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Encyclopedia > Lady Literate in Arts

A Lady Literate in Arts or LLA qualification was offered by St. Andrews University for more than a decade before women were allowed to graduate in the same way as men, and it became popular as a kind of external degree for women who had studied through correspondence, or by attendance at non-university classes. University of St Andrews The University of St Andrews was founded between 1410-1413 and is the oldest university in Scotland and the third oldest in the United Kingdom. ... External Degree, an academic degree awarded to nonresident students, who spend little or no time in formal classes. ...

Until 1892 women were not admitted to Scottish universities and the LLA was the nearest qualification to a degree which was open to women in Scotland, although Edinburgh University offered certificates recognising achievement in classes organised by the Edinburgh Association for the University Education of Women, and in Glasgow Queen Margaret College was offering a university-equivalent education and awards. To obtain an LLA candidates had to pass examinations at a university-approved centre, which might be in Scotland, elsewhere in the United Kingdom, or abroad. The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1583 as a renowned centre for teaching in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...

Even after 1892, the LLA continued to be popular with women who wanted to study for an arts degree without needing to attend one particular institution for three or four years. Thousands of women received an LLA before it was discontinued in the 1930s.

William Angus Knight, (1836-1916), Professor of Moral Philosophy at St. Andrews between 1876 and 1903, was a supporter of women's education and the main force behind the university's introduction of the LLA degree. Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ...

Helen Bannerman, the children's writer, and suffragist Margaret Nevinson both had LLAs. Helen Bannerman (1862--1946) was the author of a number of childrens books the most famous being Little Black Sambo. ... The Womens Freedom League was an organisation in the United Kingdom which campaigned for womens suffrage and sexual equality. ...


  • Lady Literate in Arts
  • William Knight


  • Susan Sellers, Mischievous to the Public Interest: The Lady Literate in Arts Diploma and the Admission of Women to the University of St Andrews in Launch-Site for English Studies (1997) ed. Robert Crawford
  • R.N. Smart, Literate Ladies: a Fifty-Year Experiment in St Andrews University Alumnus Chronicle (1967)



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