesia, more pictures of Sumatra and Toba Lake can be found here : http://www. ...


Some parts of the caldera have experienced uplift due to partial refilling of the magma chamber, for example pushing Samosir Island and the Uluan Peninsula above the surface of the lake. The lake sediments on Samosir Island show that it has been uplifted by at least 450 metres[8] since the cataclysmic eruption. Such uplifts are common in very large calderas, apparently due to the upward pressure of unerupted magma. Toba is probably the largest resurgent caldera on Earth. Large earthquakes have occurred in the vicinity of the volcano more recently, notably in 1987 along the southern shore of the lake at a depth of 11 km.[9] Other earthquakes have occurred in the area in 1892, 1916, and 1920-1922.[10] A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further. ... Samosir is a large volcanic island in Lake Toba. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


Lake Toba lies near a fault line which runs along the centre of Sumatra called the Sumatra Fracture Zone.[11] The volcanoes of Sumatra and Java are part of the Sunda Arc, a result of the northeasterly movement of the Indo-Australian Plate which is sliding under the eastward-moving Eurasian Plate. The subduction zone in this area is very active: the seabed near the west coast of Sumatra has had several major earthquakes since 1995, including the 9.3 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and the 8.7 2005 Sumatra earthquake, the epicenters of which were around 300 km from Toba. Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ...  The Indo-Australian plate, shown in dull orange The Indo-Australian Plate is an overarching name for two tectonic plates that include the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean extending northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Epicentre map from NOAA USGS image depicting earthquake zones for the Sunda Trench - Damage zones for 1833 and 1861, then 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, and 28 March 2005 Sumatran earthquake. ...


On September 12th, 2007, a magnitude 8.4 Earthquake shook the ground by Sumatra and was felt in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. The epicenter for this earthquake was not as close as the previous two earthquakes, but it was in the same vicinity.


People

Toba House
Toba House

Most of the people who live around Lake Toba are ethnically Bataks. Traditional Batak houses are noted for their distinctive roofs (which curve upwards at each end, as a boat's hull does) and their colorful decor. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 856 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo when i visited Lake Toba I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 856 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photo when i visited Lake Toba I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Batak (disambiguation). ...


See also

Eruption column rising, Mount Redoubt, Alaska According to the Toba catastrophe theory, modern human evolution was affected by a recent, large volcanic event. ... A supervolcano refers to a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruption on Earth. ... Lake Maninjau This is a list of the notable lakes of Indonesia. ... Major volcanoes in Indonesia This is a list of volcanoes in Indonesia. ... A disaster is a natural or man-made event that negatively affects life, property, livelihood or industry, often resulting in permanent changes to human societies, ecosystems and environment. ... Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is the consequence of a natural hazard (e. ...

References

  1. ^ Worldlakes.org
  2. ^ http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeast_asia/indonesia/toba.html
  3. ^ Acharyya S.K., and Basu P.K. 1992. "Toba ash on the Indian subcontinent and its implications for correlation of late pleistocene alluvium." Quaternary Research 40:10-19
  4. ^ Scrivenor, J.B. 1931. The Geology of Malaya (London: MacMillan), noted by Weber.
  5. ^ Huang C.Y., Zhao M.X., Wang C.C., and Wei G.J. 2001. "Cooling of the South China Sea by the Toba eruption and correlation with other climate proxies ca. 71,000 years ago." Geophysical Research Letters 28:3915-3918, noted by Weber.
  6. ^ Bühring C., and Sarnthein M. 2000. "Toba ash layers in the South China Sea: evidence of contrasting wind directions during eruption ca. 74 ka." Geology 28:275-278.
  7. ^ http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volcano-tours/volcanoes/indonesia/sumatra/toba/
  8. ^ http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeast_asia/indonesia/toba.html
  9. ^ http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/eqarchives/significant/sig_1987.php
  10. ^ http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeast_asia/indonesia/toba.html
  11. ^ http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeast_asia/indonesia/toba.html
  • Rampino, Michael R. and Stephen Self (1993). "Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of 74,000 Years Ago". Quaternary Research 40 (3): 269-280. DOI:10.1038/359050a0. 
  • Vazquez, Jorge A. and Mary R. Reid (2004). "Probing the accumulation history of the voluminous Toba Magma". Science 305 (5686): 991-994. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Indonesia Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lake Toba - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (332 words)
Lake Toba is a large lake, 100 km long and 30 km wide, in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
In 1949 the Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen reported that Lake Toba was surrounded by a layer of ignimbrite rocks, and was a large volcanic caldera.
Oceanographers discovered Toba ash on the floor of the eastern Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal.
Toba - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (147 words)
The city of Toba in the Mie prefecture, Japan.
Lake Toba, a lake in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, and site of a devastating volcanic eruption 75,000 years ago; and the Toba catastrophe theory, according to which modern human evolution was affected by this event.
Toba, a Java-to-C translator developed in University of Arizona, which supports Java 1.1 and no later versions.
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