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Encyclopedia > Lajos Kossuth
Lajos Kossuth
Lajos Kossuth

Lajos "Louis" Kossuth [ˈlɒjoʃ ˈkoʃut] (Monok, September 19, 1802Turin, March 20, 1894) was a Hungarian lawyer, politician and Regent-President of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1849. He was widely honoured during his lifetime, including in the United Kingdom and the United States, as a freedom fighter. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (911x1400, 261 KB) Kossuth Lajos. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (911x1400, 261 KB) Kossuth Lajos. ... Monok is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Hungary. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... --69. ... Turin (Italian: ; Piedmontese: Turin) is a major industrial city as well as a business and cultural center in northwest Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the west bank of the Po River. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established organization that is thought to be oppressive. ...

Contents

Family

The house where Kossuth was born (Monok)

Lajos Kossuth was born at Monok, a small town in the county of Zemplén as the oldest of four children. His father belonged to the minor nobility, had a small estate and was a lawyer by profession. The ancestors of the Kossuth family have lived in the county of Turóc (Slovak: Turiec) since the 13th century. They had spoken Slovak language in the past (so Slovak texts refer to him as Ľudovít Košút, though he never used his name in this form) and Lajos' uncle, Juraj Košút, with whom Lajos used to spend his holidays, had remained a strong Slovak nationalist/patriot. The partly Slavic ancestry of Kossuth never became the topic of political debates because the family was part of the ruling Hungarus nobility of the Kingdom of Hungary. Also, Lajos considered himself a full Magyar (in the ethnic sense) and, interestingly, even openly denied the mere existence of a Slovak nation. The mother of Lajos Kossuth, Karolina Weber was of Lutheran German descent so Kossuth has Magyar, Slovak and German roots. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1036x728, 281 KB) This picture ©Copyright Civertan Grafikai Stúdió (Civertan Bt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1036x728, 281 KB) This picture ©Copyright Civertan Grafikai Stúdió (Civertan Bt. ... Monok is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Hungary. ... ... Turiec (-Slovak, in Latin: Thurotzium, comitatus Thurociensis, in German: Turz, in Hungarian: Turóc) is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ...


Early years

His mother raised the children as strict Lutherans. Kossuth completed his education at the Piarist college of Sátoraljaújhely and one year in the Calvinist college of Sárospatak and the University of Pest-Buda (now Budapest). Aged nineteen, he entered his father's legal practice. He was popular locally, and having been appointed steward to the countess Szapáry, a widow with large estates, he became her voting representative in the county assembly and settled in Pest. He was subsequently dismissed on the grounds of using estate funds to pay a gambling debt. The Pauline Congregation of the Mother of God or short Piarists is name of a Catholic educational order, the clerici regulares scholarum piarum, the , founded by Joseph Calasanza (Josephus a Matre Dei) at Rome in the beginning of the 16th century. ... Sátoraljaújhely (-Hungarian, Slovak: Nové Mesto pod Å iatrom, German: Neustadt am Zeltberg) is a town located in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county in northern Hungary near the Slovak border. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Sárospatak is a town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary. ... This article is about Eötvös Loránd University, which is often referred to as University of Budapest. ... Nickname: Paris of the East, Pearl of the Danubeor Queen of the Danube Location of Budapest in Hungary Country Hungary County Pest Mayor Gábor Demszky (SZDSZ) Area    - City 525. ... Pest (in Slovak Pešť, pron. ...


Entry into national politics

Shortly after his dismissal by Countess Szapáry, Kossuth was appointed as deputy to Count Hunyady at the National Diet. The Diet met during 1825–1827 and 1832–1836 in Pozsony, then capital of Hungary. Only the upper aristocracy could vote, however, and Kossuth took little part in the debates. At the time, a struggle to reassert a Hungarian national identity was beginning to emerge under able leaders – most notably Wesselényi and the Széchenyis. In part, this was also a struggle for reform against the stagnant Austrian government. Kossuth's duties to Count Hunyady included reporting on Diet proceedings in writing, as the Austrian government, fearing popular dissent, had banned published reports. The high quality of Kossuth's letters led to their being circulated in manuscript among other Liberal magnates. Readership demands turned his output into the editing of an organized parliamentary gazette (Országgyűlési tudósítások); spreading his name and influence further. Orders from the Official Censor halted circulation by lithograph printing. Distribution in manuscript by post was forbidden by the government, although circulation by hand continued. Bratislava (see below for name alternatives), is the capital of Slovakia and the countrys largest city, with a population of some 450,000. ... Portrait of Count István Széchenyi by Friedrich von Amerling Gróf Széchenyi István (Count Stephen Széchenyi) (September 21, 1791, Vienna, Austria-Hungary – April 8, 1860 Döbling), known as The Greatest Hungarian, was a Hungarian politician and writer, one of the founding fathers of New... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface, as well as a method of manufacturing semiconductor and MEMS devices. ...


In 1836 the Diet was dissolved. Kossuth continued to report (in letter form), covering the debates of the county assemblies. This new-found publicity gave the assemblies national political prominence. Previously they had had little idea of each others' proceedings. His skilful embellishment of the speeches from the Liberals and Reformers further enhanced the impact of his newsletters. The government in vain attempted to suppress the letters, and other means having failed, he was in May 1837, with Wesselényi and several others, arrested on a charge of high treason. After spending a year in prison at Buda awaiting trial, he was condemned to four more years' imprisonment. His strict confinement damaged his health, but he was allowed to read. He greatly increased his political knowledge, and also acquired, from the study of the Bible and Shakespeare, a thorough knowledge of English. October 2, Charles Darwin returns from his voyage around the world. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... See Budapest (band) for the British melancholic post-grunge band. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The arrests had caused great indignation. The Diet, which reconvened in 1839, demanded the release of the prisoners, and refused to pass any government measures. Metternich long remained obdurate, but the danger of war in 1840 obliged him to give way. Wesselényi had been broken by his imprisonment, but Kossuth, partly supported by the frequent visits of Teresa Meszleny, emerged from prison unbroken. Immediately after his release Kossuth and Meszleny were married, and she remained a firm supporter of his politics. The Roman Catholic priests refused to bless the marriage as Kossuth would not convert to Meszleny's religion. This experience influenced Kossuth's firm defense of mixed marriages. 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneberg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 - June 11, 1858) (sometimes rendered in English as Prince Clemens Metternich) was an Austrian politician and statesman and perhaps the most important diplomat of his era. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Interreligious marriage, traditionally (especially in the Catholic Church) called mixed marriage, is marriage (either religious or civil) between partners professing different religions. ...


Journalist and political leader

Kossuth had now become a national icon. He regained full health in January 1841 and was appointed editor of Pesti Hírlap, a new Liberal party newspaper. Notably, the government agreed to grant a licence. The paper achieved unprecedented success, soon reaching the then immense circulation of 7000 copies. A competing pro-government paper, Világ, started up but it only served to increase Kossuth's visibility and add to the general political fervour. 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...

The first Kossuth statue in Hungary. Miskolc, Erzsébet square

Széchenyi, the great reformer, publicly warned Kossuth that his appeals to the passions of the people would lead the nation to revolution. Kossuth, undaunted, did not stop at the publicly reasoned reforms demanded by all Liberals: the abolition of entail, the abolition of feudal burdens and taxation of the nobles. He went on to broach the possibility of separating from Austria. By combining this nationalism with an insistence on the superiority of the Magyars to the Slavonic inhabitants of Hungary, he sowed the seeds of both the collapse of Hungary in 1849 and his own political demise. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 695 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lajos Kossuth Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 695 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lajos Kossuth Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Magyars are an ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1844, Kossuth was dismissed from Pesti Hírlap after a dispute with the proprietor over salary. It is believed that the dispute was rooted in government intrigue. Kossuth was unable to obtain permission to start his own newspaper. In a personal interview Metternich offered to take him into the government service. Kossuth refused, and spent the next three years without a regular position. He continued to agitate on behalf of both political and commercial independence for Hungary. He adopted the economic principles of List, and was the founder of a "Védegylet" society – whose members consumed only Hungarian produce. He also argued for the creation of a Hungarian port at Fiume. 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneberg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 - June 11, 1858) (sometimes rendered in English as Prince Clemens Metternich) was an Austrian politician and statesman and perhaps the most important diplomat of his era. ... Rijeka (Fiume in Italian and Hungarian; Rijeka and Fiume both mean river) is the principal seaport of Croatia, located on the Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea. ...


In autumn 1847, Kossuth was able to take his final key step. Due to the support of Lajos Batthyány during a keenly fought campaign, he was elected to the new Diet as member for Pest. He proclaimed: "Now that I am a deputy, I will cease to be an agitator." He immediately became chief leader of the Extreme Liberals. Ferenc Deák was absent. Batthyány, István Széchenyi, Szemere and József Eötvös, his political rivals, felt that his personal ambition and egoism led him to assume the chief place, and to use his parliamentary position to establish himself as leader of the nation; but before his eloquence and energy all apprehensions were useless. His eloquence was of that nature, in its impassioned appeals to the strongest emotions, that it required for its full effect the highest themes and the most dramatic situations. In a time of rest, though he could never have been obscure, he would never have attained the highest power. It was therefore a necessity of his nature, perhaps unconsciously, always to drive things to a crisis. 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Lajos Batthyány (Count of Batthyány) (February 14, 1806 - October 6, 1849) was from a long line of counts and a descendant of The Capet Kings of France. ... Pest (in Slovak Pešť, pron. ... Deák Ferenc, (October 17, 1803, Söjtör - January 28, 1876, Budapest), was a Hungarian statesman, known as The Wise Man of the Nation. He first went into politics in 1833 when he attended the assembly of Pressburg (than called Pozsony by Hungarians, now Bratislava)(instead of his older... Count István Széchenyi, in Hungarian: Gróf Széchenyi István, born in Vienna, 21 September 1791 and died in Döbling, 8 April 1860. ... József, baron Eötvös (September 13, 1813 - February 2, 1871), Hungarian writer and statesman, the son of Baron Ignacz Eötvös and the baroness Lilian, was born at Buda. ...


Regent-President of Hungary

The crisis came, and he used it to the full. On March 3, 1848, shortly after the news of the revolution in Paris had arrived, in a speech of surpassing power he demanded parliamentary government for Hungary and constitutional government for the rest of Austria. He appealed to the hope of the Habsburgs, "our beloved Archduke Franz Joseph" (then 17 years old), to perpetuate the ancient glory of the dynasty by meeting half-way the aspirations of a free people. He at once became the leader of the European revolution; his speech was read aloud in the streets of Vienna to the mob by which Metternich was overthrown (March 13), and when a deputation from the Diet visited Vienna to receive the assent of Emperor Ferdinand to their petition it was Kossuth who received the chief ovation. Batthyány, who formed the first responsible government, appointed Kossuth the Minister of Finance. Image File history File linksMetadata Kossuth_memorial_near_parliament_Budapest. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kossuth_memorial_near_parliament_Budapest. ... Kossuth Memorial is an imposing statue of former Hungarian Regent-President Lajos Kossuth in front of the Hungarian Parliament Building on Lajos Kossuth Square in Budapest. ... Conference Hall The Hungarian Parliament Building (hu: Országház) is the seat of the National Assembly of Hungary, one of the worlds greatest legislative buildings, a notable landmark of Hungary and a popular tourist destination of Budapest. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Observations of liberals As 1848 began, liberals in France awaited the death of King Louis Philippe, expecting a new revolution after his death. ... Franz Joseph I Franz Joseph (in English also Francis Joseph) (August 18, 1830 - November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ...


With amazing energy he began developing the internal resources of the country: re-establishing a separate Hungarian coinage, and using every means to increase national self-consciousness Characteristically, the new Hungarian bank notes had Kossuth's name as the most prominent inscription; making reference to "Kossuth Notes" a future byword. A new paper was started, to which was given the name of Kossuth Hirlapja, so that from the first it was Kossuth rather than the Palatine or the president of the ministry whose name was in the minds of the people associated with the new government. Much more was this the case when, in the summer, the dangers from the Croats, Serbs and the reaction at Vienna increased. In a great speech July 11 he asked that the nation should arm in self-defence, and demanded 200,000 men; amid a scene of wild enthusiasm this was granted by acclamation. When Croatian viceroy Jellachich was marching on Pest he went from town to town rousing the people to the defence of the country, and the popular force of the Honvéd was his creation. When Batthyány resigned he was appointed with Szemere to carry on the government provisionally, and at the end of September he was made President of the Committee of National Defence. July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... Josip Jelačić of Bužim (born 1801 in Petrovaradin, died 1859 in Zagreb; also spelled Jellachich) was the Ban of Croatia between March 23rd, 1848 and May 19, 1859. ... The Honvédség (lit. ...


From this time he was a virtual dictator. The direction of the whole government was in his hands. Without military experience, he had to control and direct the movements of armies; he was unable to keep control over the generals or to establish that military co-operation so essential to success. Arthur Görgey in particular, whose great abilities Kossuth was the first to recognize, refused obedience; the two men were very different personalities. Twice Kossuth deposed him from the command; twice he had to restore him. It would have been well if Kossuth had had something more of Görgey's calculated ruthlessness, for, as has been truly said, the revolutionary power he had seized could only be held by revolutionary means (by which it is usually meant, revolutions can only be effected by dictatorship, repression and bloodshed); but he was by nature soft-hearted and always merciful; though often audacious, he lacked decision in dealing with men. It has been said that he showed a want of personal courage; this is not improbable, the excess of feeling which made him so great an orator could hardly be combined with the coolness in danger required of a soldier; but no one was able, as he was, to infuse courage into others. World dictatorships. ... Artúr Görgey (January 30, 1818 - May 21, 1916), was a Hungarian military leader. ...


During all the terrible winter which followed, his energy and spirit never failed him. It was he who overcame the reluctance of the army to march to the relief of Vienna; after the defeat of Schwechat, at which he was present, he sent Bem to carry on the war in Transylvania. At the end of the year, when the Austrians were approaching Pest, he asked for the mediation of Mr Stiles, the American envoy. Windisch-Graetz, however, refused all terms, and the Diet and government fled to Debrecen, Kossuth taking with him the Crown of St Stephen, the sacred emblem of the Hungarian nation. In November 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated in favour of Franz Joseph. The new Emperor revoked all the concessions granted in March and outlawed Kossuth and his colleagues. In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, after sounding the army, he issued the celebrated declaration of Hungarian independence, in which he declared that "the house of Habsburg-Lorraine, perjured in the sight of God and man, had forfeited the Hungarian throne." It was a step characteristic of his love for extreme and dramatic action, but it added to the dissensions between him and those who wished only for autonomy under the old dynasty, and his enemies did not scruple to accuse him of aiming for Kingship. For the time the future form of government was left undecided, and Kossuth was appointed regent-president (to satisfy both royalists and republicans). The hopes of ultimate success were frustrated by the intervention of Russia; all appeals to the western powers were vain, and on August 11 Kossuth abdicated in favor of Görgey, on the ground that in the last extremity the general alone could save the nation. Görgey capitulated at Világos to the Russians, who handed over the army to the Austrians. Görgey was spared – at the insistence of the Russians. Reprisals were taken on the rest of the Hungarian army. Kossuth steadfastly maintained until his death that Görgey alone was responsible for the humiliation. Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Józef Bem Józef Zachariasz Bem (1794-1850) was a Polish general and a national hero of Poland and Hungary. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or Transilvania; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or Ердељ / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Alfred Candidus Ferdinand, Fürst zu Windisch-Graetz (also written zu Windisch-Grätz, or zu Windischgrätz), (May 11, 1787, Brussels — March 21, 1862, Vienna) was an Austrian army officer who distinguished himself throughout the wars fought by the Habsburg Monarchy in the 19th century. ... Coat of arms of Debrecen Debrecen   (approximate pronunciation: deh-breh-tsen; German: ; Polish: ; Romanian: ; Slovak: ) is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. ... Crown of St. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... ...


Escape and Triumphant Tour of England and America

The statue of Kossuth on the Heroes' Square Millennial Memorial, Budapest
The statue of Kossuth on the Heroes' Square Millennial Memorial, Budapest

Kossuth's time in power was at an end. A solitary fugitive, he crossed the Turkish frontier. He was hospitably received by the Turkish authorities, who, supported by the British, refused, notwithstanding the threats of the allied emperors, to surrender him and other fugitives to Austria. In January 1850 he was removed from Vidin, where he had been kept under house arrest, to Shumla, and thence to Kütahya in Asia Minor. Here he was joined by his children, who had been confined at Pozsony/Pressburg (Bratislava); his wife (a price had been set on her head) had joined him earlier, having escaped in disguise. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1656x1242, 467 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Lajos Kossuth ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1656x1242, 467 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Lajos Kossuth ... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... Shumen (Bulgarian: Шумeн) is a city in the Northeastern part of Bulgaria, capital of Shumen Province. ... Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 170,000 inhabitants (2004 estimate), lying on the Porsuk river, at 930 metres above sea level. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...


In September 1851 he was allowed to leave Turkey on the American frigate USS Mississippi. He first landed at Marseille, where he received an enthusiastic welcome from the people, but the Prince-President Louis Napoleon refused to allow him to cross France. 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... USS Mississippi, a sidewheel steamer, was the first ship of the United States Navy bear that name. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence... ...


On October 23 he landed at Southampton and spent three weeks in Britain, where he was generally feted. Addresses were presented to him at Southampton, Birmingham and other towns; he was officially entertained by the Lord Mayor of London; at each place he spoke eloquently in English for the Hungarian cause; and he indirectly caused Queen Victoria to stretch the limits of her constitutional power over her Ministers to avoid embarassment, and eventually helped cause the fall of the government in power. October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Southampton is a city and major port situated on the south coast of England. ... Michael Berry Savory. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ...


Having learnt English during an earlier political imprisonment with the aid of a volume of Shakespeare, his spoken English was 'wonderfully archaic' and theatrical. The Times, generally cool towards the revolutionaries of 1848 in general and Kossuth in particular, nevertheless reported that his speeches were 'clear' and that a three-hour talk was not unusual for him; and also, that if he was occasionally overcome by emotion when describing the defeat of Hungarian aspirations, 'it did not at all reduce his effectiveness'. At Southampton, he was greeted by a crowd of thousands outside the Lord Mayor's balcony, who presented him with a flag of the Hungarian Republic. The Corporation of London accompanied him in procession through the City, and the way to the Guildhall was lined by thousands of cheering people. He went thereafter to Winchester, Liverpool, Manchester and Birmingham; at Birmingham the crowd that gathered to see him ride under the triumphal arches erected for his visit was described, even by his severest critics, as 75,000 individuals. Back in London he addressed the Trades Unions at Copenhagen Fields in Islington. Some twelve thousand 'respectable artisans' formed a parade at Russell Square and marched out to meet him. At the Fields themselves, the crowd was enormous; the Times estimated it conservatively at 25,000, while the Morning Chronicle described it as 50,000, and the demonstrators themselves 100,000. Shakespeare redirects here. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... Coat of arms of the City of London as shown on Blackfriars station. ... A Guildhall is a building historically used by guilds for meetings. ... Statistics Population: 40,000 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SU485295 Administration District: City of Winchester Shire county: Hampshire Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Hampshire Historic county: Hampshire Services Police force: Hampshire Constabulary Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South Central Post office... Liverpool is a major city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. ... Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough, in the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester, North West England. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Diagram of Metropolitan Cattle Market, Islington The Metropolitan Cattle Market (later Caledonian Market) in Islington, north London was built by the Corporation of London and opened in June 1855 by Prince Albert. ... Islington is an inner-city district in north London. ... Russell Square Russell Square is a large garden square in Bloomsbury, London. ... The Morning Chronicle, a newspaper in London, England, was founded in 1769 and published under various owners until 1862. ...


The Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, who had already proved himself a friend of the losing sides in several of the failed revolutions of 1848, was determined to receive him at his country house, Broadlands. The Cabinet had to vote to prevent it; Queen Victoria reputedly was so incensed by the possibility of her Foreign Secretary supporting an outspoken republican that she asked the Prime Minister, Lord John Russell for Palmerson's resignation, but Russell claimed that such a dismissal would be drastically unpopular at that time and over that issue. When Palmerston upped the ante by receiving at his house, instead of Kossuth, a delegation of Trade Unionists from Islington and Finsbury, and listened sympathetically as they read an address that praised Kossuth and declared the Emperors of Austria and Russia 'despots, tyrants and odious assassins', it was noted as a mark of indifference to Royal displeasure. This, together with Palmerston's support of Louis Napoleon, caused the Russell government to fall and Palmerston himself to take office. The title of Foreign Secretary has been traditionally used to refer to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. ... Lord Palmerston and Henry Temple redirect here. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792–28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was a British Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... Finsbury is a place in the south of the London Borough of Islington. ... ...


In addition, the indignation which he aroused against Russian policy had much to do with the strong anti-Russian feeling which made the Crimean War possible. Combatants United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 256,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War lasted from 1854 until 1 April 1856 and was...


From Britain he went to the United States of America: there his reception was equally enthusiastic, if less dignified. He was the second foreign citizen to make a speech in the National Statuary Hall (Lafayette being the first). Prior to arrival he received the support of abolitionists, freemasons and Protestants, while Catholics (especially Irish) and pro-slavery groups opposed him. Secretary of State Daniel Webster wanted Kossuth's help in the upcoming presidential election, and spoke of seeing the American Republican model develop in Hungary, although President Millard Fillmore apologised to the Austrian chargé d'affaires for what he explained was an individual unofficial opinion. His ship was greeted with a Hundred gun salute when it passed Jersey City and hundreds of thousands of people came to see him set foot in New York. Heralded as the Hungarian Washington, he was given a congressional Banquet and received at the White House and the House of Representatives. Following his refusal to condemn slavery, William Lloyd Garrison wrote a book-length open letter to him denouncing him as a criminal. National Statuary Hall The National Statuary Hall is an area in the United States Capitol devoted to statues of people and symbols important in American history. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... The Masonic Square and Compasses. ... Protestantism is one of three main groups within Christianity, whose beliefs are centered on Jesus. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 25, 1852) was a prominent American statesman during the nations antebellum, or Pre-Civil War, era. ... This article is about the political process. ... Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874) was the thirteenth President of the United States, serving from 1850 until 1853, and the last member of the Whig Party to hold that office. ... Chargé daffaires (Fr. ... The skyline of Jersey City, as seen from Lower New York Bay. ... NY redirects here. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first President of the United States. ... A congress is a gathering of people, especially a gathering for a political purpose. ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ... William Lloyd Garrison William Lloyd Garrison (December 12, 1805–May 24, 1879) was a prominent United States abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. ...


Later Exile and Death

Gradually, his autocratic style and uncompromising outlook destroyed any real influence among the expatriate community. Other Hungarian exiles protested against his appearing to claim to be the only national hero of the revolution. Count Casimir Batthyány attacked him in The Times, and Szemere, who had been prime minister under him, published a bitter criticism of his acts and character, accusing him of arrogance, cowardice and duplicity. He soon returned to England, where he lived for eight years in close connection with Mazzini, by whom, with some misgiving, he was persuaded to join the Revolutionary Committee. Quarrels of a kind only too common among exiles followed. Hungarians were especially offended by his continuing use of the title of Regent. He watched with anxiety every opportunity of once more freeing his country from Austria. An attempt to organize a Hungarian legion during the Crimean War was stopped; but in 1859 he entered into negotiations with Napoleon III, left England for Italy and began the organization of a Hungarian legion, which was to make a descent on the coast of Dalmatia. The Peace of Villafranca made this impossible. Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Map of Dalmatia, in present day Croatia highlighted Dalmatia (Croatian: Dalmacija, French: Dalmatie, German: Dalmatien, Italian: Dalmazia, Serbian Cyrillic: Далмација, Turkish: Dalmaçya, Hungarian: Dalmácia) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, in modern Croatia, spreading between the island of Rab in the northwest and the...


From then on, Kossuth remained in Italy. He refused to follow the other Hungarian patriots, who, under the lead of Deák, negotiated the 1867 Compromise (Ausgleich), and the ensuing amnesty. It is doubted whether Emperor Franz Joseph would have allowed the amnesty to extend to Kossuth. Publicly, Kossuth remained unreconciled to the house of Habsburg, and committed to a fully independent state. Though elected to the Diet of 1867, he never took his seat. He continued to remain a widely popular figure, but did not allow his name to be associated with dissent or any political cause. A law of 1879, which deprived of citizenship all Hungarians who had voluntarily been absent ten years, was a bitter blow to him. He displayed no interest in benefitting from a further amnesty in 1880. Deák Ferenc, (October 17, 1803, Söjtör - January 28, 1876, Budapest), was a Hungarian statesman, known as The Wise Man of the Nation. He first went into politics in 1833 when he attended the assembly of Pressburg (than called Pozsony by Hungarians, now Bratislava)(instead of his older... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In 1890, a delegation of Hungarian pilgrims in Turin recorded a short patriotic speech delivered by the elderly Lajos Kossuth. The original recording on two wax cylinders for the Edison phonograph survives to this day, although barely audible due to excess playback and unsuccessful early restoration attempts. Lajos Kossuth is the earliest born person in the world who has his voice preserved. Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... Turin (Italian: ; Piedmontese: Turin) is a major industrial city as well as a business and cultural center in northwest Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the west bank of the Po River. ... Wax has traditionally referred to a substance that is secreted by bees (beeswax) and used by them in constructing their honeycombs. ... Edison is the last name of a famous United States inventor: Thomas Edison Other people known by the name Edison: Charles Edison – son of Thomas Edison and Governor of New Jersey Edison Chen – popular Hong Kong teen idol Edison Carter, character in the television show Max Headroom A number of... Edison cylinder phonograph ca. ...


He died in Turin on the 20th of March 1894; his body was taken to Budapest, where he was buried amid the mourning of the whole nation, Mór Jókai delivering the funeral oration. A bronze statue was erected, by public subscription, in the Kerepesi Cemetery. Many regard Kossuth as Hungary's purest patriot and greatest orator. Turin (Italian: ; Piedmontese: Turin) is a major industrial city as well as a business and cultural center in northwest Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the west bank of the Po River. ... Mór Jókai Mór Jókai (19 February 1825 – 5 May 1904) was a Hungarian dramatist and novelist. ... Kerepesi Cemetery or Kerepes Cemetery (Hungarian: Kerepesi temető, official name: Fiumei úti nemzeti sírkert, ie. ...


Many points in Kossuth's career and character will probably always remain the subject of controversy. His complete works were published in Hungarian at Budapest in 1880-1895. The fullest account of the Revolution is given in Helfert, Geschichte Oesterreichs (Leipzig, 1869, &c.), representing the Austrian view, which may be compared with that of C Gracza, History of the Hungarian War of Independence, 1848-1849 (in Hungarian) (Budapest, 1894). See also E. O. S., Hungary and its Revolutions, with a Memoir of Louis Kossuth (Bohn, 1854); Horvath, 25 Jahre aus der Geschichte Ungarns, 1823-1848 (Leipzig, 1867) H Maurice, Revolutions of 1848-1849. Stiles, Austria in 1848-1849 (New York, 1852); Szemere, Politische Charakterskizzen: III. Kossuth (Hamburg, 1853); Louis Kossuth, Memoirs of my Exile (London, 1880); Ferenc Pulszky, Meine Zeit, mein Leben (Pressburg, 1880); A Somogyi, Ludwig Kossuth (Berlin, 1894). Ferenc Aurel Pulszky (17 September 1814 - 9 September 1897) was a Hungarian politician and writer. ...


Memorials

Today the main square of Budapest with the Hungarian Parliament Building is named after him and the Kossuth Memorial is an important scene of national ceremonies. Almost every town in Hungary has its own Kossuth Street or Kossuth Square and a statue of Kossuth, with the first public statue of him being the one in Miskolc, erected in 1898. The memorials of Lajos Kossuth in the territories lost by Hungary after World War I were sooner or later demolished in neighbouring countries. A few of them was re-erected following the fall of Communism by local councils or private associations. They play an important role as symbols of national identity of the Hungarian minority. The most important memorial outside the present-day borders of Hungary is a statue in Rožňava (hun: Rozsnyó), that was knocked down two times but restored after much controversy in 2004. The only Kossuth statue that remained on its place after 1920 in Romania stands in Salonta (hun: Nagyszalonta). The demolished Kossuth Memorial of Târgu-Mureş (hun: Marosvásárhely) was re-erected in 2001 in the little Székely village of Ciumani (hun: Gyergyócsomafalva). In Serbia there are two statues of Kossuth in Stara Moravica (hun: Ómoravica or Bácskossuthfalva) and Novi Itebej (hun: Magyarittebe). Memorials in Ukraine are situated in Berehove (hun: Beregszász) and Tiachiv (hun: Técső). Additionally, a bust of Lajos Kossuth is housed in the US Capitol Building in Washington D.C. Conference Hall The Hungarian Parliament Building (hu: Országház) is the seat of the National Assembly of Hungary, one of the worlds greatest legislative buildings, a notable landmark of Hungary and a popular tourist destination of Budapest. ... Kossuth Memorial is an imposing statue of former Hungarian Regent-President Lajos Kossuth in front of the Hungarian Parliament Building on Lajos Kossuth Square in Budapest. ... Nickname: Steel City; City of the Open Gates Location of Miskolc in Hungary Coordinates: Country Hungary Region Northern Hungary County Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Town since 1365 City since 1909 Urban county since 1970 Mayor Sándor Káli (MSZP) Area    - City 236,68 km² Population    - City (2004) 178... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Rožňava (Hungarian: Rozsnyó, German: Rosenau, Latin: Rosnavia) is a town in Slovakia, near KoÅ¡ice in the KoÅ¡ice Region, and has a population of 19,690. ... County Bihor County Status Municipality Mayor László Török, from Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, since 2000 Population (2002) 18,137 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Panorama of Targu Mures Târgu MureÅŸ (Hungarian: Marosvásárhely, also known as Vásárhely; German: Neumarkt am Mieresch) is a city in MureÅŸ county, Transylvania, Romania. ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) ( sék-ei in pronunciation ) are a Hungarian ethnic group mostly living in Transylvania in Romania, with a significant population also living in Vojvodina, Serbia. ... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment    - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... The Calvinist Church Stara Moravica (Стара Моравица - Cyrillic spelling, Bácskossuthfalva - Hungarian/Magyar name, Alt-Morawitza - German) is a village located in the Bačka Topola municipality, in the North Bačka District of Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro. ... The Calvinist church. ... Berehove (in Ukrainian: Берегове (Berehove), in Ruthenian: Берегово (Berehovo), in Russian: Берегово (Beregovo), in Rumanian: Berg, in Hungarian: Beregszász, in German: Bergsaß, in Slovak and Czech: Berehovo) is a city in western Ukraine, Zakarpattia Oblast. ... Tiachiv (Ukrainian: , Hungarian: TécsÅ‘, Romanian: Teceu) is a city located on the Tisza River in the Zakarpattia Oblast (province) in western Ukraine. ...


Trivia

  • The small town of Kossuth, Mississippi in the United States is named in honor of Lajos Kossuth.
  • The largest county in Iowa, Kossuth County, is named in honor of Lajos Kossuth. In front of the County Court House in Algona, Iowa, (the county seat) stands a statue of the freedom fighter.
  • Other statues of Kossuth remain sprinkled throughout the U.S., including in University Circle in Cleveland, Ohio. There is also a Kossuth Park at the intersection of East 121st Street and East Shaker Boulevard, just west of Shaker Square, in Cleveland.
  • There exist a Kossuth Road and the Kossuth Hungarian Canadian Hall with a statue of Lajos Kossuth's head in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada.
  • There is a statue of Kossuth in New York City, near Columbia University
  • There is a bust of Kossuth in the U.S. Capitol.
  • There is a Stephen Kossuth, a descendant, that lives in Philadelphia, PA

Kossuth is a village located in Alcorn County, Mississippi. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kossuth County is a county located in the state of Iowa. ... Algona is a city located in Kossuth County, Iowa. ... University Circle is a cultural, medical, educational and religious district on the east side of Cleveland, Ohio, occupying approximately 500 acres (2 km²) around the campus of Case Western Reserve University and the adjacent Wade Park Oval, and encompassing a large number of allied and independent institutions. ... Nickname: The Forest City Motto: Progress and Prosperity Location in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Cuyahoga Founded 1796 Incorporated 1836 Mayor Frank G. Jackson (D) Area    - City 82. ... The Shaker Mill Stone, which lies in Shaker Square Shaker Square is a neighborhood on the east side of Cleveland, Ohio which is centered around a shopping center and a stop on the rapid transit train line to downtown Cleveland at the intersection of Shaker and Moreland Boulevards. ...

External links

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Lajos Kossuth

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Lajos Kossuth Summary (3905 words)
The son of an impoverished Lutheran nobleman, Louis Kossuth was born at Monok in northern Hungary on Sept. 19, 1802.
Lajos "Louis" Kossuth (Ľudovít Košút in Slovak) (Monok, September 19, 1802–Turin, March 20, 1894) was a Hungarian lawyer, politician and Regent-President of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1849.
Lajos Kossuth was born at Monok, a small town in the county of Zemplén as the oldest of four children.
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