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Encyclopedia > Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Seen from near Wolcott, New York
Coordinates 43°30′N 78°00′WCoordinates: 43°30′N 78°00′W
Primary sources Niagara River
Primary outflows St. Lawrence River
Basin countries Canada, USA
Max length 311 km
Max width 85 km
Surface area 7,540 square miles (18,529 km²)[1]
Average depth 86 m
Max depth 802 feet (244 m)[1]
Water volume 1,639 km³
Residence time (of lake water) 6 years
Shore length1 1,146 km
Surface elevation 246 feet (75 m)[1]
Settlements Toronto, Ontario, Rochester, New York
1 Shore length is an imprecise measure which may not be standardized for this article.

Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontario's Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. Lake Ontario Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 02:59, 13 Mar 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wolcott, New York is the name of two places in Wayne County, New York: Village of Wolcott Town of Wolcott See also Wolcott for other places named Wolcott. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A residence time is the average time a substance spends within a specified region of space, such as a reservoir. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... Nickname: Motto: Rochester: Made for Living Location of Rochester in New York State Country United States State New York County Monroe Government  - Mayor Robert Duffy Area  - City  37. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... The Niagara Peninsula is the portion of Ontario, Canada lying on the south shore of Lake Ontario. ... NY redirects here. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...

Contents

Name

The name of the lake is derived from ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake".[2] The Canadian province of Ontario was later named after the lake. Wyandot is the Iroquoian language traditionally spoken by the people known variously as Wyandot, Wendat, or Huron. ...


Previous to its current name, the lake was identified in some maps under different names. In a map drawn in the Relation des Jésuites (1662-1663), the lake has the legend "Lac Ontario ou des Iroquois" and in smaller type "Ondiara". A French map produced in 1712 (currently in the Canadian Museum of Civilization), created by military engineer Jean-Baptiste de Couagne, identified Lake Ontario as "Lac Frontenac".


Geography

Lake Ontario (43°30'N, 78°00'W) is the eastern-most and smallest in surface area (7,540 square miles, 19,529 km²)[1] of the Great Lakes, although it exceeds Lake Erie in volume (393 cubic miles, 1639 km³). It is the 14th largest lake in the world and has a shoreline 712 miles (1146 km) long. Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the eleventh largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, it is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... the hoff is cool ...


Lake Ontario has an elevation of 246 feet (75 m)[1] above sea level. Its length is 193 miles (311 km), and its breadth is 53 miles (85 km). The average depth is 283 feet (86 m), with a maximum depth of 802 feet (244 m).[1]

Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes
Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes

Its primary inlet is the Niagara River (from Lake Erie) and primary outlet is the St. Lawrence River. Other major rivers which flow into it include the Don River; Humber River; Trent River; the Cataraqui River; the Genesee River; the Oswego River; the Black River; and the Salmon River. Other notable geographic features include Hamilton Harbour, the Bay of Quinte, the Toronto Islands, and the Thousand Islands. The Bay of Quinte separates most of Prince Edward County from the north shore except for a 2 mile (3km) stretch of land connecting it to the mainland. The largest island on the lake is Wolfe Island located near Kingston at St. Lawrence River entrance. It is accessed by ferries from both Canada and the U.S. Image File history File links Great_Lakes_Lake_Ontario. ... Image File history File links Great_Lakes_Lake_Ontario. ... Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The river as it runs beneath the Bloor/Danforth trestle bridge The Don River is one of two rivers bounding the original settled area of Toronto, Canada along the shore of Lake Ontario, the other being the Humber River to the west. ... The Humber, as seen from a point near the northern border of Toronto. ... The Trent River is a river in southeastern Ontario which flows from Rice Lake to empty into the Bay of Quinte on Lake Ontario. ... The Cataraqui River (pronounced ka-tah-RAH-kway) forms the lower portion of the Rideau Canal in Canada. ... Upper Genesee near Belmont, New York, a series of pools and riffles The Middle Falls of the Genesee in Letchworth State Park The Genesee Rivers name is derived from the Iroquois meaning good valley or pleasant valley. ... The Oswego River is a river in upstate New York in the United States of America. ... The Black River is a river that empties into the eastern end of Lake Ontario on the shore of Jefferson County, New York in the United States of America. ... The Salmon River arises in north central New York State on the Tug Hill Plateau to the east of Lake Ontario. ... Burlington Bay, also known as Hamilton Harbour, is a branch of Lake Ontario bounded on the northwest by the City of Burlington, on the south by the City of Hamilton, and on the east by Hamilton Beach (south of the Skyway Bridge) and Burlington Beach (north of the channel). ... The Bay of Quinte is on the northern shore of Lake Ontario. ... Toronto Islands as seen from CN Tower. ... Sunset over one of the smallest islands. ... Prince Edward County may refer to: Prince Edward County, Virginia Prince Edward County, Ontario, Canada This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wolfe Island may refer to: in Canada, Wolfe Island in Lake Ontario Wolfe Island in the Atlantic off Nova Scotia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel. ...


A portion of the Great Lakes Waterway passes through the lake, which is accessible from upstream by the Welland Canal and from downstream by the St. Lawrence Seaway. The Trent-Severn Waterway for pleasure boats connects Lake Ontario at the Bay of Quinte to Georgian Bay of Lake Huron passing through the inland Lake Simcoe. The Rideau Waterway, also for pleasure boats, connects Lake Ontario at Kingston to the Ottawa River at Ottawa. The Oswego Canal connects the lake at Oswego, NY to the New York State Canal System, with outlets to the Hudson River, Lake Erie, and Lake Champlain. The Great Lakes Waterway is a system of channels and canals that makes all of the Great Lakes accessible to oceangoing vessels. ... A ship transits the Welland Canal, with the Homer Lift Bridge and Garden City Skyway in background. ... The Saint Lawrence Seaway in its broadest sense (see Great Lakes Waterway) is the system of canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes as far as Lake Superior. ... Lock One on the Trent-Severn Waterway This article is not about the British company Severn Trent Water. ... Georgian Bay (French: baie Georgienne) is a large bay of Lake Huron, located in Ontario, Canada. ... Ipperwash Beach, Lake Huron. ... Lake Simcoe is a lake in southern Ontario, Canada, the fourth largest lake in the province. ... The Locks in Summer The Rideau Canal, also known as the Rideau Waterway, connects the city of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada on the Ottawa River to the city of Kingston, Ontario on Lake Ontario. ... This is about the river in Canada. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... The Oswego Canal is a canal in New York, USA. It is now part of the New York Barge Canal. ... Oswego is a city located in Oswego County, New York. ... The New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal) is a successor to the Erie Canal and other canals within New York. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the eleventh largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, it is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ...


A large conurbation called the Golden Horseshoe (including major cities of Toronto and Hamilton, Ontario) is on the Canadian side at the western end of the lake. Other centres on the Canadian side with ports include St. Catharines, Oshawa, Cobourg and Kingston near the St. Lawrence River inlet. Close to 9 million people or over a quarter of Canada's population lives within the watershed of Lake Ontario. A conurbation is an urban area comprising a number of cities, towns and villages which, through population growth and expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area. ... The skyline of Hamilton, Ontario The skyline of Toronto, Ontario. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - Representatives 5 MPs and 5 MPPs Area [2]  - City 1,138. ... Nickname: The Garden City Motto: Industry and Liberality Location of St. ... Oshawa (estimated 2004 population 150 000; metropolitan population 296 298) is a city on Lake Ontario located approximately 60 km east of downtown Toronto in Ontario, Canada. ... Cobourg (2001 population 17,172) is a town some 75 km east of Toronto. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel. ...


The American shore of the lake is largely rural, with the exception of Rochester, New York and the much smaller port at Oswego, New York. The city of Syracuse is not actually located on the lakeshore but 40 miles (65 km) inland but is connected to it by canal. Over 2 million people live in Lake Ontario's American watershed. Nickname: Motto: Rochester: Made for Living Location of Rochester in New York State Country United States State New York County Monroe Government  - Mayor Robert Duffy Area  - City  37. ... Nickname: The Salt City Location of Syracuse within the state of New York Coordinates: City Government  - Mayor Matthew Driscoll Area  - City 66. ...

A picture of the Toronto skyline viewed from across Lake Ontario (Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON).
A picture of the Toronto skyline viewed from across Lake Ontario (Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON).

A high-speed passenger/vehicle ferry service across Lake Ontario between Toronto and Rochester was launched on June 17, 2004, using the vessel Spirit of Ontario I. The service was officially canceled in January 2006 after losing money for two seasons. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 838 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Toronto skyline viewed from across Lake Ontario on a residential street in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 838 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Toronto skyline viewed from across Lake Ontario on a residential street in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Spirit of Ontario I is a high-speed catamaran passenger-vehicle ferry currently operating an 82 nautical mile (96 km) service on Lake Ontario linking the ports of Rochester, New York and Toronto, Ontario. ...


On the south shore, breezes off the cool lake tend to retard fruit bloom until the spring frost danger is past, and the area has become a major fruit growing area, with apples, cherries, pears, plums, and peaches grown in many commercial orchards on both sides of Rochester. The Canadian part of the south shore, known as the Niagara Peninsula is also a major fruit-growing and wine-making area located between Stoney Creek and Niagara-on-the-Lake. Apple varieties that tolerate a more extreme climate are grown on the lake's north shore, around Cobourg. This article is about the satellite APPLE. For the fruit apple, see Apple. ... Cherry tree redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Prune (fruit) be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... The Niagara Peninsula is the portion of Ontario, Canada lying on the south shore of Lake Ontario. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Stoney Creek was a municipality which is now part of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. ... Niagara-on-the-Lake in the Niagara Region Niagara-on-the-Lake Niagara-on-the-Lake (2001 population 13,839) is a town where the Niagara River meets Lake Ontario in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Cobourg (2001 population 17,172) is a town on Lake Ontario some 75 km east of Toronto. ...


Geology

The lake was carved out of soft, weak Silurian rocks by the Wisconsonian ice age glacier, which expanded the preglacial Ontarian River valley of approximately the same orientation. The material that was pushed southward was piled in central and western New York in the form of drumlins, kames, and moraines, which reorganized entire drainage systems. As the glacier retreated from New York, it still dammed the present St. Lawrence valley, so that the lake was at a higher level. This state is known as Lake Iroquois. During that time the lake drained through present-day Syracuse, New York into the Mohawk River. The old shoreline that was created during this lake stage can be easily recognized by the (now dry) beaches and wave-cut hills 10 to 25 miles (15 to 40 km) south of the present shoreline. The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... A glacier is a large, persistent body of ice, formed largely of compacted layers of snow, that slowly deforms and flows in response to gravity. ... The Ontarian River is the term used for the pre-glacial river that began the creation of the valley in Silurian age shales and limestones now occupied by Lake Ontario. ... NY redirects here. ... Drumlin in Cato, New York Drowned drumlin in Clew Bay Drumlin at Withrow Moraine and Jameson Lake Drumlin Field National Natural Landmark A drumlin (Irish droimnín, a little hill ridge) is an elongated whale-shaped hill formed by glacial action. ... A kame among the glacial drift on the terminal morraine of the Okanagon Lobe of the Cordilerion Glacier on the Waterville Plateau of the Columbia Plateau in Washington, United States. ... Moraine at Mono Lake, California, United States Moraines clearly seen on a side glacier of the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Glacial Lake Iroquois was a prehistoric proglacial lake that existed at the end of the last ice age approximately 13,000 years ago. ... Nickname: The Salt City Location of Syracuse within the state of New York Coordinates: City Government  - Mayor Matthew Driscoll Area  - City 66. ... The Mohawk River is a major waterway in north-central New York, United States. ... The Beach in Calella, Spain. ...

When the glacier finally melted from the St. Lawrence valley, the outlet was below sea level, and the lake became for a short time a bay of the ocean. Gradually the land rebounded from the release of the weight of about 6,500 feet (2000 m) of ice that had been stacked on it. It is still rebounding about 12 inches (30 cm) per century in the St. Lawrence area. Since the ice left that area last, that is the area where the most rapid rebound still is occurring. This means that the lake bed is gradually tilting southward, inundating the south shore and turning river valleys into bays. Both north and south shores have shoreline erosion, but the tilting amplifies this effect on the south shore, causing loss to property owners. Image File history File links Lake_Ontario_-_Sandbanks_Provincial_Park_2001. ... Image File history File links Lake_Ontario_-_Sandbanks_Provincial_Park_2001. ... Sandbanks Provincial Park The Sandbanks Provincial Park is a park at the Lake Ontario in Canada. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... The bay at San Sebastián, Spain A headland is an area of land adjacent to water on three sides. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Changes in the elevation of Lake Superior due to glaciation and post-glacial rebound Post-glacial rebound (sometimes called continental rebound, isostatic rebound or isostatic adjustment) is the rise of land masses that were depressed by the huge weight of ice sheets during the last ice age, through a process...

Lake Ontario and beach seen from Toronto, Ontario's Humber Bay, west of downtown
Lake Ontario and beach seen from Toronto, Ontario's Humber Bay, west of downtown

This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

History

The lake was a border between the Huron and their vassals and the Iroquois Confederacy in pre-European times. The first documented European to reach the lake was Étienne Brûlé in 1615. Artifacts which are believed to be of Norse origin have been found in the area, indicating possible earlier visits by Europeans, but as yet unproven. A series of trading posts was established by both the British and French, such as Fort Oswego in 1722 and Fort Rouillé 1750 (in Toronto). After the French and Indian War, all the forts were under British control. This remained the case even in the years following the American Revolution until the signing of the Jay Treaty in 1794, when forts on the U.S. side of lake became American. Permanent, non-military European settlement began during the American Revolution and occurred before the other great lakes. It became a hub of commercial activity following the War of 1812 with canal building on both sides of the border and was heavily traveled by lake steamers, which reached their peak activity in the mid-19th century before competition from railway lines. This article is about the First Nations people, the Wyandot, also known as the Huron. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Étienne Brûlé (c. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Fort Oswego was an important frontier post for British traders in the 18th century. ... Fort Rouillé was a French trading post located in Toronto, Ontario, which was established around 1750 but abandoned in 1759. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years War. ... The Treaty The Jay Treaty between the United States and Great Britain averted war, solved many issues left over from the Revolution, and opened ten years of peaceful trade in the midst of a large war. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... Combatants United States Britain Canadian militia Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels...


Ecology

Effects of the climate on the lake

The lake has a natural seiche rhythm of eleven minutes. The seiche effect normally is only about ¾ inches (2 cm) but can be greatly amplified by earth movement, winds, and atmospheric pressure changes. A seiche (pronounced saysh) or an underwater wave is a standing wave in a body of water. ...


Because of its great depth, the lake rarely freezes in winter. The winters of 1934 and 1976 were the only times the lake had ice cover within historic time.


When the cold winds of winter pass over the warmer water of the lake, they pick up moisture and drop it as lake effect snow. Since the prevailing winter winds are from the northwest, the southern and southeastern shoreline of the lake is referred to as the snowbelt. In some winters the area between Oswego and Pulaski may receive twenty or more feet (600 cm) of snowfall. Also impacted by lake effect snow is the Tug Hill Plateau, an area of elevated land that is about 20 miles to the east of Lake Ontario. Tug Hill's elevation, along with ample moisture from the lake, creates ideal conditions for snowfall. The "Hill", as it is often referred to, typically receives more snow than any other region in the eastern United States. As a result, Tug Hill is a popular location for winter enthusiasts, such as snowmobilers and cross-country skiers. The combination of lake-effect snow often reaches inland to Syracuse, which often takes the crown for the most winter snowfall accumulation of any city in the United States and, on average, receives more snow annually than any other major city in the world. Lake-effect precipitation coming off the Great Lakes, as seen from NEXRAD. Lake effect snow, which can be a type of snowsquall, is produced in the winter when cold, artic dry winds move across long expanses of warmer lake water, picking up water vapor which freezes and is deposited on... A snowbelt is a region, many of which lie downwind of the Great Lakes, where heavy snowfall is particularly common. ... Look up Oswego in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pulaski is a village located in Oswego County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 2,398. ... Nickname: The Salt City Location of Syracuse within the state of New York Coordinates: City Government  - Mayor Matthew Driscoll Area  - City 66. ...


The lake also produces microclimates, they have the effect of delaying the onset of fall frost (particularly on the south shore) allowing for tender fruit production in a continental climate. Cool onshore winds also retards early bloom of plants and flowers until later in the spring season, protecting them from possible frost damage. Foggy conditions (particularly in fall) can be created by thermal contrasts and can be an impediment for recreational boaters.


Environmental concerns

During modern times, the lake became heavily polluted from industrial chemicals, agricultural fertilizers, untreated sewage such as phosphates in laundry detergents, and chemicals. Some pollutant chemicals that have been found in the lake include DDT, benzo(a)pyrene and other pesticides; PCBs, aramite, lead, mirex, mercury, and carbon tetrachloride. It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (British English fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Sewage is the liquid water produced by human society which typically contains washing water, laundry waste, faeces, urine and other liquid or semi-liquid wastes. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... Laundry detergents are just only one of many possibilities of use of the detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is arguably the best known organic pesticide. ... Benzo[a]pyrene, C20H12, is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is mutagenic and highly carcinogenic. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see Pb. ... Mirex is a bait insecticide used against a large number of insect pests, with the chemical formula C10Cl12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Atomic mass 200. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point non flammable RTECS number FG4900000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


By the 1960s and 1970s the lake was dying, with frequent algal blooms occurring in summer. These blooms killed large numbers of fish, and left decomposing piles of filamentous algae and dead fish along the shores. At times the blooms became so thick that waves could not break. The lake now contains about 360 chemicals that have been identified, as well as many more unidentified chemical pollutants. The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... The algae (singular is alga) comprise several different groups of living things that produce energy through photosynthesis. ...


Since the 1960s and 1970s, environmental concerns have forced a cleanup of industrial and municipal wastes. Cleanup has been accomplished through better treatment plants and tighter environmental regulations: Phosphates were banned from detergents, and farm runoff was regulated more closely. Today, Lake Ontario has recovered much of its pristine quality. For example, walleye, a fish species considered as a marker of clean water, are now found. The lake has also become an important sports fishery, with introduced Coho and Chinook salmon now thriving there. The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Binomial name Sander vitreus (Mitchill, 1818) Subspecies S. v. ... A lobster boat unloading its catch in Ilfracombe harbour, North Devon, England. ... Binomial name Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum, 1792) The Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch - from the Russian Kisutch - кижуч) is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. ... Chinook has several meanings: The Chinookan nation of Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest, which inhabited the lower Columbia River valley in what is now Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia. ...


Invasive species are a problem for Lake Ontario, particularly lamprey and zebra mussels. Lamprey are being controlled by poisoning in the juvenile stage in the streams where they breed. Zebra mussels in particular are difficult to control, and pose major challenges for the lake and its waterways. Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Lamprey is also the name of a song by Jimmy Buffett and the name of an album by Bettie Serveert. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Trivia

  • A feature on Saturn's moon Titan, which may possibly be a sea of liquid methane, has been named Ontario Lacus after Lake Ontario and is of similar size.
  • Lake Ontario is the only Great Lake that does not border the state of Michigan.
  • In a normal winter, Lake Ontario will be at most one quarter ice-covered, in a mild winter almost completely unfrozen. Lake Ontario has completely frozen over on only two recorded occasions: during the winter of 1874-75, and in February 1934.
  • With a recharge rate of 1% per year, it takes the system 100 years to completely flush[3]

Note: This article contains special characters. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the second largest moon in the solar system,[4] after Jupiters moon Ganymede. ... Ontario Lacus is the dark feature at centre-left of this image of Titans south pole Ontario Lacus is a dark feature near the south pole of Saturns moon Titan. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Wright, John W. (ed.); Editors and reporters of The New York Times (2006). The New York Times Almanac, 2007, New York, New York: Penguin Books, 64. ISBN 0-14-303820-6. 
  2. ^ Mithun, Marianne (2000). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pg. 312
  3. ^ http://www.sierralegal.org/reports/bgr.great.lakes.sewage.nov.2006.pdf page 3. Sierra Legal - Advocates for the Environment, 2006

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lake Ontario
  • Lake Ontario Waterkeeper
  • EPA's Great Lakes Atlas
  • OpenStreetMap
  • http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-75-1390/science_technology/great_lakes_pollution/


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

North American Great Lakes
Lake Superior | Lake Michigan | Lake Huron | Lake Erie | Lake Ontario

  Results from FactBites:
 
Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (427 words)
Lake Ontario is the last of the chain of Great Lakes that straddle the Canada/United States border.
Lake Ontario is the smallest of the Great Lakes, with a surface area of 18,960 km2 (7,340 square miles), but it has the highest ratio of watershed area to lake surface area.
Wildlife: the perpetuation of a healthy, diverse, and self-sustaining wildlife community that utilizes the lake for habitat and/or food shall be ensured by attaining and sustaining the waters, coastal wetlands, and upland habitats of the Lake Ontario basin in sufficient quality and quantity.
Lake Ontario - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1448 words)
Lake Ontario (French: lac Ontario), bounded on the north by Ontario and on the south by Ontario's Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.
Lake Ontario is the eastern-most and smallest in surface area (7,340 sq.
By the 1960s and 1970s the lake was dying, with frequent algal blooms during the summer, which killed off large quantities of fish, and left stinking piles of filamentous algae and dead fish along the shores, at times becoming so thick that waves could not break.
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