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Encyclopedia > Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan - Landsat
Landsat
Coordinates 44° N 87° WCoordinates: 44° N 87° W
Basin countries United States
Max. length 307 mi (494 km)
Max. width 118 mi (190 km)
Surface area 22,400 sq mi (58,000 km²)[1]
Average depth 279 ft (85 m)
Max. depth 923 ft (281 m)[1]
Water volume 1,180 cu mi (4,900 km³)
Residence time (of lake water) 99 years
Shore length1 1,638 mi (2,636 km)
Surface elevation 577 ft (176 m) [1]
Islands see list
Settlements Milwaukee, Chicago, see article for others
References [1]
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. It is bounded, from west to east, by the U.S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan. The word "Michigan" was originally used to refer to the lake itself, and is believed to come from the Ojibwa Indian word mishigami, meaning "great water."[2] The lake is slightly larger than the country of Croatia. The Landsat program is the longest running enterprise for acqusition of imagery of Earth from space. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... A measure based on the volume of water in a lake and the mean rate of outflow. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... North American redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa or Anishinaabemowin in Eastern Ojibwe syllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). ...

Contents

Geography

Lake Michigan and the other Great Lakes
Lake Michigan and the other Great Lakes

Lake Michigan coor d|44|N|87|W is the only one of the Great Lakes wholly within the borders of the United States; the others are shared with Canada. It has a surface area of 22,400 square miles (58,016 km²),[1] making it the largest freshwater lake in the U.S., the largest lake entirely within one country by surface area (Lake Baikal, in Russia, is larger by water volume), and the fifth largest lake in the world. It is 307 miles (494 km) long by 118 miles (190 km) wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles (2,633 km) long. The lake's average depth is 279 feet (85 m), while its greatest depth is 923 feet (281 m).[1] It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles (4,918 km³) of water. Its surface averages 577 feet (176 m)[1] above sea level, the same as Lake Huron, to which it is connected through the Straits of Mackinac. Image File history File links Great_Lakes_Lake_Michigan. ... Image File history File links Great_Lakes_Lake_Michigan. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Ipperwash Beach, Lake Huron. ... The Straits of Mackinac, spanned by the Mackinac Bridge, seen from the southern shore View of the Straits from Mackinac Island The Straits of Mackinac (pronounced , like MACK-in-aw, note the silent c) is the strip of water that connects two of the Great Lakes, Lake Michigan and Lake...


Major cities

12 million people live along Lake Michigan's shores. Many small cities in Northern Michigan are centered on a tourist base that takes advantage of the beauty and recreational opportunities offered by Lake Michigan. These cities have large seasonal populations that arrive from Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit, and inland cities in Southern Michigan. The southern tip of the lake is heavily industrialized. Cities on the shores of Lake Michigan with populations larger than 30,000 include: Northern Michigan - or more properly Northern Lower Michigan - is a region of the U.S. state of Michigan, popular as a tourist destination, resort area, and vacation area. ... Tourist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Southern Michigan is a region in the Lower Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. ...

Illinois

Indiana For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Incorporated City in 1872. ... Incorporated City in 1869. ... North Chicago is a city located in Lake County, Illinois. ... Waukegan is a city in Lake County, Illinois, of which it is the county seat. ...

Michigan East Chicago is a city in Lake County, Indiana, opposite Chicago, Illinois. ... Gary redirects here. ... Location in the state of Indiana Coordinates: , Country State County Lake Incorporated 1884 Government  - Mayor Thomas McDermott, Jr. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Location in the state of Indiana Coordinates: , County Porter Area  - City 71. ...

Wisconsin Holland is a city in the western region of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... St. ... Benton Harbor is a city in Berrien County in the U.S. State of Michigan. ...

Green Bay is the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... Location of Kenosha within Wisconsin Coordinates: , Country State County Kenosha Settled 1836 Government  - Mayor John M. Antaramian Area  - City 24. ... Nickname: Location of Manitowoc in Manitowoc County, Wisconsin County Government  - Mayor Kevin M. Crawford(D) Area  - City 44. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... Racine is a city in Racine County, Wisconsin, United States, located beside Lake Michigan at the mouth of the Root River. ... Sheboygan is the county seat of Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, United States. ...

Beaches

Lake Michigan beaches, especially those in Michigan and Northern Indiana, are known for their beauty. The region is often referred to as the "Third Coast" of the United States, after those of the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The sand is soft and off-white, known as "singing sands" because of the squeaking noise (caused by high quartz content) made when one walks across it. There are often high sand dunes covered in green beach grass and sand cherries, and the water is usually clear and cold (between 55 and 70 °F [13 and 21 °C]) [1], even in late summer. Lake Michigan beaches in Northern Michigan are the only place in the world, aside from a few inland lakes in that region, where one can find Petoskey stones, the state stone. On 2002-03-04 05:17:10, Kazik uploaded file indiana_dunes. ... On 2002-03-04 05:17:10, Kazik uploaded file indiana_dunes. ... This article is about the sand formations, for other meanings see Dune (disambiguation) Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian (wind-related) processes. ... Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, a U.S. national lakeshore authorized by Congress in 1966, is located in Northwest Indiana. ... Third Coast is a term sometimes used in the United States for regions other than the East Coast and the West Coast, which are commonly seen as centers of American popular culture. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... Species Ammophila arenaria Ammophila breviligulata Marram Grass or Beach Grass is a genus of two species of grass growing almost exclusively on coastal sand dunes, where rhizomes on its extensive root system allow it to survive in a very harsh and windswept ecosystem. ... Binomial name L. Prunus pumila (Sand cherry) is a small shrub, native to eastern North America. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... The degree Celsius (symbol: °C) is an SI derived unit of temperature. ... Northern Michigan - or more properly Northern Lower Michigan - is a region of the U.S. state of Michigan, popular as a tourist destination, resort area, and vacation area. ... A Petoskey stone A Petoskey stone is a rock, often pebble-shaped, that is composed of a fossilized coral, Hexagonaria percarinata. ...

The Milwaukee Lakefront.

The beaches of the western coast and the northernmost part of the east coast are rocky, while the southern and eastern beaches are sandy and dune-covered. This is partly because of the prevailing winds from the west which also cause thick layers of ice to build up on the eastern shore in winter. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 401 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 401 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... This article is about sand formations. ...


Contrary to recent reports, Chicago annually imports fresh sand to replenish the popular city beaches (similar to Key West) but much of the city waterfront is parks, stone revetments, marinas or residential developments in the north or industrial sites in the south. (see Chicago beaches) Map of Key West Key West is a city located in Monroe County, Florida. ... Chicago has 31 lakefront beaches along Lake Michigan. ...


Some environmental problems still plague the lake. Steel mills are visible along the Indiana shoreline, and the pollution caused by these mills is believed to contribute to the color of sunsets. Also, the Chicago Tribune reported that BP is a major polluter, dumping thousands of pounds of ammonia and raw sludge into Lake Michigan every day from its Whiting, Indiana, oil refinery. [3] Steel Mill was one of Bruce Springsteens early bands and performed regularly on the Jersey Shore, in Virginia, and also in California from 1969 till January 1971. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ... This article is about the energy corporation. ... Whiting is a city in Lake County, Indiana, United States. ...


The Chicago skyline can be seen from the Indiana shore, but when standing on the beaches in Wisconsin or Lower Michigan, it is impossible to see across the lake, providing a view similar to that of the ocean. For other uses, see Skyline (disambiguation). ... Regions and major cities of the Lower Peninsula can be seen here. ...


Car ferries

People can cross Lake Michigan by the SS Badger, a ferry that runs from Manitowoc, Wisconsin, to Ludington, Michigan. The Lake Express is another ferry, established in 2004, which carries motorists across the lake between Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Muskegon, Michigan, at a much higher speed than the S.S. Badger. The SS Badger is a coal-fired car ferry that crosses Lake Michigan between Ludington, Michigan and Manitowoc, Wisconsin. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... Nickname: Location of Manitowoc in Manitowoc County, Wisconsin County Government  - Mayor Kevin M. Crawford(D) Area  - City 44. ... The Clock Tower Park. ... The Lake Express Lake Express is a high-speed auto and passenger ferry that is in service on a route across Lake Michigan. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Islands

A view of Iron Ore Bay on the southern end of Beaver Island. ... North Manitou Island is located in Lake Michigan, approximately 12 miles west of Leland, Michigan. ... South Manitou Island is located in Lake Michigan, approximately 21 miles west of Leland, Michigan. ... Washington Island is an island located about 7 miles northeast of the tip of Door Peninsula in Door County, Wisconsin. ... Rock Island is a wooded island off the tip of Wisconsins Door Peninsula at the mouth of the Bay of Green Bay. ...

Parks

The National Park Service maintains the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore and Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Part of the shoreline is within the Hiawatha National Forest and the Manistee National Forest. The Michigan Islands National Wildlife Refuge is within the lake. The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore is a U.S. national lakeshore located on the little finger of the lower peninsula of Michigan in Leelanau County and Benzie County. ... Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, a U.S. national lakeshore authorized by Congress in 1966, is located in Northwest Indiana. ... Road sign of the Hiawatha National Forest in Alger County Hiawatha National Forest is a National Forest in the Upper Peninsula of the state of Michigan in the United States. ... Huron-Manistee National Forests Proximity Map The Huron-Manistee National Forests are actually two forests combined in 1945 for administration purposes and comprise almost 1,000,000 acres (4,000 km²) of public lands, including 5,786 acres (23 km²) of wetlands, extending across the northern lower peninsula of Michigan. ... The Michigan Islands National Wildlife Refuge is a portmanteau designation for eight islands in the North American Great Lakes. ...


There are numerous state parks located on the shores of the lake or on islands within the lake.

Peninsula State Park is a 3,776 acre Wisconsin state park featuring nearly 7 miles of Lake Michigan shoreline in Door County. ... Holland State Park is located in the U.S. state of Michigan, in Park Township, Ottawa County, four miles west of the city of Holland. ... Grand Haven State Park is a state park in Michigan. ... P.J. Hoffmaster State Park is a state park along Lake Michigan located at the southwest corner of Norton Shores, Michigan in Muskegon County, Michigan. ... Ludington State Park is a state park in Michigan. ... Silver Lake State Park Off-Road Vehicle Area Map Test Hill Silver Lake State Park is a state park in Michigan, located on Lake Michigan near Mears, MI. It is compromised of over 2000 acres of sand dunes. ... Shoreline along the Northern Unit of Illinois Beach State Park Main beach in the Southern Unit of Illinois Beach State Park Illinois Beach State Park is part of the Illinois state park system and is located along Lake Michigan in northeast Illinois in the city of Zion and the Village... Indiana Dunes State Park is a 2,182 acre (8. ...

Lighthouses

This United States has hundreds of lighthouses as well as light towers, range lights, and pierhead lights. ... This United States has hundreds of lighthouses as well as light towers, range lights, and pierhead lights. ... This United States has hundreds of lighthouses as well as light towers, range lights, and pierhead lights. ... This United States has hundreds of lighthouses as well as light towers, range lights, and pierhead lights. ...

Geology

Geologically and hydrologically, Michigan and Huron are the same body of water (sometimes called Lake Michigan-Huron), but are geographically distinct. Counted together, it is the largest fresh water body in the world by surface area. The Mackinac Bridge is generally considered the dividing line between them. Both lakes are part of the Great Lakes Waterway. In earlier maps of the region, the name Lake Illinois has been found in place of "Michigan". The Great Lakes from space; the two-lobed Lake Michigan-Huron lies in the center Lake Michigan-Huron is a designation sometimes given to the body of water (part of the North American Great Lakes) customarily referred to as two separate lakes: Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. ... The Mackinac Bridge (pronounced , with a silent c), is a suspension bridge spanning the Straits of Mackinac to connect the non-contiguous Upper and Lower peninsulas of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... The Great Lakes Waterway is a system of channels and canals that makes all of the Great Lakes accessible to oceangoing vessels. ...


Ecology

Lake Michigan is home to a variety of species of fish and other organisms. It was originally home to lake trout, yellow perch, panfish, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, carp, bowfin, as well as some species of catfish. In recent years overfishing has caused a decline in lake trout which ultimately caused an increase in the alewife population. As a result, coho and chinook salmon were introduced as a predator of alewives to decrease the alewife population. Lake Michigan is now being stocked with several species of fish. However, several invader species introduced, such as lampreys, threaten the vitality of fish populations. For the band, see Lake Trout (band). ... For the unit of measurement, see pole. ... In the US, Panfish are fish that are small enough to fit whole into a skillet for cooking. ... Binomial name The largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is a species of fish in the sunfish family. ... Binomial name Micropterus dolomieu Lacépède, 1802 The smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) is a species of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of order Perciformes. ... Genera Abramis Aristichthys Barbodes Carassius Cirrhinus Ctenopharyngodon Cyprinus Epalzeorhynchos Henicorhynchus Hypophthalmichthys Labeo Mylopharyngodon and others Carp is a common name for various freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fishes originally from Eurasia and southeast Asia. ... Binomial name Amia calva Linnaeus, 1766 The bowfins are an order (Amiiformes) of primitive ray-finned fish. ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Wilson, 1811) The alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) is a species of small shad. ... Binomial name Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum, 1792) The Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch, from the Russian кижуч kisutch) is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. ... Binomial name (Walbaum, 1792) The Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (derived from Russian чавыча), is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. ... For other uses, see Lamprey (disambiguation). ...


See also

The Chicago River is 156 miles (251 km) long[1], and flows through downtown Chicago. ... Grand Traverse Bay is located off Lake Michigan in Northern Michigan. ... The Door Peninsula is a peninsula in northeastern Wisconsin, seperating the Bay of Green Bay from the rest of Lake Michigan. ... A Tall ship sailing into the mouth of the Fox River The Bay of Green Bay is an arm of Lake Michigan. ... The Leelanau Peninsula is a peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan that extends about 30 miles from the Lower Peninsula of Michigan into Lake Michigan. ... Little Bay de Noc is a bay in the upper peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Little Traverse Bay is a small bay off Lake Michigan in the northern area of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. ... A seiche (pronounced saysh) or an underwater wave is a standing wave in a body of water. ... Great Lakes Areas of Concern are designated geographic areas within the Great Lakes watershed that show severe environmental degradation. ... The Jardine Water Purification Plant, formerly the Central District Filtration Plant, is the largest capacity water filtration plant in the world, located at 1000 East Ohio Street north of Navy Pier in Chicago. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Wright, John W. (ed.); Editors and reporters of The New York Times (2006). The New York Times Almanac, 2007, New York, New York: Penguin Books, 64. ISBN 0-14-303820-6. 
  2. ^ Superior Watershed Partnership Projects.
  3. ^ Register - New

Further reading

  • Hyde, Charles K., and Ann and John Mahan. The Northern Lights: Lighthouses of the Upper Great Lakes. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1995. ISBN 0814325548 ISBN 9780814325544.
  • Oleszewski, Wes, Great Lakes Lighthouses, American and Canadian: A Comprehensive Directory/Guide to Great Lakes Lighthouses, (Gwinn, Michigan: Avery Color Studios, Inc., 1998) ISBN 0-932212-98-0.
  • Penrod, John, Lighthouses of Michigan, (Berrien Center, Michigan: Penrod/Hiawatha, 1998) ISBN 9780942618785 ISBN 9781893624238
  • Penrose, Laurie and Bill, A Traveler’s Guide to 116 Michigan Lighthouses (Petoskey, Michigan: Friede Publications, 1999). ISBN 0923756035 ISBN 9780923756031
  • Wagner, John L., Michigan Lighthouses: An Aerial Photographic Perspective, (East Lansing, Michigan: John L. Wagner, 1998) ISBN 1880311011 ISBN 9781880311011
  • Wright, Larry and Wright, Patricia, Great Lakes Lighthouses Encyclopedia Hardback (Erin: Boston Mills Press, 2006) ISBN 1550463993

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lake Michigan
Lighthouses
The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... For the the Quebec municipality, see Lac-Supérieur. ... Ipperwash Beach, Lake Huron. ... The Great Lakes from space; the two-lobed Lake Michigan-Huron lies in the center Lake Michigan-Huron is a designation sometimes given to the body of water (part of the North American Great Lakes) customarily referred to as two separate lakes: Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ...

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