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Encyclopedia > Lake Malawi
Lake Malawi
View from orbit
Coordinates 12°11′S 34°22′ECoordinates: 12°11′S 34°22′E
Lake type Rift lake
Primary sources Ruhuhu[1]
Primary outflows Shire River[1]
Basin countries Malawi
Mozambique
Tanzania
Max length 560 km[1] to 580[2]
Max width 75 km[1]
Surface area 29,600 km²[1]
Average depth 292 m[3]
Max depth 706 m[3]
Water volume 8,400 km³[3]
Surface elevation 500 m
Islands Likoma and Chizumulu

Lake Malawi (also known as Lake Nyasa, Lake Nyassa, Lake Niassa, and Lago Niassa in Mozambique), is the most southerly lake in the Great African Rift Valley system. The lake, third largest in Africa and the ninth largest in the world, is situated between Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania. The lake's tropical waters teem with more fish species than any other lake on Earth. Famously visited by the Scottish explorer and missionary David Livingstone, Lake Malawi has sometimes historically been referred to by English-speaking people as "Livingstone's Lake." Download high resolution version (768x1000, 271 KB)Lake Malawi in Africa, photographed by astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Shire is a river in Southern Africa. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... Likoma Island is the larger of two inhabited islands in Lake Malawi, the smaller being the nearby Chizumulu island. ... Chizumulu Island is the smaller of two inhabited islands in Lake Malawi, the larger being the nearby Likoma island. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 4 May 1873) was a Scottish Presbyterian pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ...

Contents

Geography

Lake Malawi is between 560[1] and 579 km long[2] and is 75 km wide at its widest point; it's total surface area is approximately 29,600 km².[1] The lake is bordered by western Mozambique, eastern Malawi, and southern Tanganyika, the mainland portion of Tanzania. Its largest tributary is the Ruhuhu and its outlet is the Shire River, a tributary of the Zambezi.[2] Area is the measure of how much exposed area any two dimensional object has. ... Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ... The Shire is a river in Southern Africa. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Lake Malawi lies in the Great African Rift Valley, a large graben caused by crustal extension and is approximately 40,000 years old.[1] Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... USGS image A graben is a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ...


European discovery and colonization

David Livingstone was the first European to reach the lake, arriving at its shores in 1859 and naming it "Lake Nyasa."[2] Much of the area surrounding the lake was subsequently claimed by the United Kingdom to form the colony of Nyasaland. Although Portugal took control of the eastern shores of the lake, the islands of Likoma and Chizumulu (which lie just off the shore) were colonised by Scottish missionaries from Nyasaland, and as a result were incorporated as part of Nyasaland rather than Mozambique. Today they form lacustrine enclaves: Malawian territory surrounded by Mozambique waters. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ...


In 1914, the lake saw a brief naval engagement when a British ship, on hearing that World War I had begun, sank a German ship in German East Africa's territorial waters. (Germany controlled what would become Tanzania at this point.) totally and roberta taylor at gaithersburg middle in 7th grade at the year of 2007-2008 is a hoe n no one likes her! Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... What is now Tanzania was a colony and part of Germany from the 1880s to 1919. ...


Borders on the lake

A view of the lake from Likoma Island
A view of the lake from Likoma Island

The largest part of the lake is in Malawi, while about a quarter of the lake area is under the jurisdiction Tanzania; this includes the area surrounding the Malawian islands of Likoma and Chizumulu, which are the lake's only two inhabited islands. Likoma is dominated by a huge stone Anglican cathedral, built by missionaries in the early 20th century. A notable feature of both islands is the large number of Baobab trees. The islands support a population of several thousand people, who, besides fishing the waters of the lake, grow cassava, bananas and mangos. Lake Malawi from Likoma Island looking towards Chizumulu island. ... Lake Malawi from Likoma Island looking towards Chizumulu island. ... Likoma Island is the larger of two inhabited islands in Lake Malawi, the smaller being the nearby Chizumulu island. ... Chizumulu Island is the smaller of two inhabited islands in Lake Malawi, the larger being the nearby Likoma island. ... Species See text The baobab (Adansonia), or monkey bread tree are a genus of eight species of trees, native to Madagascar (the centre of diversity, with six species), and mainland Africa and Australia (one species in each). ... Yuca redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera...


Lake Nyasa or Lake Malawi?

The name of the lake itself is also disputed. Malawi claims the lake is named 'Lake Malawi' while international maps and other countries (most notably Tanzania) claim the name of the lake to be 'Lake Nyasa'. The origins of the dispute in the name have their background in geopolitical disputes that began prior to Malawi's independence in 1964, when it was previously known as Nyasaland.


Further complications emerged for different political reasons in the 1960s, when the then President Banda (of Malawi) became the only African leader to establish diplomatic relations with white South Africa. This was fiercely repudiated by other African leaders, including the then President Nyerere (of Tanzania). The contrasting attitudes and policies gave further impetus to disputes between the two governments, on the name of the lake itself, and the boundary between the two countries. Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1896? – 25 November 1997) was the President of Malawi, from 1966 to 1994. ...


At present, the dispute between the two governments is largely dormant. Intergovernmental relations between Malawi and Tanzania are largely cordial.hey


Tanzania-Malawi dispute

The partition of the lake area between Malawi and Tanzania is disputed. Tanzania claims international borders through the lake along the lines of the borders between the German and British territories before 1914; Malawi, meanwhile, claims the whole non-Mozambican lake, including the waters next to the Tanzanian shore. The foundations of the dispute were set when the British colonial government, which had recently captured Tanganyika from Germany, put the water under the jurisdiction of Nyasaland without a separate administration for the Tanganyika portion. The dispute has led to conflicts in the past, though for several years Malawi has declined to enforce its claims to the disputed portion. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ...


Occasional flare-ups in the 1990s and in recent times have impacted fishing rights, particularly of Tanzanian's who reside on the lake shore, who have occasionally been accused of fishing in Malawian waters.


Transport

A jetty juts into the water at Nkhata Bay
A jetty juts into the water at Nkhata Bay

Large-scale transport between settlements along the shores of the lake and between the Malawi shore and Likoma and Chizumulu islands is provided by steamers. The MV Ilala is the best known, although in recent years has often been out of service. When running, it travels between Monkey Bay at the southern end of the lake to Karonga in the north, and occasionally to the Iringa Region of Tanzania. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (994 × 688 pixel, file size: 612 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Related materials on Commons Lake Malawi Category:Lakes Category:Lakes of Malawi See categories and links at foot of page File links The following pages on... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (994 × 688 pixel, file size: 612 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Related materials on Commons Lake Malawi Category:Lakes Category:Lakes of Malawi See categories and links at foot of page File links The following pages on... Nkhata Bay Nkhata Bay is the capital of the Nkhata Bay District in Malawi. ... For other uses, see Steamboat (disambiguation). ... The MV Ilala is a legendary steamer plying the waters of Lake Malawi, making a weekly run from its home port of Monkey Bay in the South, via Chilumba, Nkhata Bay, the isolated Likoma Island and occasional stops in the Iringa region of Tanzania. ... Monkey Bay, population 10,749 (1998), is a city in the Southern Region of Malawi. ... Karonga, population 27,811 (1998), is a city in the Northern Region of Malawi. ... Map of the Iringa Region Iringa is one of Tanzanias 26 administrative regions. ...


Boats travel about twice a week from Nkhata Bay on the mainland to Likoma and Chizumulu islands, taking about five hours to cross the lake. Neither island has a usable port, and boats moor offshore before transferring passengers and produce to the shore in small dinghies. Nkhata Bay Nkhata Bay is the capital of the Nkhata Bay District in Malawi. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... Dinghy of the schooner Adventuress A dinghy is a small utility boat attached to a larger boat. ...


Informal transport between the two islands and from Likoma Island to the Mozambique town of Cobue is provided by small dhows. Cobue is a town in Niassa Province, Mozambique. ... A Dhow near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ...


Wildlife

Lake Malawi has traditionally provided a major food source to the residents of Malawi as it is rich in fish, the most famous of which are the chambo, consisting of any one of four species of the cichlid genus Nyasalapia, as well as the kampango, a large catfish (Bagrus meridionalis). The fish are an important export for Malawi, but wild populations are increasingly threatened by overfishing and pollution. Other wildlife resident in the lake includes crocodiles, and a large population of fish eagles which feed off the fish population. For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ... Fish eagle can refer to several birds: African Fish Eagle, Haliaeetus vocifer Sanfords Fish Eagle, Haliaeetus sanfordi Madagascar Fish Eagle, Haliaeetus vociferoides Lesser Fish Eagle, Ichthyophaga humilis Grey-headed Fish Eagle, Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


Cichlids

Main article: Cichlids
Lake Malawi is home to numerous cichild species including this Livingston's cichlid (Nimbochromis livingstonii)

Lake Malawi is famous for its cichlids, popular in the aquarium trade. Malawi cichlids are divided into two basic groups, loosely referred to as the haplochromines and the tilapiines. Within the first group (Haplochrominae) there are two subgroups. The first consists of the open water and sand dwelling species whose males sport bright colors while the females show a silvery coloration with sometimes irregular black bars or other markings. The second subgroup is known locally and popularly as mbuna, which means "rockdweller." Mbuna are smaller, and both sexes often showing bright coloration, though in many species the females may be brownish overall. Genera Apistogramma - Dwarf Cichlids Astronotus (Oscars) Boulengerochromis Cichlasoma - American Ciclids Crenicichla Pterophyllum - Freshwater Angelfish Symphysodon - Discus Teleogramma Tilapia Cichlids are a family of perciform fishes. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Nimbochromis livingstonii Günther, 1894 Nimbochromis livingstonii, or Livingstons cichlid, is a freshwater mouthbrooding cichlid fish of the genus Nimbochromis, native to Lake Malawi, an African Rift Lake. ... Subfamilies Astronotinae Cichlasomatinae Cichlinae Etroplinae Geophaginae Heterochromidinae Paratilapiinae Pseudocrenilabrinae Ptychochrominae Retroculinae For genera, see below. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ... Cichlids of Lake Malawi, Toronto Zoo, 2003 It is estimated that Lake Malawi is home to between 600-800 species of cichlids. ... Melanochromis cyaneorhabdos displaying behaviour typical of Mbuna. ...


The second group, the tilapiines, consists of the only substrate-spawning species in the lake (Tilapia rendalli), as well as the 4 species of chamb (Nyasalapia). Lake Malawi's cichlids are popular in the international aquarium hobby.


Snails

The lake also supports populations of snails, some of which carry bilharzia. For many years this was strenuously denied by the government, which feared it would deter tourism in the area, but since the fall of Hastings Banda (dictator of Malawi from 1961 to 1994), the presence of bilharzia in the lake has been more widely acknowledged. Due to the overfishing of snail-eating cichlids, what little bilharzia that existed increased to the point of being a hazard to bathers in the south east portion of the lake. For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... Schistosomiasis Schistosomiasis or bilharzia is a disease affecting many people in developing countries. ... Tourist redirects here. ... Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1896? – 25 November 1997) was the President of Malawi, from 1966 to 1994. ...


Water chemistry

Lake Malawi 1967

The water in lake Malawi is typically alkaline with a pH of 7.7 – 8.6, a carbonate hardness of 107 – 142 mg L-1 and a conductivity of 210 – 285 µS cm-1. The lake water is generally warm, having a surface temperature that ranges from 24 – 29 °C (75 – 84 °F) and a deep level temperature of 22 °C (71.6 °F). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 538 pixelsFull resolution (1352 × 910 pixel, file size: 342 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Own image of Lake Malawi 28 December 1967. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 538 pixelsFull resolution (1352 × 910 pixel, file size: 342 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Own image of Lake Malawi 28 December 1967. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Carbonate hardness is the measure of the carbonate (CO32-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions contained in a solution, usually water. ... The siemens (symbol: S) is the SI derived unit of electric conductance. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


See also

The Great Lakes and the East African coastline as seen from space. ... Lake Malawi National Park is a national park located in Malawi at the southern end of Lake Malawi. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lake Malawi
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Malawi Cichlids. AC Tropical Fish. Aquaticcommunity.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  2. ^ a b c d Nyasa, Lake. Columbia Encyclopedia Online. Columbia University Press. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  3. ^ a b c Lake Malawi. World Lakes Database. International Lake Environment Committee Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Mayall, James (December 1973). "The Malawi-Tanzania Boundary Dispute". The Journal of Modern African Studies 11 (4): 611-628. 
  • Recent study on Lake Malawi water levels reveals drought 100,000 years ago


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nyasa, Lake: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1394 words)
Lake, southern Africa, bounded on the west and south by Malawi, on the east by Mozambique, and on the north by Tanzania.
Lake Nyasa, the third largest lake in Africa, is bordered by Tanzania in the north and northeast, by Mozambique in the east, and by Malawi in the south and west.
Lake Malawi has traditionally provided a major food source to the residents of Malawi as it is rich in fish, the most famous of which are the Chambo, consisting of anyone of 4 species of the cichlid genus Nyasalapia, as well as the Kampango, a large catfish (Bagrus meridionalis).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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