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Encyclopedia > Lake Tanganyika
Lake Tanganyika
map
Coordinates 6°30′S 29°30′ECoordinates: 6°30′S 29°30′E
Lake type Rift Valley Lake
Primary sources Ruzizi River
Malagarasi River
Kalambo River
Primary outflows Lukuga River
Catchment area 231,000 km²
Basin countries Burundi
The DRC
Tanzania
Zambia
Max length 673 km
Max width 50km / 72km
Surface area 32,900 km²
Average depth 570m
Max depth 1,470m
Water volume 18,900 km³
Shore length1 1,828 km
Surface elevation 773m[1]
Settlements Kigoma, Tanzania
Kalemie, DRC
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20' to 8° 48' South and from 29° 5' to 31° 15' East). It is estimated to be the second largest freshwater lake in the world by volume, and the second deepest, in both cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia.[2] The lake is divided between four countries – Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Tanzania and Zambia, with the DRC (45%) and Tanzania (41%) possessing the majority of the lake. The water flows into the Congo River system and ultimately into the Atlantic Ocean. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (728x1373, 493 KB) Map of Lake Tanganyika Bounding box West 28°, South -9. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Blowdown Lake in the mountains near Pemberton, British Columbia A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ruzizi River flows from Lake Kivu to Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa. ... The Kalambo River lies on the border between Zambia and Tanzania. ... The Lualaba is the headstream of the Congo River, running from the vicinity of Lubumbashi north to Kisangani, where the Congo officially begins. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Motto Justice – Paix – Travail(French) Justice – Peace – Work Anthem Debout Congolais Capital (and largest city) Kinshasaa Official languages French Government Semi-Presidential Republic  -  President Joseph Kabila  -  Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga Independence  -  from Belgium June 30, 1960  Area  -  Total 2,344,858 km² (12th) 905,351 sq mi   -  Water (%) 3. ... (Redirected from 1 E10 m2) To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Kigoma is a town in western Tanzania, on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika and close to the border with Burundi. ... Kalemie, fomerly Alberville, is a town on the western shore of Lake Tanganyika in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... Blowdown Lake in the mountains near Pemberton, British Columbia A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Lakes with a water volume over 100 km3, listed by volume. ... Worlds deepest lakes by maximum depth. ... Lake Baikal (Russian: , pronounced ; Buryat and Mongol: Dalai-Nor) lies in Southern Siberia in Russia between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and Buryatia to the southeast near the city of Irkutsk. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ...

Contents

Geography

The lake is situated within the Western Rift of the Great Rift Valley and is confined by the mountainous walls of the valley. It is the largest rift lake in Africa and the second largest lake by surface area on the continent. It is the deepest lake in Africa and holds the greatest volume of fresh water. It extends for 673 km in a general north-south direction and averages 50 km in width. The lake covers 32,900 km², with a shoreline of 1,828km and a mean depth of 570 m and a maximum depth of 1,470 m (4,823 ft) (in the northern basin) it holds an estimated 18,900 km³ (4500 cubic miles).[3] It has an average surface temperature of 25°C and a pH averaging 8.4. Additionally, beneath the 500m of water there is circa 4,500 metres of sediment overlaying the rock floor. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... To help compare the orders of magnitude of different volumes, here is a list of volumes between 1012 m3 and 1015 m3. ... The correct title of this article is . ...


The enormous depth and tropical location of the lake prevent 'turnover' of watermasses, which means that much of the lower depths of the lake are so-called 'fossil water' and are anoxic (lacking oxygen). The catchment area of the lake covers 231,000 km², with two main rivers flowing into the lake, numerous smaller rivers and streams (due to the steep mountains that keep drainage areas small), and one major outflow, the Lukuga River, which empties into the Congo River drainage. Fossil water is groundwater having remained in an aquifer for thousands or more years. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... The Lualaba is the headstream of the Congo River, running from the vicinity of Lubumbashi north to Kisangani, where the Congo officially begins. ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ...


The major inflows are the Ruzizi River, entering the north of the lake from Lake Kivu, and the Malagarasi River, which is Tanzania's second largest river, entering in the east side of Lake Tanganyika. The Malagarasi pre-dates Lake Tanganyika and was formerly continuous with the Congo river. The Ruzizi River flows from Lake Kivu to Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa. ... Lake Kivu is one of the Great Lakes of Africa. ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ...


Biology

Neolamprologus cylindricus: One of many cichlid fish species of Tanganyika
Neolamprologus cylindricus: One of many cichlid fish species of Tanganyika

The lake holds at least 250 species of cichlid fish and 150 non-cichlid species, most of which live along the shoreline down to a depth of approximately 600 feet. Lake Tanganyika is thus an important biological resource for the study of speciation in evolution.[4] [5] The largest biomass of fish, however, is in the pelagic zone (open waters) and is dominated by six species - two species of "Tanganyika sardine" and four species of predatory Lates (related to, but not the same as, the Nile Perch that has devastated Lake Victoria cichlids). Almost all (98%) of the Tanganyikan cichlid species are endemic (exclusively native) to the lake and many, such as fish from the brightly coloured Tropheus genus, are prized within the aquarium trade. This kind of elevated endemism occurs among the numerous invertebrates in the lake, most especially the molluscs (which possess similar forms to that of many marine molluscs), crabs, shrimps, copepods, jellyfishes, leeches, etc. Image File history File links Neolamprologus_cylindricus. ... Image File history File links Neolamprologus_cylindricus. ... Genera Cichlids (pronounced “sick-lids”) are fishes from the family Cichlidae in the order Perciformes. ... The Tanganyika sardine is really two species (Limnothrissa miodon and Stolothrissa tanganicae) both of which are small, planktivorous, pelagic, freshwater clupeid originating from Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. ... Lake Victoria and the Great Rift Valley Lake Victoria height variation The lake as seen from space, looking west, with other members of the African Great Lakes forming an arc in the middle distance. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Tropheus is a small genus of six species of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. ...


Industry

Fishermen on Lake Tanganyika
Fishermen on Lake Tanganyika
Lake Tanganyika from space, June 1985
Lake Tanganyika from space, June 1985

It is estimated that 25–40% of the protein in the diet of the people living around the lake comes from lake fish,[6] and that population amounts to around one million.[citation needed] Currently there are around 100,000 people directly involved in the fisheries operating from almost 800 sites. The lake is also vital to the estimated 10 million people living in the basin.[7] Fisherman on Lake Tanganyika, Mishemba Bay, Zambia. ... Fisherman on Lake Tanganyika, Mishemba Bay, Zambia. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (639x639, 142 KB) Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania, Zaire and Zambia - June 1985 image description here File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (639x639, 142 KB) Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania, Zaire and Zambia - June 1985 image description here File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Lake Tanganyika fish can be found exported throughout East Africa. Commercial fishing began in the mid-1950s and has had an extremely heavy impact on the pelagic fish species, in 1995 the total catch was around 180,000 tonnes. Former industrial fisheries, which boomed in the 1980s, have subsequently collapsed.


Transport

There are two ferries which carry passengers and cargo along the eastern shore of the lake - the MV Liemba between Kigoma and Mpulungu and the MV Mwongozo, which runs between Kigoma and Bujumbura. The MV Liemba, formerly the Graf von Götzen, is a passenger ferry which runs along the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. ... A mixed passenger / cargo ship on Lake Tanganyika. ...

Kigoma is a town in western Tanzania, on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika and close to the border with Burundi. ... A Railhead is a terminus of a railway line that interfaces with another tranport mode, for example shipping. ... Dar es Salaam (دار السلام), formerly Mzizima, is the largest city (pop. ... Kalemie, fomerly Alberville, is a town on the western shore of Lake Tanganyika in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... A Railhead is a terminus of a railway line that interfaces with another tranport mode, for example shipping. ...

History

The first known Europeans to find the lake were the explorers Richard Burton and John Speke, in 1858. They located it while searching for the source of the Nile River. Speke continued and found the actual source, Lake Victoria. Richard Burton, portrait by Frederic Leighton, National Portrait Gallery, London. ... John Hanning Speke (May 4, 1827-September 15, 1864) was an officer in the British Indian army, who made three voyages of exploration to Africa. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... Lake Victoria and the Great Rift Valley Lake Victoria height variation The lake as seen from space, looking west, with other members of the African Great Lakes forming an arc in the middle distance. ...


World War I

The Lake was the scene of two famous battles during World War One. Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany Commanders Jan Smuts Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck Strength 40,000 15,500 // Introduction German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda) was a large territory with complex geography (including the massive Rift Valley and Lake Victoria). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


With the aid of the Graf von Götzen (named after Count Gustav Adolf Graf von Götzen), the former governor of German East Africa, the Germans had complete control of the lake in the early stages of the war. The ship was used both to ferry cargo and personnel across the lake, and as a base from which to launch surprise attacks on Allied troops.[8] Count Gustav Adolf Graf von Götzen (12 May 1866 — 2 December 1910) was a German explorer and Governor of German East Africa. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ...


It therefore became essential for the Allied forces to gain control of the lake themselves. Under the command of Geoffrey Spicer-Simson the Royal Navy achieved the monumental task of bringing two armed motor boats Mimi and Toutou from England to the lake by rail, road and river to Kalemie on the western shore of Lake Tanganyika. The two boats waited until December 1915, and mounted a surprise attack on the Germans, with the capture of the gunboat Kingani. Another German vessel, the Hedwig, was sunk in February 1916, leaving the Götzen as the only German vessel remaining to control the lake.[8] Geoffrey Spicer-Simson was a Commander in the Royal Navy. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Geoffrey Spicer-Simson was a Commander in the Royal Navy. ... Kalemie, fomerly Alberville, is a town on the western shore of Lake Tanganyika in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ...


As a result of their strengthened position on the lake, the Allies started advancing towards Kigoma by land, and the Belgians established an airbase on the western shore at Albertville. It was from there, in June 1916, that they launched a bombing raid on German positions in and around Kigoma. It is unclear whether or not the Götzen was hit (the Belgians claimed to have hit it but the Germans denied this), but German morale suffered and the ship was subsequently stripped of its gun since it was needed elsewhere.[8] Kalemie, fomerly Alberville, is a town on the western shore of Lake Tanganyika in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ...


The war on the lake had reached a stalemate by this stage, with both sides refusing to mount attacks. However, the war on land was progressing, largely to the advantage of the Allies, who cut off the railway link in July 1916 and threatened to isolate Kigoma completely. This led the German commander, Gustav Zimmer, to abandon the town and head south. In order to avoid his prize ship falling into Allied hands, Zimmer scuttled the vessel on July 26 1916. The vessel was later resurrected and renamed as the MV Liemba (see transport).[8] The MV Liemba, formerly the Graf von Götzen, is a passenger ferry which runs along the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. ...


Che Guevara

Main article: Che Guevara

In 1965 Argentinian revolutionary Che Guevara used the western shores of Lake Tanganyika as a training camp for guerrilla forces in the Congo. From his camp, Che and his forces attempted to overthrow the government, but ended up pulling out in less than a year since the National Security Agency (NSA) had been monitoring him the entire time and aided government forces in ambushing his guerrillas. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14,[1] 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che or just Che was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, medical doctor , political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14,[1] 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che or just Che was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, medical doctor , political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Lieutenant General Keith B. Alexander, 16th and current director of the NSA (2005–). The National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is the United States governments cryptologic organization that was officially established on November 4, 1952. ...


Recent history

In 1992 Lake Tanganyika featured in the documentary series 'Pole to Pole'. The BBC documentarian Michael Palin stayed onboard the MV Liemba and travelled across the lake.[9] Pole to Pole is a book and documentary, released in 1992, narrated by Michael Palin. ... Michael Edward Palin, CBE (born 5 May 1943) is an English comedian, actor, writer and television presenter best known for being one of the members of the comedy group Monty Python and for his travel documentaries. ... The MV Liemba, formerly the Graf von Götzen, is a passenger ferry which runs along the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. ...


Since 2004 the lake has been the focus of a massive Water and Nature Initiative by the IUCN. The project is scheduled to take 5 years at a total cost of US$ 27 million. The initiative is attempting to monitor the resources and state of the lake, set common criteria for acceptable level of sediments, pollution, and water quality in general, and design and establish a lake basin management authority.[10] The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...


The lake has also been a place where man eating crocidile Gustave, has been know to hide out. Gustave has killed many humans over the years and many scientists are interested in studying him.http://www.nationalgeographic.com/adventure/news/gustave-primeval/article.html


See also

Location of earthquake Workers in Nairobi were quick to rush to safety when the quake hit. ... The Great Lakes of Africa are a series of lakes in and around the Great Rift Valley. ... // This list of major or noteworthy lakes is sorted alphabetically by continent. ... Lakes with a surface area of more than 4,000 km², listed by area. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Primeval is a 2007 adventure/thriller film, written by John D. Brancato and Michael Ferris and directed by Michael Katleman. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.ilec.or.jp/database/afr/afr-06.html
  2. ^ http://www.zambiatourism.com/travel/places/tanganyi.htm
  3. ^ http://www.ilec.or.jp/database/afr/dafr06.html
  4. ^ Kornfield, Ivy & Smith, Peter A. African Cichlid Fishes: Model Systems for Evolutionary Biology, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Vol. 31: 163-196, Nov. 2000
  5. ^ http://www.zambiatourism.com/travel/places/tanganyi.htm
  6. ^ http://www.mongabay.com/external/lake_tanganyika_warming.htm
  7. ^ http://www.iucn.org/themes/wani/1e.html
  8. ^ a b c d Giles Foden: Mimi and Toutou Go Forth — The Bizarre Battle for Lake Tanganyika, Penguin, 2004.
  9. ^ http://www.palinstravels.co.uk/
  10. ^ http://www.iucn.org/themes/wani/1e.html

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lake Tanganyika
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lake Tanganyika - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (718 words)
Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20' to 8° 48' South and from 29° 5' to 31° 15' East).
The lake is divided between four countries – Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Tanzania and Zambia, with the DRC (45%) and Tanzania (41%) possessing the majority of the lake.
The lake covers 32,900 km², with a shoreline of 1,828km and a mean depth of 570 m and a maximum depth of 1,470 m (in the northern basin) it holds an estimated 18,900 km³.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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