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Encyclopedia > Lahore
Lahore
لاہور
General Information
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab
Coordinates 31°32′59″N 74°20′37″E / 31.54972, 74.34361Coordinates: 31°32′59″N 74°20′37″E / 31.54972, 74.34361
Elevation 217 m (712 ft) AMSL
Area 1,772 km² (684 sq mi)
Calling code 042
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
No. of Towns 9
Population 8,896,000 (2006)
Density 3,660/km² (9,479/sq mi)
Government
Nazim (Mayor) Mian Amer Mehmood
Naib Nazim (Deputy Mayor) Muhammad Idress Hanif
No. of Union Councils 150
Emblem
Website
Lahore Government Website

Lahore  (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced [lahor]) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. It is popularly known as the Heart of Pakistan, due to its historical importance in the creation of Pakistan, and also being a cultural, political and educational centre of the country. It is also often called the Gardens of the Mughals or the City of Gardens because of the heritage of the Mughal Empire. It is located near the Ravi River and Wagah, close to the Pakistan-India border. Image File history File links Minar_e_Pakistan_(Lahore). ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Currently, Pakistan is subdivided into four provinces, two territories, and also portions of Kashmir that are administered by the Pakistani government. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Pakistan Standard Time (PST) is the time zone for Pakistan. ... UTC +5 is the timezone for : Pakistan Standard Time in Pakistan. ... A street in Ynysybwl, Wales, relatively stereotypical of a small town A town is usually an urban area which is not considered to rank as a city. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Nazim (Urdu: ناظم ) is the Coordinator of cities and towns in Pakistan. ... Union Council Union Council is a sub part of a district, usually it is a large village also including the nearby small villages. ... Image File history File links Lahore_Emblem. ... Image File history File links Lahore_pronunciation. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Shahmukhi (شاہ Ù…Ú©Ú¾ÛŒ) is a script used to record the Punjabi language. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Flag Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... Image of Indo-Pakistani border ceremony in Wagah from Michael Palins BBC TV series Himalaya. The Khaki-uniformed guards are Indian, while the green/black/grey-uniformed ones are Pakistani. ...


Much of Lahore's architecture from the Mughal and colonial eras has been preserved. Mughal structures such as the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens and the mausoleums of Jehangir and Nur Jehan are popular tourist spots in the city. Colonial British structures such as the Lahore High Court, General Post Office (GPO) and many of the older universities still retain their Mughal-Gothic style. View from Minto Park The Badshahi Mosque (Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. ... Jahangirs mausoleum in Shahdara, Lahore Tomb of Jahangir, is the mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who ruled from 1605 to 1627. ... Mughal empress Nur Jehan. ... The Lahore High Court is based in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ...


Punjabi is the native language of the province and is the most widely-spoken language in Lahore and rural areas. Urdu and English, however, are becoming more popular with younger generations since they are officially supported, whereas Punjabi has no official patronage. Many people of Lahore who speak Punjabi are known as Lahori Punjabi due to their use of a mixture of Punjabi and colloquial Urdu. According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was nearly 7 million. Mid-2006 government estimates now put the population at approximately 10 million.[1] This makes Lahore the fifth largest city in South Asia and the 23rd largest city in the world. “Punjabi” redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... This page lists the 101 largest metropolitan areas of the world by population. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Lahore

The known history of Lahore, a district of modern-day Pakistan, covers thousands of years. ...

Ancient Lahore

Lahori Gate, which opens to the most ancient districts of Lahore in the walled city known in old times as kacha kot
Lahori Gate, which opens to the most ancient districts of Lahore in the walled city known in old times as kacha kot

Ptolemy, the celebrated astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated on the route between the Indus River and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna), in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir), described as extending along the rivers Bidastes (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris (Ravi). This city may be ancient Lahore. [citation needed] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... The Geographia is Ptolemys main work besides the Almagest. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... For other uses, see Patna (disambiguation). ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Jhelum or Jehlum may mean: Jhelum River in India and Pakistan Jhelum City in Punjab, Pakistan Jhelum District in Punjab, Pakistan This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Chenab River rises in the Himalayan ranges of Kashmir and flows through the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and the Jech Doabs. ... Ravi may refer to: Ravi, a Hindu solar deity. ...


Another legend, based on oral traditions, states that Lahore was named after Lava, son of the Hindu god Rama, who supposedly founded the city. To this day, the Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated to Lava (also pronounced Loh, hence "Loh-awar" or The Fort of Loh). Likewise, the Ravi River that flows through northern Lahore was named for the Hindu goddess Durga.[2] Lava and his twin brother Kusha are the children of the Hindu God Rama and his wife Sita Devi, whose story is told in the Ramayana. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Rama ( in IAST, in Devanāgarī) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ...


The oldest authentic document about Lahore was written anonymously in 982 and is called Hudud-i-Alam[3]. It was translated into English by Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky and published in Lahore in 1927. In this document, Lahore is referred to as a small shahr (city) with "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards." It refers to "two major markets around which dwellings exist," and it also mentions "the mud walls that enclose these two dwellings to make it one." The original document is currently held in the British Museum. [4]. Lahore was called by different names in history, and to date there is no evidence to suggest the actual time, when the city was made, some historians trace the history of the city as far as 4000 years ago.[5]. Hudud ul-alam min al-mashriq ila al-maghrib (حدود العالم من المشرق الی المغرب) meaning The Limits of The World from The East to The West is an Arabic tenth century geography book written by an unknown author. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky (Russian: ; February 5, 1877 - March 25, 1966) was a highly respected Russian Orientalist best known for his contributions to Persian history, geography, literature, and culture. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... The British Museum in London, England is a museum of human history and culture. ...


Early Muslim era

Mahmud and AyazSultan Mahmud is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. The figure to his right is Shah Abbas I, who reigned about 600 years later.Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Tehran
Mahmud and Ayaz
Sultan Mahmud is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. The figure to his right is Shah Abbas I, who reigned about 600 years later.
Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Tehran

Few references to Lahore exist for times before its capture by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in the eleventh century. In 1021, Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz to the throne and made Lahore the capital of the Ghaznavid Empire. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x740, 588 KB) Summary The Sultan (in red robe) is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz (in green robe) standing behind him. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x740, 588 KB) Summary The Sultan (in red robe) is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz (in green robe) standing behind him. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ...


The sultan took Lahore after a long siege and battle in which the city was torched and depopulated. As the first Muslim ruler of Lahore, Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city. He added many important features, such as city gates and a masonry fort, built in 1037-1040 on the ruins of the previous one, which had been demolished in the fighting (as recorded by Munshi Sujan Rae Bhandari, author of the Khulasatut Tawarikh in 1695-96).[citation needed] The present Lahore Fort stands in the same location. Under his rule, the city became a cultural and academic center, renowned for poetry. The tomb of Malik Ayaz can still be seen in the Rang Mahal commercial area of town.


After the fall of the Ghaznavid Empire, Lahore was ruled by various Muslim dynasties known as the Delhi Sultanate, including the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Sayyid, Lodhis and Suris.[6] When Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aybak was crowned here in 1206, he became the first Muslim sultan of the Indian subcontinent[citation needed]. It was not until 1524 that Lahore became part of the Mughal Empire. The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Khilji or Khalji were a dynasty of Indian rulers. ... The Tughlaq Dynasty (Persian: سلطنت تغلق) of north India started in 1321 in Delhi when Ghazi Tughlaq assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. ... rulers of Indias Delhi sultanate (c. ... The Lodi Dynasty ( 1451 to 1526), was the last phase of the Delhi Sultanate. ... The Sur dynasty was an Afghan family, founded by Sher Shah after his defeat of Humayun in 1539, ruled in the north of India between 1540 and 1556. ... Qutb-ud-din Aybak was a ruler of Medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Flag Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857...


Mughal era

Roshnai Gate - Original gate built by Mughal emperor Akbar.
Roshnai Gate - Original gate built by Mughal emperor Akbar.

Lahore reached a peak of architectural glory during the rule of the Mughals, whose buildings and gardens survived the hazards of time. Lahore's reputation for beauty fascinated the English poet John Milton, who wrote "Agra and Lahore, the Seat of Great Mughal" in 1670[7]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 252 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Lahore Fort ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 252 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Lahore Fort ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2270x1514, 427 KB) Summary A 4 Megapixel picture of Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2270x1514, 427 KB) Summary A 4 Megapixel picture of Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Masjid (بادشاەى مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ...


From 1524 to 1752, Lahore was part of the Mughal Empire, and from 1584 to 1598, during the rule of Mughal emperor Akbar, the city served as its capital. During this time, the massive infamous Lahore Fort was built. A few buildings within the fort were added by Akbar's son, Mughal emperor Jahangir, who is buried in the city. Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan, was born in Lahore. He, like his father, extended the Lahore Fort and built many other structures in the city, including the Shalimar Gardens. The last of the great Mughals, Aurangzeb, who ruled from 1658 to 1707, built the city's most famous monuments, the Badshahi Masjid and the Alamgiri Gate next to the Lahore Fort. This area attracts many tourists and is used by the government for public speeches and social events. Flag Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... n ... Jahangirs mausoleum in Shahdara, Lahore Tomb of Jahangir, is the mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who ruled from 1605 to 1627. ... Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Masjid (بادشاەى مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Alamgiri Gate as depicted on the reverse of a 50 Rupee Banknote The Alamgiri Gate (عالمگيرى داروازا)is the main entrance to the Lahore Fort in present day Pakistan. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ...


Sikh Rule

Mausoleum of Ranjit Singh
Mausoleum of Ranjit Singh

During the 18th century, as Mughal power dwindled, Lahore was often invaded. The city was a suba, a province of the Afghan Empire, governed by provincial rulers with their own court. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 221 KB) This is the picture of the mausoleum of Ranjit Singh or the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 221 KB) This is the picture of the mausoleum of Ranjit Singh or the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ...


The 1740s were years of chaos, and the city had nine different governors between 1745 and 1756. Invasions and chaos in local government allowed bands of warring Sikhs to gain control in some areas. In 1799, all Sikh Misls (warring bands) joined into one to form a sovereign Sikh state ruled by Maharaja Ranjit Singh from the royal capital, Lahore[8]. Misl refers to a fighting clan. ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ...


British rule

Map of Lahore 1893
Map of Lahore 1893

The second and final Anglo-Sikh war brought Lahore under the rule of the British crown. During their reign (1849-1947), British construction in Lahore combined Mughal, Gothic and Victorian styles. The GPO and YMCA buildings in Lahore commemorated the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria, an event marked by the construction of clock towers and monuments all over India. Other important British buildings included the High Court, the Government College University, the museums, the National College of Arts, Montgomery Hall, Tollinton Market, the University of the Punjab (Old Campus) and the Provincial Assembly. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1273x937, 205 KB) Map of Lahore (1893) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1273x937, 205 KB) Map of Lahore (1893) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... There have been two Anglo-Sikh wars: The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846) The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-1849) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... Manchester Town Hall is an example of Victorian architecture found in Manchester, UK. The Carson Mansion is an example of a Victorian home in Eureka, California, USA The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles predominantly in the Victorian era. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... GCU Clock Tower Government College University, Lahore is a co-educational public university located on The Mall in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Lahore Museum, established in 1894, when Lahore (currently a part of Pakistan) was a part of Undivided India, is a major museum of the Indian subcontinent. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... University of the Punjab (abbreviated as PU) (Urdu: جامعه پنجاب), colloquially known as Punjab University, is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ...


At one end of The Mall stands the university, perhaps the largest center of education in Asia.[citation needed] The city has built a new campus in quieter environments on the Canal Bank, but the old university buildings are still functioning. The Mall in Lahore, Pakistan (also known as Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam), is one of the citys main roads, and, along with the Grand Trunk Road, one of its most famous as well. ...


For the sake of entertainment, the British introduced horse-racing to Lahore. The first racing club, established in 1924, is called LRC or Lahore Race Club. Lahore Race Club was established in 1924. ...


Role in independence

Minar-e-Pakistan, where the Pakistan Resolution was passed
Minar-e-Pakistan, where the Pakistan Resolution was passed

Lahore enjoys a special position in the history of India's freedom-struggle. The 1929 Congress session was held at Lahore. In this Congress, a resolution of "complete independence" was moved by Pandit Nehru and passed unanimously at midnight on 31 December 1929.[9] On this occasion, the contemporary tricolour of India (with a chakra at its centre) was hoisted as a national flag, and thousands of people saluted it. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 188 KB) Image Info: Description: A panoramic view of the Minar-e-Pakistan, taken from the Lahore Fort. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 188 KB) Image Info: Description: A panoramic view of the Minar-e-Pakistan, taken from the Lahore Fort. ... The Minar-e-Pakistan, south view (click for hi-res image) . Minar-e-Pakistan, east view The Minar-e-Pakistan is a tall structure of concrete that was built in Iqbal Park in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Pakistan Resolution was passed by the All India Muslim League on March 24, 1940 in Lahore. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Indian National Flag Flag ratio: 2:3 The National Flag of India was adopted in its present form during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947, a few days before Indias independence from the British on 15 August, 1947. ... For the Naruto jutsu, see Chakra (Naruto). ...


Lahore prison was a place to detain revolutionary freedom fighters. Noted freedom fighter Jatin Das died in Lahore prison after fasting for 63 days in protest of British treatment of political prisoners. One of the greatest martyrs in the history of Indian independence, Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh, was hanged in Lahore Jail[10].[citation needed] Jatindra Nath Das (also known as Jatin Das) (27 October 1904 - 13 September 1929) was an Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary. ... Bhagat Singh (Punjabi,Gurmukhi: ਭਗਤ ਸਿੰਘ) (Urdu-Shahmukhi: ) (September 27,[1] 1907–March 23, 1931) was an Indian freedom fighter, considered to be one of the most famous revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement. ...


The most important session of the All India Muslim League, later the Pakistan Muslim League, the premier party fighting for Indian independence and the creation of Pakistan, was held in Lahore in 1940.[11] Muslims under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam demanded a separate homeland for Muslims of India in a document known as the Pakistan Resolution or the Lahore Resolution. During this session, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, leader of the league, publicly proposed the Two Nation Theory for the first time. Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. ... Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India and was the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Minar-e-Pakistan, where Pakistan Resolution was passed The Lahore Resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution,[1] was the National documentation and a formal political statement adopted by the All India Muslim League at the occasion of its three-day general session on 22-24 March 1940 that called... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was a Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Two-Nation theory is the basis of creation of todays Pakistan. ...


Modern history

Lahore is regarded as the heart of Pakistan and was known as the Paris of the East before the riots of 1947. [citation needed] Among all cities of India, Lahore suffered the greatest loss due to the Partition of Punjab in 1947. This article is under construction. ...


At independence, Lahore was made capital of Punjab province in the new state of Pakistan. After 1947, Lahore was affected by large-scale riots among Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs that led to huge structural damage to historic monuments such as the Lahore Fort, Badshahi mosque and other colonial buildings[12]. This article is about the Pakistani province. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Mosque (Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ...


With United Nations assistance, the government was able to re-build Lahore. The second Islamic Summit Conference was held in the city[13]. In 1996 the ICC Cricket World Cup final match was held at the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore, and Lahore along with Colombo is to host the semi finals of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.[14]. The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ... ICC may refer to: // ICC Bank, Ireland ICC Productions, hip-hop record label International Chamber of Commerce, supporting global trade and globalisation Internet Chess Club, a commercial Internet site on which to play chess International Christian Communications Media Group International Code Council Membership association dedicated to building safety and fire... The 1996 Cricket World Cup was won by Sri Lanka who beat Australia by 7 wickets at the final in Lahore. ... Gaddafi Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: , District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... The 2011 Cricket World Cup will be the tenth time this tournament has been held, and will be held in the four Asian Test cricket playing countries Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. ...


Geography and climate

Lying between 31°15′ and 31°45′ North latitude and 74°01′ and 74°39′ East longitude, Lahore is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura District, on the east by Wagah, and on the south by Kasur District. The Ravi River flows on the northern side of Lahore. Lahore city covers a total land area of 404 km² and is still growing. Sheikhupura District is one of the districts in the province of Punjab , Pakistan. ... Image of Indo-Pakistani border ceremony in Wagah from Michael Palins BBC TV series Himalaya. The Khaki-uniformed guards are Indian, while the green/black/grey-uniformed ones are Pakistani. ... Kasur District is one of the districts in the province of ( Punjab , Pakistan. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ...


The weather of Lahore is extreme during the months of May, June, and July, when the temperatures soar to 40–45 °C. In August, the monsoon seasons starts, with heavy rainfall throughout the province. December, January, and February are the coldest months, when temperatures can drop to -1 °C.[citation needed]


The city’s highest maximum temperature was 48 °C, recorded on June 6, 1921, and again on June 9, 2007.[15] At the time the meteorological office recorded this official temperature in the shade, it reported a heat index in direct sunlight of 55 °C.[citation needed] is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Government

The City-District of Lahore comprises nine administrative towns and one separate military cantonment, but Lahore also has some historic neighbourhoods.

Administrative towns

Localities Gulberg (Urdu: گلبرگ )is one of the residential/commercial areas of Lahore. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Neighbourhoods Ichhra (also called the Heart of Lahore) is a commercial and residencial locality in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Hassan Town is a locality on Multan Road in Lahore, Pakistan. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Garden Town is an area located in Western Lahore. ... Allama Iqbal Town also used to be known as 1600 aiker (aiker as in hectare) Iqbal Town (also known as Allama Iqbal Town) is a nice locality in the city of Lahore. ... Faisal Town (Urdu: فیصل ٹاؤن) is one of the major residential areas of Lahore, close to Model Town. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... WAPDA Town is one of the residential areas of Lahore. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term township is used to denote a lower level territorial subdivision. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sanda Sanda - Eurovision Song Contest 2004 Sanda Ladoşi Sanda Ladoşi (born 2nd January 1970) whose stage name is Sanda, is a famous Romanian singer. ...

Shad Bagh is a prominent area of northern Lahore in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Gawalmandi is an old area in the central part of Lahore, which is famous for its cultural and entertainment reasons in the country. ... The term township is used to denote a lower level territorial subdivision. ... Shahdara Bagh, Lahore is a suburb of Lahore. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Krishan Nagar is part of Islampura neighborhood of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... Model of Walled City of Lahore (19th Century) The Walled City of Lahore, also known as the Old City, or Anderoon Shehr (اندرون شهر), is the section of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan that was fortified by a city wall during the Mughal era. ...

Demographics

According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was nearly 6.8 million. Mid-2006 government estimates put the population at somewhere around 10 million, which makes it the second largest city in Pakistan, after Karachi.[16] It is considered to be one of the 30 largest cities of the world. Also according to the 1998 census, 86.2%, or 6,896,000 of the population are Punjabis and 10.2% or 816,000 are Muhajir. More than a million Pashtun live in Lahore, the vast majority of whom are settling. Finally, the Seraikis at 0.4% number about 32,000[17]. Figures are unavailable for the many Afghan refugees and migrants from Iran who have permanently settled in Lahore but were not included in the census.   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... This page lists the 101 largest metropolitan areas of the world by population. ... The Punjabi people (Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, پنجابی, also Panjabi people) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group from South Asia. ... Muhajir or Mohajir (Arabic: مهاجر) is an Arabic word meaning refugee or immigrant or emigrant. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... The Seraikis (also spelt as Saraikis) are a people in the southern areas of Pakistani Punjab. ... The Muhajir or Mohajir Afghans are the Afghan refugees that fled Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979. ...


Many languages are spoken in Lahore, including Punjabi, Urdu, Pashto, and English. According to the 1998 census, 96% of Lahore's population is Muslim. Other religions include Christians and a small number of Bahais, Hindus, Parsis, and Sikhs.[citation needed] “Punjabi” redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... a person from Pars (the middle-Persian word for Fars), a region now within the geographical boundaries of Iran, and is roughly the original homeland of the Persian people. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ...


Cityscape

Architecture

Diwan-e-Aam: Hall of Public Audience (arched vault and ceiling not original)
Main Boulevard passes through the district of Gulberg

The architecture of Lahore reflects the history of the city and is remarkable for its unique variety. Structures remain from ancient Mughal times, while other buildings reflect the tastes of the British Raj, the mixed Victorian and Islamic style of which is often referred to as Mughal Gothic.[citation needed] Lahore also has buildings of modern design. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 281 KB) Summary Picture by Kaiser Tufail, 25 Sep 2006 [email protected] ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 281 KB) Summary Picture by Kaiser Tufail, 25 Sep 2006 [email protected] ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x679, 209 KB) Summary Public domain image. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x679, 209 KB) Summary Public domain image. ... The Architecture of Lahore reflects the history of Lahore and is remarkable for its variety and uniqueness. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Public space

Shopping

Lahore's tech bazaars include the Hall Road Electronics market adjacent to the Mall Road and the Hafeez Centre located on the Gulberg Main Boulevard. Pace, a shopping centre once thought to be owned by Imran Khan, is also located on the Main Boulevard beside the Hafeez Centre. Other well-known and popular shopping areas are the Liberty Market in Gulberg and at the Fortress Stadium, as well as malls in Gulberg, Model Town, MM Alam Road, and Cantonment. Apart from these, shopping areas are being developed in many of Lahore's new suburbs such as Bahria, Lake City, and Cantonment. For the cricketer of the same name from the West Indies, see Imran Khan (Trinidad and Tobago cricketer). ... Gulberg is one of the residential/commercial areas of Lahore. ... The Fortress Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Smederevo, Serbia. ...


For traditional shopping, the Anarkali and Ichhra bazaars are the most popular of many in the city.[citation needed] The alleys and lanes of these bazaars are full of traditional wares like leather articles, embroidered garments, glass bangles, beaten gold and silver jewelry, and creations in silk. Anarkali is named after the famous courtesan of Akbar’s time, Anarkali (Pomegranate Blossom). The grave of Sultan Qutbuddin Aibak, who died falling off his horse while playing polo, is located in Anarkali on Aibak Road. Mahmud Ghaznavi's general, Malik Ayaz, lies buried in the commercial area of Rang Mahal.[citation needed]. Rang Mahal is part of old Lahore and todays houses a largest wholesale and retail cloth markets in Punjab. Anarkali Bazar is a famous and popular market in Lahore, Punjab Pakistan. ... Ichhra (also called the Heart of Lahore) is a commercial and residencial locality in Lahore, Pakistan. ... A bazaar is a market, often covered, typically found in areas of Muslim culture. ... Imaginary painting of AnārkalÄ« by renowned artist Abdul Rehman Chughtai Anarkali (Urdu: اناركلى; Hindi: अनारकली; anārkalÄ«) (pomegranate blossom) is a bazār (market) located on Mall Road in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Qutb-ud-din Aybak (Persian: قطب الدین ایبک) was a ruler of medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Look up Punjab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Restaurants and cafés

View of Food Street in Lahore
View of Food Street in Lahore

Lahoris are known for their love of food and eating.[citation needed] While Lahore has a great many traditional and modern restaurants, in recent years Western fast food chains, such as McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Subway Sandwiches, Dunkin Donuts, Nando's and Kentucky Fried Chicken have appeared all over the city. Recently the food streets in the historic locales of Lahore (Gawalmandi, Anarkali, and Badshahi) have attracted tourists. Food streets have undergone restorations and are cordoned off in the evenings for pedestrian traffic only; numerous cafés serve local delicacies under the lights and balconies of restored havelis (traditional residential dwellings). File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food restaurant or shop at low cost. ... McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... Pizza Hut Inc. ... Subway is the name of a multinational restaurant franchise that sells sandwiches and salads. ... Categories: Corporation stubs | Food companies of the United States | Donuts | Corporations with naming rights of indoor arenas ... The Nandos logo. ... KFC (full name Kentucky Fried Chicken) is a division of Yum! Brands, Inc. ... Food Street in Gawalmandi, Lahore is a centre of traditional Pakistani food. ... Gawalmandi is an old area in the central part of Lahore, which is famous for its cultural and entertainment reasons in the country. ... Imaginary painting of AnārkalÄ« by renowned artist Abdul Rehman Chughtai Anarkali (Urdu: اناركلى; Hindi: अनारकली; anārkalÄ«) (pomegranate blossom) is a bazār (market) located on Mall Road in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... View of a typical Haveli at Jaisalmer, Rajasthan Haveli (Urdu: حویلی, Hindi: हवेली) is the term used for a private residence in Pakistan and North India. ...


Some of the trendiest restaurants in Lahore are concentrated on the M M Alam Road in Gulberg. Here, dozens of high-class culinary outlets, ranging from Western franchises to traditional, ethnic, or theme restaurants, attract all classes of Lahore's citizens. New restaurants are constantly opening, and the business is extremely competitive. Many boisterous restaurants of Lahore are open late into the night. Muhammad Mahmood Alam (Bengali: , Urdu: محمد محمود عالم) or shortly M. M. Alam is a retired Air Commodore of Pakistan Air Force. ...


One of Lahore's unique café restaurants is "Coocoo's Den", located in the old city just behind the Badshahi Mosque and Lahore Fort at the edge of Lahore's red light district.[citation needed] The restaurant is housed in a 300-year-old Kothi-style dwelling of a famous artist and was once a brothel. At different times in the life of this property, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, and Muslim families have owned it. Another famous Lahore landmark is the Pak Tea House in Anarkali, long a favoured haunt of intellectuals and artists. View from Minto Park The Badshahi Mosque (Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... Kothi or Koti is one of the most well-known and busiest districts of Hyderabad, the capital city of Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Pak Tea House is a cafe in Lahore, Pakistan that has traditionally been frequented by the citys artisitic, cultural and literary personalities. ... Imaginary painting of AnārkalÄ« by renowned artist Abdul Rehman Chughtai Anarkali (Urdu: اناركلى; Hindi: अनारकली; anārkalÄ«) (pomegranate blossom) is a bazār (market) located on Mall Road in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ...


Gardens and parks

The Shalimar Gardens built by Emperor Shah Jehan
The Shalimar Gardens built by Emperor Shah Jehan

Lahore is known as the City of Gardens.[citation needed] There were many gardens in Lahore during the Mughal era, and although some have since been destroyed, many still survive. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 316 KB) Image Info: <-: Description: The Shalamar Garden :-> The first pavilion on the first level of the Garden, and the fountains leading up to it. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 316 KB) Image Info: <-: Description: The Shalamar Garden :-> The first pavilion on the first level of the Garden, and the fountains leading up to it. ... Shalimar Gardens is the name of several royal gardens built by the nobility (Mian) of the Mughal Empire during the rule of various emperors, such as Jahangir and Shah Jahan. ...


The Shalimar Gardens were laid out during the reign of Shah Jahan and were designed to mimic the Islamic paradise of the afterlife described in the Quran. The gardens follow the familiar charbagh model (four squares) with three descending terraces.[citation needed] Shalimar Gardens is the name of several royal gardens built by the nobility (Mian) of the Mughal Empire during the rule of various emperors, such as Jahangir and Shah Jahan. ... Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qur&#702;&#257;n &#1571;&#1614;&#1604;&#1618;&#1602;&#1615;&#1585;&#1570;&#1606;; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Charbagh is a Mughal Empire style garden in Taj Mahal, divided into four parts. ...


The Lawrence Gardens were established in 1862 and were originally named after Sir John Lawrence, late 19th century British Viceroy to India. The gardens were organized in an area covering 112 acres (0.5 km²).[citation needed] The British East India Company vowed that it would provide for the garden 80,000 saplings of 600 different species from every corner of the world. After money was collected from the sale of Badami Bagh, the soldiers' bazaar at Anarkali, and from a grant by the Company Bahadur (an extension of the East India Company), the land was purchased in the year 1860. Today it is known as Bagh-e-Jinnah.[citation needed] Lawrence Gardens is a vast garden in the heart of the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... The companys flag initially had the flag of England, the St Georges Cross, in the canton The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as John Company, and Company Bahadur in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first... Badami Bagh is a cantonment town in Srinagar district in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, India. ... Imaginary painting of AnārkalÄ« by renowned artist Abdul Rehman Chughtai Anarkali (Urdu: اناركلى; Hindi: अनारकली; anārkalÄ«) (pomegranate blossom) is a bazār (market) located on Mall Road in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... Bagh-e-Jinnah (Urdu: باغ جناح ) is a historical garden in the city of Lahore, Pakistan. ...


The many other gardens and parks in the city include Hazuri Bagh, Iqbal Park, Mochi Bagh, Gulshan Iqbal Park, Model Town Park, Race Course Park, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Jallo Park, Wild Life Park, and Changa Manga, an artificial forest near Lahore in the Kasur district. Categories: Stub | Gardens ... Iqbal Park is a park in Lahore, Pakistan, which was built solely for one purpose - provide a setting for the display of the minar-e-Pakistan. ... The Mochi Bagh is Pakistans most famous political rally spot. ... The Changa Manga forest in Chunian is one of the largest planted forests in Pakistan and is located about 70km south of Lahore. ... Kasur (Urdu/Punjabi: قصور), the city of Bulleh Shah, located 55 km southeast of Lahore, is one of the oldest cities in Pakistan. ...


Education

See also: List of educational institutions in Lahore
Punjab University Old Campus
Punjab University Old Campus

Lahore is known as the education capital of Pakistan, with more colleges and universities than any other city in the country.[18] Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities.[citation needed] LUMS, the Lahore University of Management Sciences, is the most renowned business school in Pakistan.Lahore School of Economics is also a renowed business school of Pakistan and is regarded after LUMS in Lahore. The University of Lahore, in the private sector, is located in the industrial area of the city, where students have opportunities to get jobs and internships.[citation needed] Educational institutions in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Image File history File links June21-2004-ThePunjabUniversity-OldCampusBuilding-1. ... Image File history File links June21-2004-ThePunjabUniversity-OldCampusBuilding-1. ...


The University of the Punjab is the oldest institute of higher learning in the country.[19] NCA, the National College of Arts, is the oldest and most renowned arts college of Pakistan.[citation needed] The oldest institution of Pakistan, Government College Lahore (now University) is also situated in Lahore. It was established in 1864. University of the Punjab (abbreviated as PU) (Urdu: جامعه پنجاب), colloquially known as Punjab University, is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ...


UET, Lahore is the one of the most highly regarded engineering universities in Pakistan.[20] COMSATS is also a well-known institute recently awarded the university charter.[21] University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, commonly referred to as UET Lahore is one of the leading engineering universities of Pakistan, and the oldest of them all, offering Bachelor, Master, and Doctoral degrees in a variety of disciplines. ... For the Winnipeg, Manitoba television station, see CIIT-TV The Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South (COMSATS) is an international organization. ...


Transportation

The Allama Iqbal International Airport: one of the largest international airports in Pakistan

Lahore is one of the most accessible cities of Pakistan.[citation needed] In addition to the historic Grand Trunk Road (G.T. road), a motorway was completed in 1997 from Lahore to Islamabad. The government has built underpasses to ease congestion and prevent traffic jams, and according to official figures, Lahore has the highest number of underpasses in Pakistan.[citation needed] Lahore has high levels of air pollution and smog, mostly due to the growth of industry. Air pollution is reaching record peaks, and smog is often thick.[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore. ... The Grand Trunk Road (abbreviated to GT Road in common usage) is one of South Asias oldest and longest major roads. ... For other places called Islamabad, see Islamabad (disambiguation). ...


The Pakistan Railways headquarters is located in Lahore.[citation needed] Pakistan Railways provides an important mode of transportation for commuters and connects distant parts of the country with Lahore for business, sight-seeing, pilgrimage, and education. The Lahore Central Railway Station, built during the British colonial era, is located in the heart of the city. Pakistan Railways is the state-owned railway company of Pakistan. ... The Lahore Railway Station in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan was built by the British colonists. ...


To accommodate increased air travel, the government built a new city airport in 2003.[citation needed] It was named Allama Iqbal International Airport after the national poet of Pakistan, Mohammed Iqbal, and is served by international airlines as well as the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines. The previous airport now operates as the Hajj Terminal to facilitate the great influx of pilgrims traveling to Saudi Arabia to perform the hajj every year.[citation needed] Allama Iqbal International Airport (IATA: LHE, ICAO: OPLA) is Pakistans second largest civil airport after Jinnah International Airport. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... Pakistan International Airlines Corporation, more commonly known as Pakistan International Airlines or PIA (Urdu: Ù¾ÛŒ آئی اے يا پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایرلاینز), is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan, based in Karachi. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

Lahore Railway Station

Despite these improvements, Lahore struggles for safety on its roads, which are dangerous because the number of vehicles overwhelms the road space.[citation needed] Massive congestion occurs every day as millions of Lahoris travel through disorganised, fast-moving traffic, and accidents are rife.[citation needed] The government is trying to improve traffic conditions by constructing overhead bridges, underpasses, and conducting public safety campaigns. Plans exist for a mass-transit system in the city and a high-speed railway between Lahore and Rawalpindi.[citation needed] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ...


Economy

Central to Lahore's economy is the Lahore Stock Exchange (LSE), Pakistan's second largest stock exchange.[citation needed] Lahore has offices of all Pakistani government corporations including the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and the Water and Sewage Authority (WASA). It also hosts the country's largest information technology (IT) companies, most of which are located in the IT park, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of Pakistan's software exports.[citation needed] Food and restaurant businesses remain open all night. The shopping markets are usually open late into the night.[citation needed] Lahore is the second largest financial hub of Pakistan and has industrial areas including Kot Lakhpat and the new Sundar Industrial Estate (near Raiwand). This organization, company, or building article needs to be wikified. ... Water And Power Development Authority (WAPDA) is the acronym for the government owned firm known to produce electricity across Pakistan, to maintain energy creating plants and supply water to public. ... Wasa may refer to any of the following: House of Vasa, the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668) The city of Vaasa, Finlands elderly (and Latin) name is Wasa. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ...

Water And Power Development Authority (WAPDA) House Building
Water And Power Development Authority (WAPDA) House Building

As Lahore expands, former residential areas are being turned into commercial centres, and the suburban population is constantly moving outwards. This has resulted in the development of the Liberty Market, the MM Alam Road, the new Jail Road (which has some of the largest office buildings in Lahore), and the new eight-lane Main Boulevard, which has some of Lahore's largest and finest shopping centres.[citation needed] Image File history File links Wapdahouse. ... Image File history File links Wapdahouse. ...


The suburban population's move from commercial areas to less busy areas supports a thriving construction industry and several large housing projects including Bahria Town, Lake City, Eden Villas, and a project by the Dhabi Group (a joint Pakistan-UAE partnership) to construct a new city on the outskirts of Lahore.[citation needed] Lake City is the name of a number of places in the United States: Lake City, Arkansas Lake City, Colorado Lake City, Florida Lake City, Georgia Lake City, Iowa Lake City, Michigan Lake City, Minnesota Lake City, Pennsylvania Lake City, South Carolina Lake City, South Dakota Lake City, Tennessee Lake...


Lahore is famous as the hub of hand-made carpet manufacturing in Pakistan.[22] At present, hand-knitted carpets produced in and around Lahore are among Pakistan's leading export products, and their manufacturing is the second-largest cottage and small industry. Lahore-based carpet exports make up nearly 85 percent of all carpet exports from Pakistan.[citation needed] Craftsmen in Lahore can produce any type of carpet using popular motifs such as medallions, paisleys, traceries, and geometric designs. The Lahore Design Centre at the Punjab Small Industries Corporation maintains a separate section of carpet designing to experiment with new designs. Lahore is famous for single-wefted designs in Turkoman and Caucasian style and double-wefted Mughal types. For other uses, see Carpet (disambiguation). ... WEFT Champaign 90. ...


Lahore's economic importance depends also on many government institutes and international companies headquartered in the city, including WorldCALL Telecom Group,Pakistan Railways, Pakistan Cricket Board, Punjab University, NCA, Bata shoes, Haier, Wateen Telecom, Warid Telecom, Honda, Reebok, Daewoo, Nestle, Coca Cola, Tetra Pak, Monsanto, Delaval, Makro Cash & Carry, Mr Cod, Porsche, and Rolls Royce.[citation needed] Pakistan Railways is the state-owned railway company of Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) is responsible for all major cricket including Test cricket played in Pakistan. ... Punjab University can refer to one of the following: In Pakistan: University of the Punjab, Lahore In India: Panjab University, Chandigarh This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... NCA is a three-letter acronym, which may refer to the: National Capital Authority, a government authority involved in development planning for the Australian Capital Territory. ... Bata may refer to: In places: Bata, Afghanistan, a place in Afghanistan Bata, Burgas Province, a place in Burgas Province, Bulgaria Bata, Pazardzhik Province, a village in Bulgaria Bata, Equatorial Guinea, a city Bata, Arad, a location in Romania BaÅ¥a Canal, a canal in the Czech Republic People with... Haier (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a producer of household appliances (white goods), including air conditioners, laptops, refrigerators, etc. ... Wateen Telecom is one of the major telecommunication companies based in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Warid Telecom International is an Abu Dhabi based mobile telecommunication firm providing telephony services in Bangladesh and Pakistan. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ... Reebok International Limited is a British producer of athletic footwear, apparel, and accessories and is currently a subsidiary of Adidas AG. The name comes from Afrikaans/Dutch spelling of rhebok, a type of African antelope or gazelle. ... This article is about the chaebol Daewoo Group. ... Nestlé S.A. or Société des Produits Nestlé S.A. (SWX:NESN), headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland, is the worlds biggest food and beverage company. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Tetrapak logo Tetra Pak is a multinational food packaging company of Swedish origin. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... Seaton Delaval Hall, viewed from north-west Delaval is the surname of a family of gentry/aristocracy in Northumberland, England, from the 11th century to the 19th century. ... This article is about the auto company. ... Rolls-Royce Motor Cars is a BMW subsidiary responsible for the manufacture of the Rolls-Royce Phantom. ...


The economy is also enhanced by Lahore's historic and cultural importance, even though, unlike other smaller cities, its industrial estates are far fewer and smaller. Being the capital of the largest province in Pakistan brings the city the biggest development budget in the country. As of 2005, the city's gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity (PPP) is estimated at $28 billion with an average growth rate of 5.9 percent, [2]ranked 122nd in the world.[3] An industrial park (or industrial estate in British English) is an area of land set aside for industrial development. ... This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ...


Culture

One of the horses on display at the annual horse and cattle show

Lahore's culture is unique. Known as the cultural capital or Heart of Pakistan, the city has been the seat of the Mughal Empire and the Sikh Empire as well as the capital of Punjab in Mahmud Ghaznavi's 11th century empire and in the British Empire. Image File history File linksMetadata Horse&CattleShow. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Horse&CattleShow. ...


Lahore played an important role in Pakistani history, as it was in this city where the independence declaration for Pakistan was made. The city was the only known major city of the British Empire that would come into the new Muslims state.[citation needed] It was the largest city in the newly formed Pakistan at the time of independence and provided the easiest access to India, with its porous border near the Indian city of Amritsar only 30 miles (48 km) to the east. Large numbers of Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims lived closely in Lahore in the pre-Partition era, and the city suffered many revolts and demonstrations, as well as bloodshed and mobs, at the time of independence.[citation needed] Lahore was also wanted by the Sikhs since it used to be their capital before the British. Initially, Lahore was planned to be made the capital of the newly-formed Pakistan, but the idea was dropped due to the city's close proximity to India; Karachi was chosen instead.[citation needed] Lahore's culture -- its history, institutions, food, clothing, films, music, fashion, and liberal community lifestyle -- attract people from all over the country. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is under construction. ...

Kites for sale on the streets of Lahore on the eve of the Basant festival

Lahore is an extremely festive city. The people of Lahore celebrate many festivals and events throughout the year, blending Mughal, Western, and current trends. Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha are celebrated. Many people decorate their houses and light candles to illuminate the streets and houses; roads and businesses are lit for days during these public holidays.[citation needed] Image File history File links Lahore_Basant_Festival. ... Image File history File links Lahore_Basant_Festival. ... Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiṭr), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah. ...


{Basant is a Punjabi festival marking the coming of spring. Basant celebrations in Pakistan are centered in Lahore, and people from all over the country as well as abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite-flying competitions traditionally take place on city rooftops during Basant. Courts have banned the kite-flying because of casualties and power installation losses. The ban was lifted for two days in 2007, then immediately reimposed when 11 people were killed by celebratory gunfire, sharpened kite-strings, electrocution, and falls related to the competition.[23] Kites on display before Basant festival in Lahore Basant, sometimes called Basant panchami in Hindi , is thought to be a festival celebrating the arrival of Spring, although some trace its background as a Hindu celebration. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Celebratory gunfire is the shooting of a firearm into the air in celebration. ...


The Festival of Lamps, or Mela Chiraghan, is an important and popular event in Lahore. This is celebrated at the same time as Basant, every spring on the last Friday of March, outside the Shalimar Gardens. Mela Chiraghan or Mela Shalamar (Festival of Lights) is a three day annual festival to mark the urs (death anniversary) of the Punjabi Sufi poet and saint Shah Hussain. ...


The National Horse and Cattle Show is one of the most famous annual festivals, held in spring in the Fortress Stadium. The week-long activities include a livestock display, horse and camel dances, tent pegging, colourful folk dances from all regions of Pakistan, mass-band displays, and tattoo shows in the evenings. Tent pegging (sometimes spelled tentpegging or tent-pegging) is a cavalry sport of ancient origin, and one of only ten equestrian disciplines officially recognised by the International Equestrian Federation. ...


On August 14, the people of Pakistan celebrate the day Pakistan gained its independence from the British Raj. There are lots of celebrations in Lahore, the streets are full of people singing and dancing. Parades of the Pakistan Army and Pakistan Air Force are held early in the morning. Concerts are held with many pop and classical singers. Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (Urdu: پاک فضائیہ, Pak Fazaya) is the Aviation branch of the Pakistan armed forces and is responsible for defending Pakistani air-space from intrusions. ...


The World Performing Arts Festival is held every autumn (usually in November) at the Alhambra cultural complex, a large venue consisting of several theatres and amphitheatres. This ten-day festival consists of musicals, theatre, concerts, dance, solo, mime, and puppetry shows. The festival has an international character with nearly 80 percent of the shows performed by international performers. On average 15-20 different shows are performed every day of the festival.[24]


Sports

The Imran Khan enclosure gate at Gaddafi Stadium

Gaddafi Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Lahore. Designed by Pakistani architect Nayyar Ali Dada, it was completed in 1959 and is one of the biggest cricket stadiums in Asia. After its renovation for the 1996 Cricket World Cup, the stadium had a capacity of over 60,000 spectators for high-profile matches or events. Nearby is an athletics stadium, a basketball pitch, an Al Hamra open-air hall similar in design to the coliseum, and the world's largest field hockey stadium, all of these in a single huge complex. Image File history File links Gadaffibuilding_in_Lahore. ... Image File history File links Gadaffibuilding_in_Lahore. ... For the cricketer of the same name from the West Indies, see Imran Khan (Trinidad and Tobago cricketer). ... Gaddafi Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Gaddafi Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Lahore, Pakistan. ... The first Test cricket match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) situated in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Australia, in 1877. ... Nayyar Ali Dada (born November 11, 1945 in Delhi, India), is a renowned Pakistani architect. ... The 1996 Cricket World Cup was won by Sri Lanka who beat Australia by 7 wickets at the final in Lahore. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ...


The Lahore Marathon is part of an annual package of six international marathons being sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. The Lahore race carries prize money of approximately US$100,000. More than 20,000 athletes from Pakistan and all over the world participate in this event. It was first held on January 30, 2005, and again on January 29, 2006. More than 22,000 people participated in the 2006 race. The third marathon was held on January 14, 2007.[25]. The inaugural Standard Chartered Lahore Marathon took place on January 30, 2005, in Lahore, Pakistan, with over sixty elite runners participating in a field of 17,500. ... Standard Chartered Bank (LSE: STAN, SEHK: 2888) is a British bank headquartered in London with operations in more than fifty countries. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Plans exist to build Pakistan's first sports city in Lahore, on the bank of the river Ravi.[citation needed]


Eddy Gonsalvez of Gulberg, Lahore, is a famous amateur boxer who won many titles. He is famous for introducing boxing to the youth of Lahore.[citation needed]


Gallery

Sister cities

Lahore has several sister cities including: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm Town twinning or sister cities is a concept whereby towns or cities from geographically and politically distinct areas are paired, with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

  • In the 1970s, Istanbul was the first city to be twinned with Lahore, followed by Sariwon.
  • The latest cities were twinned in early 2007: Belgrade, Chicago, Córdoba, Krakow, Kortrijk, Mashad and Isfahan.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajikistan. ... Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - City 100 km²  (38. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Kortrijk Coordinates , , Area 80. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Location    - Country  Portugal  - Region Centro  - Subregion Baixo Mondego  - District or A.R. Coimbra Mayor Carlos Encarnação  - Party PSD Area 319. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... 1) The city of Xian in China 2) An alternative spelling of Christian, by analogy with Xmas as an alternative spelling of Christmas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... This article is about the city Fez in Morocco. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Fresno, a Spanish word for ash tree (from Latin fraxinus) is a common placename in Spanish speaking areas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... , Hounslow is the principal town of the London Borough of Hounslow in West London. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Sariwŏn is the capital of North Hwanghae Province, North Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Imam Reza Shrine Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ...

Lahore in literature

Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Shaykh ul Islam Dr. Muhammad Tahir ul Qadri (Urdu: محمد طاہر القادری) (born February 19, 1951) is a Muslim writer, poet, professor, religious scholar, and a politician from Pakistan. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Faiz Faiz Ahmed Faiz (فيض احمد فيض), (1984 - 1911) is considered by many to be a poet in the great tradition of Urdu poets like Ghalib and Iqbal. ... Saadat Hasan Manto Saadat Hasan Manto (Urdu: ‏‏سعادت حسن منٹو) (May 11, 1912-1955) was a Urdu short story writer of Kashmiri ancestry who was born in the Punjab. ... This article is about the British author. ... This article is about the novel. ... Bapsi Sidhwa (1938 - ) is an important author of Pakistani origin who writes in English. ... Cracking India, (1991, U.S., 1992, India; originally published as Ice Candy Man, 1988, England) is a novel by author Bapsi Sidhwa. ... Mohsin Hamid (born 1971) is a Pakistani author. ... Moth Smoke is a novel written by Mohsin Hamid, published in 2000. ... The Reluctant Fundamentalist is a novel by Mohsin Hamid that was published in 2007 by Hamish Hamilton in the UK, Harcourt in the US, and worldwide in 16 languages. ... Shauna Singh Baldwin (born 1962 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian-American novelist of Indian origin. ... Pran Nevile (born October 22, 1922) is an Indian author of Indian Art, Indian Culture & Indian History best known for the 1992 book, Lahore - A sentimental Journey. ... Lahore - A sentimental Journey is Neviles fist book in which he recollects his pre-partition days in Lahore. ...

From Lahore to Montmartre

The 9 June 2007 - The Gallery Chappe inaugurated the first contemporary miniature exhibition in Paris, France, featuring three main stream artists from National College of Arts, Lahore: Zeechan, Mudassar, and Acif in presence of H.E. Asma Anissa, ambassador of Pakistan in France. The show was initiated by Alexandre Gilbert and curated by Mannan Ibrahim.


education: st.anthony high school lahore


References

  1. ^ Official Profile: Lahore's geography, Lahore City Government. Retrieved on September 19, 2007.
  2. ^ Amin, Mohamed; Willets, Duncan; Farrow, Brendan (1988). Lahore. Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan: Ferozsons, Ltd., 20. ISBN 969-0-00694-0. 
  3. ^ HUDUD AL-'ALAM 'The Regions of the World' A Persian Geography
  4. ^ Dawn Pakistan - The 'shroud' over Lahore's antiquity
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ History of Lahore, Lahore City Government. Retrieved on September 19, 2007.
  7. ^ GC University Lahore
  8. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica article on Lahore
  9. ^ Tribune India - Republic Day
  10. ^ Daily Times Pakistan - Memorial will be built to Bhagat Singh, says governor
  11. ^ Story of Pakistan - Lahore Resolution 1940, Jin Technologies. Retrieved on September 19, 2007.
  12. ^ Lahore: Blood on the Tracks by William Dalrymple
  13. ^ SECOND ISLAMIC SUMMIT CONFERENCE
  14. ^ BBC Sport - Mumbai given 2011 World Cup final
  15. ^ "Heatwave to persist for 4-5 days", The Dawn, June 10, 2007.
  16. ^ Demography of Lahore, Lahore City Government. Retrieved on September 19, 2007.
  17. ^ FindPK - Lahore
  18. ^ Raza, M. Hanif (1999). Portrait of Pakistan. Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan: Ferozsons, Ltd., 155. ISBN 969 0 01545 1. 
  19. ^ "University of the Punjab - Introduction". University of the Punjab. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  20. ^ "University of Engineering and Technology". university of engineering and Technology". Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  21. ^ "COMSATS university". comsats University. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  22. ^ "A Brief Introduction to Carpet Weaving History of Pakistan". Al Rug. Retrieved on 2007-07-01.
  23. ^ 11 Dead At Pakistani Kite Festival, Metal Kite Strings, Stray Celebratory Gunfire Claim Lives At Annual Event, More Than 100 Injured. CBS News (2007-02-26). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  24. ^ World Performing Arts Festival
  25. ^ Lahore Marathon Website
  26. ^ - Glasgow 'twinned' with Lahore
  27. ^ Musharraf holds talks with Cordoba's leaders. Associated Press of Pakistan, April 26, 2007. Retrieved on September 19, 2007.
  28. ^ "Town Twinning". London Borough of Hounslow. Retrieved on September 19, 2007.

is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Mohamed Mo Amin (29 August 1943 - 23 November 1996) was a Kenyan photojournalist noted for his pictures and videotapes of Ethiopian famine. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

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Unofficial
  • Lahore's Metroblog - All that's going on in Lahore. News, views and gossip!
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  • LAHORE LAHORE AYE: Where Hindus and Sikhs once lived, by A. Hamid
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  • Forced Migration and Ethnic Clensing in Lahore Ishtiaq Ahmed
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  • Lahore - A Sentimental Journey - Author's recollection of pre-1947 Lahore
Travel related
  • Photographs of the Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens at UN's World Heritage Site
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  • [4]
  • A tour with Pictures and Detailed Text
  • Lahore's famous Food Street


Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Provincial and Territorial Capitals of Pakistan Flag of Pakistan
Sindh: Karachi | Punjab: Lahore | NWFP: Peshawar | Balochistan: Quetta
Northern Areas: Gilgit | Federally Administered Tribal Areas: Peshawar | Azad Kashmir: Muzaffarabad
Federal Capital: Islamabad
Administrative divisions of Punjab (Pakistan) Flag of Pakistan
Capital Lahore
Districts Attock | Bahawalnagar | Bahawalpur | Bhakkar | Chakwal | Dera Ghazi Khan | Faisalabad | Gujranwala | Gujrat | Hafizabad | Jhang | Jhelum | Kasur | Khanewal | Khushab | Lahore | Layyah | Lodhran | Mandi Bahauddin | Mianwali | Multan | Muzaffargarh | Nankana Sahib | Narowal | Okara | Pakpattan | Rahimyar Khan | Rajanpur | Rawalpindi | Sahiwal | Sargodha | Sheikhupura | Sialkot | Toba Tek Singh | Vehari 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lahore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3156 words)
Lahore (Urdu: لاہور) is the second largest city of Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab.
Lahore is largely thought of as the cultural centre of Pakistan ever since its accession by the Mughal Empire since the 16th century CE.
Lahore city is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura District, on the east by India and on the south Kasur District.
ShaikhSiddiqui Lahore (718 words)
The city of Lahore is located at latitude 31 ° 35´ N and longitude 74° 13´ E. The city occupies an area of over 2000 km²; and is expanding.
Lahore is also identufied with Sanghala, mentioned by Arrian and Curtius, the classical writers, as the stronghold of the Kathaean or Khatri tribe.
Lahore came under Muslim rule in 713 CE when Umayyad Muslim Arab army led by Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Punjab, and the present Pakistan from Kashmir to the Arabian Sea.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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