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Encyclopedia > Lagash

Coordinates: 31°24′N, 46°24′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was much closer to the gulf.
At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was much closer to the gulf.

Lagash (modern Tell al-Hiba, Iraq), northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. Nearby Ngirsu (modern Telloh) was the religious center of the Lagash state. For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... Sumer (or Šumer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


Lagash's temple was E-Ninnu, dedicated to the god Ningirsu or Ninib. Ninurta in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology was the god of Nippur, identified with Ningirsu with whom he may always have been identical. ...

Contents

Excavations

Lagash ruins were discovered in 1877 by Ernest de Sarzec, at that time French consul at Basra, who was allowed, by the Montefich chief, Nasir Pasha, the first Wali-Pasha or governor-general of Basra, to excavate at his pleasure in the territories subject to that official. At the outset on his own, and later as a representative of the French government, under a Turkish firman, de Sarzec continued excavations at this site, with various intermissions, until his death in 1901, when the work was continued under the supervision of Gaston Cros. The principal excavations were made in two larger mounds, one of them proving to be the site of the temple E-Ninnu - shrine of the patron god of Lagash, Ningirsu or Ninib. Ury House, Aberdeenshire ruined by removal of the roof after the second world war to avoid taxation. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Ernest Choquin de Sarzec (1832-1901) was a French archaeologist, to whom is attributed the discovery of the civilization of ancient Sumeria. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ...


Later French archeological expeditions were led by Henri de Genouillac (1929-31) and Andre Parrot (1931-33).


The site

Ancient Mesopotamia
EuphratesTigris
Cities / Empires
Sumer: EriduKishUrukUrLagashNippur • Ngirsu
Elam: Susa
Akkadian Empire: AkkadMari
Amorites: IsinLarsa
Babylonia: BabylonChaldea
HittitesKassitesHurrians/Mitanni
Assyria: AssurNimrud • Dur-Sharrukin • Nineveh
Chronology
History of Mesopotamia
History of SumerKings of Sumer
Kings of Assyria
Kings of Babylon
Mythology
Enûma ElishGilgamesh
Assyro-Babylonian religion
Language
SumerianElamite
AkkadianAramaic
Hurrian • Hittite
Ur-Nanshe: top - creating the foundation for a shrine; bottom - presiding over the dedication (Louvre)
Ur-Nanshe: top - creating the foundation for a shrine; bottom - presiding over the dedication (Louvre)
Eannatum's Stele of the Vultures (Louvre)
Eannatum's Stele of the Vultures (Louvre)
Entemena's Silver Vase (Louvre)
Entemena's Silver Vase (Louvre)
Gudea of Lagash, diorite statue found at Telloh (Louvre)
Gudea of Lagash, diorite statue found at Telloh (Louvre)

Lagash is represented by a rather low, long line of ruin mounds, now known as Tell al-Hiba in Iraq. It is positioned on the dry bed of an ancient canal, some 5 km east of the Shatt-el-Haj[citation needed], and about 15 km east of the modern town of Shatra in the Dhi Qar Governorate. Ngirsu (Telloh) lies about 25 km northwest of Al-Hiba. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Image File history File links Babylonlion. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Sumer (or Šumer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Afak town,Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient (some historians date it back to 5262 B.C. [1][2]) of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the language, see Amorite language. ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar, Genesis 14:1), was an important city of ancient Babylonia, the site of the worship of the sun-god, Shamash, represented by the ancient ruin mound of Senkereh (Senkera). ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian Aššur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Human-headed winged bull, found during Bottas excavation. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... // The chronology of the Ancient Near East is divided into three parts 1) A series of rulers and dynasties whose existence is based mostly on the Sumerian King List, later versions of literature such as Gilgamesh, and bits and pieces of archaeological discoveries. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The history of Sumer, taken to include the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods, spans the 5th to 3rd millennia BC, ending with the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BC, followed by a transition period of Amorite states before the rise of Babylonia in the 18th century... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... This page lists the Kings of Lamestia from the late sixties. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Babylon, a major city of ancient Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Enûma Eliš is the Babylonian creation epic. ... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... Assyrian demon Pazuzu. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern Boğazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ... Fragmentary stele bearing the inscription Ur-Nanshe, son of Gunidu, to Ningirsu, Louvre Ur-Nanshe (or Ur-Nina) was the first king of the dynasty of Lagash, probably in the first half of the 24th century BC. He ascended after Lugal-Sha-Gen-Sur (Lugal-Suggur), who was the patesi... This article is about the museum. ... Eannatum was a Sumerian king of Lagash who established one of the first verifiable empires in history. ... This article is about the museum. ... Entemena, son of En-anna-tum I, reestablished Lagash as a power in Sumer. ... This article is about the museum. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (776x1502, 745 KB) Description: Seating diorite statue of Gudea, prince of Lagash, dedicated to the god Ningishzida, c. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (776x1502, 745 KB) Description: Seating diorite statue of Gudea, prince of Lagash, dedicated to the god Ningishzida, c. ... Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ... Girsu (modern Telloh, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq) is a city of ancient Sumer, situated some 25 km northwest of Lagash. ... This article is about the museum. ... Shatra is a town in the Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq. ... д Dhi Qar (Arabic: ذي قار) is a province in Iraq with an area of 12,900 km². In 2003 the estimated population of the governorate was 1,454,200 people. ...


The E-Ninnu temple had been razed and a fortress built upon its ruins, in the Greek or Seleucid period, some of the bricks found bearing the inscription in Aramaic and Greek of a certain Hadad-nadin-akhe,[1] king of a small Babylonian kingdom. It was beneath this fortress that numerous statues of Gudea were found, constituting one of the prizes of the Near Eastern Antiquities collection at the Louvre. These had been decapitated and otherwise mutilated, and thrown into the foundations of the new fortress. From this stratum also came various fragments of bas reliefs of high artistic excellence. The excavations in the other larger mound resulted in the discovery of the remains of buildings containing objects of all sorts in bronze and stone, dating from the earliest Sumerian period onward, and enabling the art history of the ancient Near East to be traced to a date some hundreds of years before the time of Gudea. The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ... This article is about the museum. ...


Apparently this mound had been occupied largely by store houses, where were stored not only grain, figs, etc., but also vessels, weapons, sculptures and every possible object connected with the use and administration of palace and temple. In a small outlying mound, de Sarzec discovered the archives of the temple — about 30,000 inscribed clay tablets containing the business records, and revealing in extraordinary detail the administration of an ancient Near Eastern temple, the character of its property, the method of farming its lands, herding its flocks, and its commercial and industrial dealings and enterprises - an ancient Near Eastern temple was a great industrial, commercial, agricultural and stock-raising establishment. Unfortunately, before these archives could be removed, the galleries containing them were rifled by looters, and large numbers of the tablets were sold to antiquity dealers, by whom they have been scattered all over Europe and America.


History

From inscriptions found at Telloh, it appears that Lagash was an important Sumerian city in the late 3rd millennium BC. It was at that time ruled by independent kings, Ur-Nanshe (24th century BC) and his successors, who were engaged in contests with the Elamites on the east and the kings of "Kengi" and Kish on the north. Girsu (modern Telloh, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq) is a city of ancient Sumer, situated some 25 km northwest of Lagash. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... Fragmentary stele bearing the inscription Ur-Nanshe, son of Gunidu, to Ningirsu, Louvre Ur-Nanshe (or Ur-Nina) was the first king of the dynasty of Lagash, probably in the first half of the 24th century BC. He ascended after Lugal-Sha-Gen-Sur (Lugal-Suggur), who was the patesi... // Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ...


Some of the earlier works from before the Akkadian conquest are also extremely interesting, in particular Eannatum's Stele of the Vultures and a Entemena's great silver vase ornamented with what may be called the coat of arms of Lagash: a lion-headed eagle with wings outspread, grasping a lion in each talon.


With the Semitic Akkadian conquest, Lagash lost its independence, its rulers or patesis becoming vassals of Sargon of Akkad and his successors; but it remained Sumerian, continuing to be a city of much importance and above all, a centre of artistic development. Indeed, it was in this period and under the immediately succeeding supremacy of the kings of Ur, Ur-Gur and Dungi, that it reached its highest artistic development. {fact} In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great (Akkadian Šarru-kinu, cuneiform ŠAR.RU.KI.IN , meaning the true king or the king is legitimate), was an Akkadian king famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC.[1] The founder of... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Shulgi of Urim is the second king of the Sumerian Renaissance. He reigned for 48 years, dated to 2047 BC–1999 BC short chronology (also tentatively dated to 2161 BC–2113 BC on the basis of a solar eclipse). ...


After the collapse of Sargon's Empire under pressure from the Guti tribes, Lagash again thrived under the patesis Ur-Bau and Gudea, and had extensive commercial communications with distant realms. According to his own records, Gudea brought cedars from the Amanus and Lebanon mountains in Syria, diorite from eastern Arabia, copper and gold from central and southern Arabia and from Sinai, while his armies were engaged in battles in Elam on the east. His was especially the era of artistic development. Gudea, following Sargon, was one of the first rulers to claim divinity for himself; and we have even a fairly good idea of what Gudea looked like, since he had his numerous statues or idols depicting himself with lifelike realism, placed in temples throughout Sumer. The Gutians (also: Quti, Kuti, Gurti, Qurti, Kurti) were a people of ancient Mesopotamia who lived primarily in the central Zagros Range, most probably an Aryan people. ... Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ... The Nur Mountains (Mountains of Holy Light) or Amonos Mountains, also known as the Gâvur Mountains and Amanus Mountains, are a mountain range to the east of İskenderun, parallel to the İskenderun Bay in southern Turkey. ... Categories: Mineral stubs | Igneous rocks ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ...


At the time of Gudea, the capital of Lagash was actually in Ngirsu (Telloh). The kingdom covered an area of approximately 1,600 km². It contained 17 larger cities, eight district capitals, and numerous villages (about 40 known by name).


According to one estimate, Lagash was the largest city in the world from ca. 2075 to 2030 BC. [1]


After the time of Gudea, Lagash seems to have lost its importance; at least we know nothing more about it until the construction of the Seleucid fortress mentioned, when it seems to have become part of the Greek kingdom of Characene. The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Characene was a kingdom within the Parthian empire at the Persian Gulf. ...


Lagash Dynasties

See also: History of Sumer and Sumerian king list

These dynasties are not found on the Sumerian king list, although one extremely fragmentary supplement has been found in Sumerian, known as the The rulers of Lagash (English translation). It recounts how after the flood mankind was having difficulty growing food for itself, being dependent solely on rainwater; it further relates that techniques of irrigation and cultivation of barley were then imparted by the gods. At the end of the list is the statement "Written in the school", suggesting this was a school exercise. A few of the names from the Lagash rulers listed below may be made out, including Ur-Nanshe, "Ane-tum", En-entar-zid, Ur-Ningirsu, Ur-Bau, and Gudea. The history of Sumer, taken to include the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods, spans the 5th to 3rd millennia BC, ending with the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BC, followed by a transition period of Amorite states before the rise of Babylonia in the 18th century... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ...


First Dynasty of Lagash

  • Enhengal (c. 2550 BC)
  • Lugal-sha-engur (Lugal-Suggur), high priest or patesi (c. 2510)
  • Ur-Nanshe (Ur-nina), king (c. 2480)
  • Akurgal (c. 2450)
  • Eannatum, king (c. 2445) founded first empire
  • En-anna-tum I, high priest (c. 2440) subject to Umma
  • Entemena, king (c. 2400)
  • En-anna-tum II. (c. 2390)
  • Enitarzi (c. 2385)
  • Lugalanda (2384–2378)
  • Urukagina, king (2378–2371)

Fragmentary stele bearing the inscription Ur-Nanshe, son of Gunidu, to Ningirsu, Louvre Ur-Nanshe (or Ur-Nina) was the first king of the dynasty of Lagash, probably in the first half of the 24th century BC. He ascended after Lugal-Sha-Gen-Sur (Lugal-Suggur), who was the patesi... Eannatum was a Sumerian king of Lagash who established one of the first verifiable empires in history. ... En-anna-tum I succeeded his brother Eannatum as king of Lagash. ... Entemena, son of En-anna-tum I, reestablished Lagash as a power in Sumer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Second dynasty of Lagash

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Ki-Ku-Id
Engilsa
Ur-A
Lugalushumgal
Puzer-Mama contemporary of Shar-kali-sharri of Akkad
Ur-Utu
Ur-Mama
Lu-Baba
Lugula
Kaku or Kakug
Ur-Bau or Ur-baba 2093 BC - 2080 BC (short)
Gudea 2080 BC - 2060 BC son-in-law of Ur-baba
Ur-Ningirsu 2060 BC - 2055 BC son of Gudea
Pirigme or Ugme 2055 BC - 2053 BC
Ur-gar 2053 BC - 2049 BC
Nammahani 2049 BC - 2046 BC grandson of Kaku, defeated by Ur-Nammu

Puzer-Mama was a ruler of Lagaš before Gudea. ... Shar-Kali-Sharri was a king of the Akkadian Empire. ... Kaku is the name of: Dr. Michio Kaku, a Japanese-American theoretical physicist Kaku (demon), a Japanese demon This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarumm, Part 2, Tome 1, inscription #72:
    הדדנ
    דנאח
    ΑΔΑΔΝΑ
    ΔΙΝΑΧΗΣ

References

  • Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum, Pars Secunda: Inscriptiones Aramaicas Continens, tom. I, (Paris, 1881)
  • E. de Sarzec, Découvertes en Chaldée (1887).
  • A. Parrot, Tello, vingt campagnes des fouilles (1877-1933), (Paris 1948).
  • Donald P. Hansen, Al-Hiba, 1968-1969, a Preliminary Report, Artibus Asiae (1970).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lagash - Encyclopedia.com (1005 words)
Lagash or Shirpurla, ancient city of Sumer, S Mesopotamia, now located at Telloh, SE Iraq.
Lagash was flourishing by c.2400 BC, but traces of habitation go back at least to the 4th millennium BC After the fall of Akkad (2180 BC), when the rest of Mesopotamia was in a state of chaos, Lagash was able to maintain peace and prosperity under its ruler Gudea.
STILL MISSING Lagash statue: Headless inscribed limestone statue of Eanatum, ruler of Lagash, dating to 2450 B.C. Nimrud lioness: Ivory piece depicting a lioness and Nubian from...
Lagash - LoveToKnow 1911 (671 words)
LAGASH, or Sirpurla, one of the oldest centres of Sumerian civilization in Babylonia.
According to his own records, Gudea brought cedars from the Amanus and Lebanon mountains in Syria, diorite or dolorite from eastern Arabia, copper and gold from central and southern Arabia and from Sinai, while his armies, presumably under his over-lord, Ur-Gur, were engaged in battles in Elam on the east.
After the time of Gudea, Lagash seems to have lost its importance; at least we know nothing more about it until the construction of the Seleucid fortress mentioned, when it seems to have become part of the Greek kingdom of Characene.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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