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Encyclopedia > Laika
Laika, in 1957, became the first earthling launched into orbit, paving the way for human spaceflight. She is shown here in her flight harness.
Laika, in 1957, became the first earthling launched into orbit, paving the way for human spaceflight. She is shown here in her flight harness.

Laika (from the Russian Лайка, a breed of dog, literally meaning, "Barker" or "Howler") was a Russian space dog (c. 1954–1957) that became the first earthling to orbit the Earth. Laika, a stray, originally named Kudryavka (Russian: кудрявка, literally meaning, "Little Curly-Haired One"), underwent training with two other dogs, and was eventually chosen as the occupant of the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 2 that was launched into space on November 3, 1957. Laika may refer to: Laika, the Russian space dog, was the first terrestrial creature to visit outer space; other uses derived from her name include: Laika, a music group named in her honor Laika Dog another band named for the cosmonaut; also a play-on-words: Laika Dog is pronounced... Source: http://www. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... East Siberian Laika at a dog show in Poland Laika (Russian: ) is a generic name for several hunting dog breeds of Northern Russia and Siberia. ... Strelka (pictured left) and Belka (right) orbited the Earth and returned safely on Korabl-Sputnik-5 During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used a number of dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Sputnik 2 (Russian: , Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal - a dog named Laika. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Laika died a few hours after launch from stress and overheating, probably due to a malfunction in the thermal control system. The true cause of her death was not made public until decades after the flight.[1] In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Hyperthermia in its advanced state referred to as heat stroke or sunstroke, is an acute condition which occurs when the body produces or absorbs more heat than it can dissipate. ...


Although Laika did not survive the trip, the experiment proved that a living passenger could survive being launched into orbit and endure weightlessness. It paved the way for human spaceflight and provided scientists with some of the first data on how living organisms react to spaceflight environments. Zero gravity redirects here. ... ISS in earth orbit. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ...


On April 11, 2008, Russian officials unveiled a monument to Laika. The small monument is near a military research facility in Moscow that prepared Laika's flight to space. It features a dog standing on top of a rocket. Little was known about the impact of space flight on living things at the time Laika's mission was launched. Some believed they would be unable to survive the launch or the conditions of outer space, so Soviet space engineers viewed dogs' flights as a necessary precursor to human missions.[2] is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Sputnik 2

Postage stamp of the USSR, «Спутник-2»
Postage stamp of the USSR, «Спутник-2»
Main article: Sputnik 2

After the success of Sputnik 1, Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet leader, wanted a second spacecraft launched on November 7, the 40th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution. A more sophisticated satellite was already under construction, but it would not be ready until December; this satellite would later become Sputnik 3.[3] A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Sputnik 2 (Russian: , Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal - a dog named Laika. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... Khrushchev redirects here. ... An approximately chronological listing of Soviet leaders (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union). ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... Sputnik 3 (Russian: , Satellite 3) was a Soviet satellite launched on May 15, 1958 from Baikonur cosmodrome by a modified R-7/SS-6 ICBM. It was a research satellite to explore the upper atmosphere and the near space. ...


To meet the November deadline, a new, less sophisticated design had to be built. According to Russian sources, the official decision to launch Sputnik 2 was made on October 10 or 12, leaving the team only four weeks to design and build the space craft.[4] Sputnik 2, therefore, was something of a rush job, with most elements of the space craft being constructed from rough sketches. Aside from the primary mission of sending a living passenger into space, Sputnik 2 also contained instrumentation for measuring solar radiation and cosmic rays.[3] is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ...


The craft was equipped with a life-support system consisting of an O2 generator and devices to avoid oxygen poisoning and to absorb CO2. A fan, designed to activate whenever the cabin temperature exceeded 15 °C (59 °F), was added to keep the dog cool. Enough food (in a gelatinous form) was provided for a seven-day flight, and the dog was fitted with a bag to collect waste. A harness was designed to be fitted to the dog, and there were chains to restrict its movements to standing, sitting or lying down; there was no room to turn around in the cabin. An electrocardiogram monitored heart rate and further instrumentation tracked respiration rate, maximum arterial pressure and the dog's movements.[5][6] Oxygen toxicity or oxygen toxicity syndrome is severe hyperoxia caused by breathing oxygen at elevated partial pressures. ... A dog harness is similar to harness for horses, and varies depending on the type of use: assistance to a disabled person, hauling a cart or sled, or pulling a human being as in skijoring. ... “QRS” redirects here. ...


Training and voyage

The dog that would later be named Laika was found as a stray wandering the streets of Moscow. She was a mongrel female, approximately three years old, and weighed about 6 kg (13 lb). Soviet personnel gave her several names and nicknames, among them Kudryavka (Russian for Little Curly), Zhuchka (Little Bug) and Limonchik (Little Lemon). Laika, the Russian name for several breeds of dogs similar to the husky, was the name popularized around the world. The American press dubbed her Muttnik (mutt + suffix -nik) as a pun on Sputnik,[7] or referred to her as Curly.[8] Her true pedigree is unknown, although it is generally accepted that she was part husky or other Nordic breed, and possibly part terrier.[9] For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Mixed breed dog, from Atlantic Canada Mongrel refers to mixed ancestry: Among pets, one whose parentage is of unknown or mixed breeds as opposed to purebred Among dogs, this is also called a mutt or a mixed-breed dog. ... Dogs have been selectively bred for thousands of years, sometimes by inbreeding dogs from the same ancestral lines, sometimes by mixing dogs from very different lines. ... Look up Husky in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A healthy mixed-breed dog shows hybrid vigor. ... The English suffix -nik is of Slavic origin. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... Sputnik redirects here. ... For other uses, see Terrier (disambiguation). ...


The Soviet Union and the United States had previously sent animals only on sub-orbital flights.[10] Three dogs were trained for the Sputnik 2 flight: Albina, Mushka, and Laika.[11] Russian space-life scientist Oleg Gazenko selected and trained Laika.[12] Albina flew twice on a high-altitude test rocket, and Mushka was used to test instrumentation and life support.[6][10] A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight) is a spaceflight that does not involve putting a vehicle into orbit. ... Oleg Gazenko (b. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... For other uses of life support, see Life support (disambiguation) Life support, in the medical field, refers to a set of therapies for preserving a patients life when essential body systems are not functioning sufficiently to sustain life unaided. ...


To adapt the dogs to the confines of the tiny cabin of Sputnik 2, they were kept in progressively smaller cages for periods up to 20 days. The extensive close confinement caused them to stop urinating or defecating, made them restless, and caused their general condition to deteriorate. Laxatives did not improve their condition, and the researchers found that only long periods of training proved effective. The dogs were placed in centrifuges that simulated the acceleration of a rocket launch and were placed in machines that simulated the noises of the spacecraft. This caused their pulses to double and their blood pressure to increase by 30–65 torr. The dogs were trained to eat a special high-nutrition gel that would be their food in space.[6] A laxative is a preparation used for the purpose of encouraging defecation, or the elimination of feces. ... This article is about the scientific device. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... The torr (symbol: Torr) or millimeter of mercury (mmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. ...


Before being taken to the launch pad, one of the scientists took Laika home to play with his children. In a book chronicling the story of Soviet space medicine, Dr. Vladimir Yazdovsky wrote, "I wanted to do something nice for her: She had so little time left to live."[13]


According to a NASA document, Laika was placed in the satellite on October 31, 1957—three days before the start of the mission.[6] The temperatures at the launch site were extremely cold at that time of year, so a hose connected to a heater was used to keep her container warm. Two assistants were assigned to keep a constant watch on Laika before launch. Just prior to liftoff on November 3, 1957 from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Laika's fur was sponged in a weak alcohol solution and carefully groomed. Iodine was painted onto areas where sensors would be placed to monitor her bodily functions.[14] For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ...


At peak acceleration Laika's respiration increased to between three and four times the pre-launch rate.[6] The sensors showed her heart rate was 103 beats/min before launch and increased to 240 beats/min during the early acceleration. After reaching orbit, Sputnik 2's nose cone was jettisoned successfully. However, the "Block A" core did not separate as planned, stopping the thermal control system from operating correctly. Some of the thermal insulation tore loose, raising the cabin temperature to 40 °C (104 °F).[15] After three hours of weightlessness, Laika's pulse rate had settled back to 102 beats/min,[16] three times longer than it had taken during earlier ground tests, an indication of the stress she was under. The early telemetry indicated that Laika was agitated but eating her food.[15] Approximately five to seven hours into the flight, no further signs of life were received from the spacecraft.[6] A nose cone that contained one of the Voyager spacecraft is seen here as it is mounted on top of a Titan III/Centaur launch vehicle. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thermal insulation Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan against the grain Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan with the grain The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and... Zero gravity redirects here. ... Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ...


The Russian scientists had planned to euthanize Laika with a poisoned serving of food. For many years, the Soviet Union gave conflicting statements that she had died either from oxygen starvation when the batteries failed, or that she had been euthanized. Many rumours circulated about the exact manner of her passing. In 1999, several Russian sources said that she died after four days when the cabin overheated.[4] Then in October 2002, Dr. Dimitri Malashenkov, one of the scientists behind the Sputnik 2 mission, revealed that Laika had died five to seven hours after launch from overheating and stress. According to a paper he presented to the World Space Congress in Houston, Texas, "It turned out that it was practically impossible to create a reliable temperature control system in such limited time constraints."[5] Suffocation redirects here, for the band, see Suffocation (band). ... Dimitri Malashenkov was one of the Soviet scientists involved with the Sputnik 2 mission. ... Houston redirects here. ...


Sputnik 2 disintegrated (along with Laika's remains) during re-entry on April 14, 1958, just over 5 months later, after 2,570 orbits.[17] is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ...


Controversy

Due to the overshadowing issue of the Soviet vs. American Space Race, the ethical problems of this experiment went largely unaddressed for some time. As newspaper clippings from 1957 show,[1] the press was more preoccupied with reporting the political perspective, while the health and retrieval (or lack thereof) of Laika was hardly mentioned. Only later were there discussions regarding the fate of the dog. For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ...


Sputnik 2 was not designed to be retrievable, so Laika had always been intended to die.[4] The mission sparked a debate across the globe on the mistreatment of animals and animal testing in general to advance science.[12] A man in Shanghai asks for money, holding a monkey with a rope around its neck and missing a limb. ... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ...


In the United Kingdom, the National Canine Defence League called on all dog owners to observe a minute's silence, while the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) received protests even before the Soviet Union had finished announcing the mission's success. Animal rights groups at the time called on members of the public to protest at Soviet embassies.[18] Others demonstrated outside the United Nations in New York;[12] nevertheless, laboratory researchers in the U.S. offered some support for the Russians, at least before the news of Laika's death.[12][19] The Dogs Trust, formerly known as the National Canine Defence League, is an animal welfare charity and humane society in the United Kingdom which specialises in the wellbeing of dogs. ... The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) is a charity in England and Wales that promotes animal welfare. ... A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... UN redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


In the Soviet Union, there was apparently less controversy. Neither the media, books in the following years, nor the public openly questioned the decision to send a dog into space to die. It was not until 1998, after the collapse of the Soviet regime, that Oleg Gazenko, one of the scientists responsible for sending Laika into space, expressed regret for allowing her to die: "The more time passes, the more I'm sorry about it. We shouldn't have done it... We did not learn enough from this mission to justify the death of the dog."[1][17] Oleg Gazenko (b. ...


In popular culture

NASA named this soil target on Mars after Laika during the Mars Exploration Rover mission
NASA named this soil target on Mars after Laika during the Mars Exploration Rover mission

Laika's pioneering journey made her one of the most famous dogs in the world. Soil target Laika, imaged by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on Sol 400 - March 9, 2005. ... Soil target Laika, imaged by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on Sol 400 - March 9, 2005. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars (credit: Maas Digital LLC) Marvin the Martian, Spirit rover Mission patch Duck Dodgers, Opportunity rover Mission patch NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of two rovers â€” Spirit...


Her bas relief is on the Monument to the Conquerors of Space (1964), along with cosmonauts and engineers. A plaque commemorating fallen cosmonauts was unveiled at the Institute for Aviation and Space Medicine in Star City, Moscow, in November 1997; Laika appears in one corner.[17] Several postage stamps from different countries have pictured her. Brands of chocolate and cigarettes were named in her honour, and a large collection of Laika memorabilia still appear in auctions today.[12] Bas-relief (pronounced bah-relief, French for low relief) is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal creating a sculpture portrayed as a picture. ... Monument to the Conquerors of Space Monument To the Conquerors of Space (Russian: ) was erected in Moscow in 1964 to celebrate achievements of the Soviet people in space exploration. ... Star City (Звездный) is a small town outside Moscow where cosmonauts are trained for spacetravel at the Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Centre (GCTC). ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... A souvenir stall in London, England A souvenir (from the French for memory) is an object that is treasured for the memories associated with it. ...


On March 9, 2005, a patch of soil on Mars was unofficially named Laika by mission controllers. It is located near Vostok Crater in Meridiani Planum. It was examined by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's microscopic imager on Sol 400.[20] is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... This article is about the impact crater on Mars. ... Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity looks southwest across Meridiani Planum; the Rovers discarded backshell and parachute are visible in the distance Hematite deposits in Meridiani Planum mapped from orbit, with Opportunity rover landing site ellipse Meridiani Planum is a plain located 2 degrees south of Mars equator, in the westernmost... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars (credit: Maas Digital LLC) Marvin the Martian, Spirit rover Mission patch Duck Dodgers, Opportunity rover Mission patch NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of two rovers â€” Spirit... The launch patch for Opportunity, featuring Duck Dodgers (Daffy Duck). ... Various schemes have been used or proposed to keep track of time and date on the planet Mars independently of Earth time and calendars. ...


On April 11, 2008, Russian officials unveiled a monument dedicated to the memory of Laika. The small monument is near a military research facility in Moscow that prepared Laika's flight to space on November 3, 1957. It features a dog standing on top of a rocket.[21][22] is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Laika has been featured in numerous works of literature, often with a theme of her survival or rescue. The novel Intervention by Julian May mentions Laika's rescue by a sympathetic alien race. In the novel Weight: The Myth of Atlas and Heracles by Jeanette Winterson, the ancient Greek titan Atlas finds Laika's capsule in orbit and adopts the dog. In Habitus, by James Flint, Laika survives and continues to orbit the earth, having learned to draw sustenance from the world's radio transmissions. There are also stories of her funeral (in the Doctor Who novel Alien Bodies) and travel to other planets (in the comic anthology Flight). Contemporary Japanese author Haruki Murakami's book, Sputnik Sweetheart, refers to Laika's death on its title page with a quotation from The Complete Chronicle of World History. Nick Abadzis' graphic novel Laika is a fictionalized version of the dog's life.[23][24] Julian May (born July 10, 1931) is an American science fiction writer, best known for her Saga of Pliocene Exile (Saga of the Exiles in the UK) and Galactic Milieu books. ... Jeanette Winterson OBE (born August 27, 1959) is a British novelist. ... James Flint is a British novelist. ... This article is about the television series. ... Alien Bodies is an original novel written by Lawrence Miles and based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... Flight is a comics anthology series edited by Kazu Kibuishi, showcasing young and innovative arists and writers. ... Haruki Murakami , born January 12, 1949) is a popular contemporary Japanese writer and translator. ... Sputnik Sweetheart ) is a novel by Haruki Murakami, published in Japan in 1999. ... Nick Abadzis is a British cartoonist, comic book writer, and graphic novelist. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ...


A number of bands have taken inspiration from Laika for their names, including Laika Dog, Laika & The Cosmonauts and Laika, whose first three albums feature the canine cosmonaut in their cover art. The Spanish pop group Mecano, the Canadian bands Arcade Fire, and Moxy Früvous and the Swedish band The Cardigans have all written songs called "Laika". In 1986, CCCP released Cosmos featuring the song "Laika Laika", complete with Russian military men's chorus. Laika has been featured in songs by (among others) Massacre Palestina (Laika se Va); Akino Arai ("Sputnik"); Åge Aleksandersen ("Laika"); The Divine Comedy ("Absent Friends" and "Laika's Theme"); Havalina ("Leica"); The Motorhomes ("Into the Night"); Neighborhood #2 (Laïka), by the Arcade Fire; Mighty Sparrow ("Russian Satellite"); Pond ("My Dog is an Astronaut, Though"); Kyler England ("Laika") and The Circle Jerks ("Dog"). In 2002, the group Spacemonkeyz released a remixed version of the Gorillaz album called Laika Come Home. György Kurtág's tape composition, Memoire de Laika (1990) incorporates spoken text about the dog. Most recently, the Japanese rock band Asian Kung-Fu Generation has included a song titled "Laika" in their album World World World (2008). Laika Dog is a rock band fronted by former Terrorvision frontman Tony_Wright. ... Laika & the Cosmonauts are a Finnish rock band. ... This article is about the Too Pure band. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit. ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ... In music, a band is a company of musicians, or musical ensemble, usually popular or folk, playing parts of or improvising a musical arrangement on different musical instruments. ... For the toy construction material, see Meccano. ... Arcade Fire is an indie rock band based in Montreal, Quebec which is based around the husband and wife duo of Win Butler and Régine Chassagne. ... Moxy Früvous was a folk-pop, socially conscious, politically-satirical band (1990-ca. ... The Cardigans are a Swedish band formed in the town of Jönköping in 1992. ... C.C.C.P. was a German high-energy techno band, led by Rasputin Stoy. ... Akino Arai ) is a Japanese singer, song-writer, and lyricist, best known for her works in anime such as Outlaw Star, Noir, Macross Plus, and many others. ... Ã…ge Aleksandersen (born March 21, 1949) is one of the most famous rock n rollers from Namsos in Trøndelag, Norway. ... The Divine Comedy is a pop band from Northern Ireland fronted by Neil Hannon. ... This article is about a rock band. ... The Motorhomes was a Swedish rockband from Jönköping that was created in 1997. ... Neighborhood #2 (Laïka) (commonly known simply as Laika) is the second single by Canadian rock band The Arcade Fire from their debut album Funeral. ... Arcade Fire is an indie rock band based in Montreal, Quebec which is based around the husband and wife duo of Win Butler and Régine Chassagne. ... Mighty Sparrow (real name Slinger Francisco) is a Calypso singer, songwriter, and guitarist. ... Pond was a Portland, Oregon band that formed in 1992 and broke up around 1998. ... For the masturbatory practice see mutual masturbation. ... Spacemonkeyz (also spelled Space Monkeyz) are a muscial group consisting of Darren Galea, Richie Stevens and Gavin Dodds. ... Gorillaz is the eponymous debut album by Gorillaz, released in March 2001. ... Laika Come Home is a Gorillaz remix album released in July 2002 (see 2002 in music). ... György Kurtág (born February 19, 1926) is a Hungarian composer of contemporary music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The 2007 video for the Trentemøller song, Moan, was about Laika. In the 1985 Swedish film My Life as a Dog (Mitt liv som hund), the protagonist—a boy who feels powerless over his own fate—compares himself to Laika. Anders Trentemøller is a Danish electronic musician from Copenhagen. ... My Life as a Dog (Swedish Mitt liv som hund) is a Swedish film from 1985 directed by Lasse Hallström and based on a novel by Reidar Jönsson. ...


See also

Strelka (pictured left) and Belka (right) orbited the Earth and returned safely on Korabl-Sputnik-5 During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used a number of dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible. ... Squirrel monkey Baker rode a Jupiter missile (modeled above) into space in 1959 Animals in space originally served to test the survivability of spaceflight before manned space missions were attempted. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Message from the First Dog in Space Received 45 Years Too Late. Dogs in the News (2002-11-03). Retrieved on 2006-10-04.
  2. ^ http://www.space.com/news/080411-laika-monument.html
  3. ^ a b James J. Harford (1997). Korolev's Triple Play: Sputniks 1, 2, and 3. NASA. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  4. ^ a b c Anatoly Zak (1999-11-03). The True Story of Laika the Dog. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  5. ^ a b Malashenkov, D. C. (2002). Abstract:Some Unknown Pages of the Living Organisms' First Orbital Flight. ADS. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Sven Grahn. Sputnik-2, more news from distant history. Retrieved on 2004-12-01.
  7. ^ Tara Gray (1998). A Brief History of Animals in Space. NASA. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  8. ^ Space Dog Lives. The British Library. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  9. ^ Andrew J. LePage (1997). Sputnik 2: The First Animal in Orbit. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  10. ^ a b Dogs in space. Space Today Online (2004). Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  11. ^ Dr David Whitehouse (2002-10-28). First dog in space died within hours. BBC. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  12. ^ a b c d e Animals as Cold Warriors:Missiles, Medicine and Man's Best Friend. National Library of Medicine (2006-06-19). Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  13. ^ Russia Opens Monument to Space Dog Laika. AP (2008-04-12). Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
  14. ^ Memorial to Laika. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  15. ^ a b Sputnik 2. NASA (2005-10-20). Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  16. ^ John B. West (October 2001). "Historical aspects of the early Soviet/Russian manned space program". Journal of Applied Psychology 91 (4): 1501–1511. Retrieved on 28 September 2006. 
  17. ^ a b c The Story of Laika. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  18. ^ On this day. BBC (1957-11-03). Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  19. ^ Human Guinea Pigs and Sputnik 2. National Society for Medical Research (November 1957). Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  20. ^ NASA Mars Rover Status Report: 17 March 2005. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2005-03-18). Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  21. ^ Russia opens monument to space dog Laika. AP via Yahoo! News (2008-04-11). Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
  22. ^ (Russian)(Video) Памятник четвероногому космонавту. NTV (2008-04-11). Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
  23. ^ Talking with Nick Abadzis about Laika, Newsarama, September 19, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  24. ^ Sacks, Jason. Review of Laika, Silver Bullet Comic Books, August 29, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.

Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Newsarama. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Laika
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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


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Laika - Home (828 words)
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