FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ladino language
Ladino/Judæo-Spanish
גודיאו-איספאנייול Djudeo-espanyol, לאדינו Ladino 
Pronunciation: will be added
Spoken in: Israel, Turkey, Brazil, France, Greece, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Mexico, Curaçao
Total speakers: 100,000 in Israel
8,000 in Turkey
1,000 in Greece[citation needed]
unknown numbers elsewhere, steady decline in all those places
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Western
     Gallo-Iberian
      Ibero-Romance
       West Iberian
        Spanish
         Ladino/Judæo-Spanish 
Official status
Official language of: none
Regulated by: Alliance Israelite Universelle
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: lad
ISO 639-3: lad

Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish), Hebrew, Turkish and some French and Greek. Speakers are currently almost exclusively Sephardic Jews, for example, in (or from) Thessaloniki, Istanbul and Izmir. Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-South Tyrol and Veneto. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Italo-Western is the largest sub-group of Romance languages. ... The formation of Iberian Romance languages followed more or less this process: A common Latin/Romance language with dialectal differences was spoken throughout the ancient Roman Empire. ... West Iberian language is the subcategory of Romance languages, including Spanish and Portugese. ... Alliance Israelite Universelle is an international Jewish organization of French Jews based in France. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Shows the Location of the Province Ä°zmir Izmir from space, June 1996 Izmir (Turkish spelling Ä°zmir, contraction of its former name Smyrna), the second-largest port (after Ä°stanbul) and the third most populous city (2,409,000 in 2000) of Turkey, is located on the Aegean Sea near the Gulf...


Ladino has kept the postalveolar phonemes /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ of Old Spanish, which both changed to the velar /x/ in modern Spanish; Ladino also has an /x/ phoneme taken over from Hebrew. In some places it has also retained certain characteristic words, such as muestro for nuestro (our). Its grammatical structure is close to that of Spanish, with the addition of many terms from the Hebrew, Portuguese, French, Turkish, Greek, and South Slavic languages depending on the geographic origin of the speaker. Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This article or section should be merged with List of South Slavic languages South Slavic languages is one of the three groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic). ...


Ladino is in serious danger of extinction because many native speakers today are elderly as well as elderly olim (immigrants to Israel), who have not transmitted the language to their children or grandchildren. However, it is experiencing a minor revival among Sephardic communities, especially in music. The danger of extinction is also due to the risk of assimilation by modern Castilian Spanish. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Contents

Name of language

The name "Ladino" is a variant of "Latin". The language is also called Judæo-Spanish, Judæo-Espagnol, judeoespañol[1], Sefardi, Djudio, Dzhudezmo, Judezmo, and Spanyol; Haquitía (from the Arabic haka حكى, "tell") refers to the dialect of North Africa, especially Morocco. The dialect of the Oran area of Algeria was called Tetuani, after the Moroccan town Tétouan, since many Oranais Jews came from this city. In Hebrew, the language is called Spanyolit. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Tetauni (Tetuani) is a dialect of Judaeo-Spanish, a Romance language that was spoken in the city of Oran in Algeria. ... henry is gay World Heritage Site | WHS = Medina of Tétouan (formerly known as Titawin) | Image = | State Party = Morocco | Type = Cultural | Criteria = ii, iv, v | ID = 837 | Region = Arab States | Year = 1997 | Session = 21st | Link = http://whc. ...


According to the Ethnologue, Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...

The name 'Dzhudezmo' is used by Jewish linguists, 'Judeo-Espanyol' or simply 'Djudio' by Turkish Jews; 'Judeo-Spanish' by Romance philologists; 'Ladino' by laymen, especially in Israel; 'Hakitia' by Moroccan Jews; 'Spanyol' by some others.

The derivation of the name "Ladino" is complicated. In pre-Expulsion Spain the word simply meant "Castilian": literary Castilian as distinct from dialect, and Castilian Romance[2] in general as distinct from Arabic. Following the expulsion, Jews spoke of "the Ladino" to mean the traditional oral translation of the Bible into archaic Spanish. By extension it came to mean that style of Spanish generally, in the same way that (among Kurdish Jews) Targum has come to mean Judaeo-Aramaic and (in Arab countries) sharħ has come to mean Judaeo-Arabic. For this reason, authors like Haim Vidal Sephiha[3] reserve "Ladino" for the very Hebraicized form of the language[4] used in religious translations such as the Ferrara Bible, which was based on the traditional oral version. Targum is used by the Jews of northern Iraq and Kurdistan to refer to a variety of Aramaic dialects spoken by them till recent times. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... The Ferrara Bible was a publication of the Ladino version of the Old Testament used by Sephardi Jews in Spain. ...


Variants

At the time of the expulsion from Spain, the day to day language of Spanish Jews was little if at all different from that of other Spaniards. There was however a special style used for purposes of study or translation, featuring a more archaic dialect of Spanish, a large number of Hebrew and Aramaic loan-words and a tendency to render Hebrew word order literally (ha-laylah ha-zeh, meaning "this night", was rendered la noche la esta instead of the normal Spanish esta noche[5]). As stated above, some authorities would confine the term "Ladino" to this style.


Following the expulsion, the daily language was increasingly influenced both by the language of study and by the local non-Jewish vernaculars such as Greek and Turkish, and came to be known as Dzhudezmo: in this respect the development is parallel to that of Yiddish. However, many speakers, especially among the community leaders, also had command of a more formal style nearer to the Spanish of the expulsion, referred to as Castellano. Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ...


The Judaeo-Spanish dialect of Northern Morocco, known as Haketia, is the subject of a separate article. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Orthography

Today, Ladino is most commonly written with the Latin alphabet, especially in Turkey. However, it is still sometimes written in the Hebrew alphabet (especially in Rashi characters), a practice that was very common, possibly almost universal, until the 19th century (and called aljamiado, by analogy with Arabic usage). Although the Greek and Cyrillic alphabets have been employed in the past [6], this is rare nowadays. Following the decimation of Sephardic communities throughout much of Europe (particularly in the Netherlands and the Balkans) during the Holocaust the greatest proportion of speakers remaining were Turkish Jews. As a result the Turkish variant of the Latin alphabet is widely used for publications in Ladino. The Israeli Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino promotes another spelling. There are also those who, with Iacob M Hassán, claim that Ladino should adopt the orthography of the standard Spanish language. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Aljamiado text by mancebo de Arévalo. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Perhaps more conservative and less popular, others along with Pablo Carvajal Valdés suggest that Ladino should adopt the orthography used during the time of the Jewish expulsion of 1492 from Spain. The orthography of that time has standardized and eventually changed by a series of reforms; it was finally changed by an orthographic reform in the 18th century. Ladino has retained some of the pronunciation that at the time of reforms had become archaic in standard Spanish. Adopting 15th century orthography for Ladino would bring back into existence the /s/ (originally /ts/) - c (before e and i) and ç/z (cedilla): such in caça, which was a letter of Spanish origin, the /s/ - ss : such as in passo and the /ʃ/ - x : like in dixo. The original pronunciation of /ʒ/ - g (before e or i) and j : mujer, would be reestablished and the /z/ (originally /dz/) - z : would remain in Ladino words like fazer and dezir. The /z/ - s : in between vowels like in casa, would regain its pronunciation under this orthography as well. Like in modern Spanish, in Ladino the /z/ - s is also present before m, d and others like in mesmo or desde. The distinctive Ladino /ʃ/ - s : like in buscar, cosquillas, mascar, pescar or after is endings like in séis, favláis or sois could be reflected through writing x. Natural languages often develop cumbersome manners of spelling words. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ...


The difference between b and v would be clearer giving some concessions to Latin spelling, as in the case of the reflex of intervocalic -B-: eg Latin DEBET > post-1800 Spanish debe, will return to its Old Castilian deve spelling. The use of the digraphs ch, ph and th ( today /k/, /f/ and /t/ in standard Spanish respectively), formally reformed in 1803, would be in used in words like orthographía, theología. Latin q before words like quando, quanto and qual would also be used. Some argue that using Old Castilian Orthography will only distance non-Hispanic characteristics about Ladino and create problems that phonetical systems solve. Nevertheless, Classical and Golden Age Spanish literature would gain renewed interest, better appreciation and understanding should its orthography be used again.


Phonology

The phonology of the consonants of Ladino and part of its lexicon are closer to Portuguese than to Spanish, because both retained characteristics of medieval Ibero-Romance which Spanish later lost. Compare for example Ladino aninda ("still") with Portuguese ainda and Spanish aún, or the initial consonants in Ladino fija, favla ("daughter", "speech"), Portuguese filha, fala, Spanish hija, habla. However, the grammar of Ladino is closer to Spanish grammar. See also Judeo-Portuguese. Judeo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ...


History

During the Middle Ages, Jews were instrumental in the development of Castilian into a prestige language. Erudite Jews translated Arabic and Hebrew works (often translated earlier from Greek) into Castilian and Christians translated again into Latin for transmission to Europe. The Twelfth century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ...


Until recent times, the language was widely spoken throughout the Balkans, Turkey, the Middle East, and North Africa, having been brought there by Jewish refugees fleeing Spain following the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ...


The contact among Jews of different regions and tongues (including Catalan, Leonese and Portuguese) developed a unified dialect, already different in some aspects of the Castilian norm that was forming simultaneously in Spain. The language was known as Yahudice (Jewish language) in the Ottoman Empire. In late 18th century, Enderunlu Fazıl (Fazyl bin Tahir Enderuni) wrote in his Zenanname: "Spaniards speak the Jewish language but they are not Jews." For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ...


The common Ladino and Spanish favoured trade among Sephardim (often relatives) ranging from the Ottoman Empire to the Netherlands and the conversos of Spain and Portugal. Over time, a corpus of literature, both liturgical and secular, developed. Early Ladino literature was limited to translations from Hebrew. At the end of the 17th century, Hebrew was disappearing as the vehicle for Rabbinic instruction. Thus a literature in the popular tongue (Ladino) appeared in the 18th century, such as Me'am Lo'ez and poetry collections. By the end of the 19th century, Sephardim in the Ottoman Empire studied in schools of the Alliance Israelite Universelle. French became the language for foreign relations (as it did for Maronites), and Ladino drew from French for neologisms. New secular genres appeared: more than 300 journals, history, theatre, biographies. Interaction with French also gave way to the creation of a new language named judeo-franyol Converso (Spanish and Portuguese for a convert, from Latin conversus, converted, turned around) and its feminine form conversa referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted to Catholicism in Spain and Portugal, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ... Meam Loez (Hebrew: ), initiated by Rabbi Yaakov Culi in 1730 is a commentary on the Tanakh written in Ladino and perhaps the greatest publication in that language. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... Alliance Israelite Universelle is an international Jewish organization of French Jews based in France. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...


Given the relative isolation of many communities, a number of regional dialects of Ladino appeared, many with only limited mutual comprehensibility. This is due largely to the adoption of large numbers of loanwords from the surrounding populations, including, depending on the location of the community, from Greek, Turkish, Arabic, and, in the Balkans, Slavic languages, especially Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ...


Ladino was the common language of Salonika during the period of Ottoman rule. The city became part of the modern Greek Republic in 1912 and subsequently renamed to its original historical name Thessaloniki. Despite a major fire, economic oppression by Greek authorities, and mass settlement of Christian refugees, the language remained widely spoken in Salonika until the deportation and murder of 50,000 Salonikan Jews in the Holocaust during the Second World War. The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia. ... The Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917 was one of the most important incidents that marked the history of the city. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Ladino was also a language used in Donmeh ("Dönme" in Turkish meaning convert and referring to adepts of Sabbatai Tsevi converted to Moslem religion by the Ottoman empire) rites. An example is the recite Sabbatai Tsevi esperamos a ti. Today, the religious practices and ritual use of Ladino seem to be confined to elderly generations. Donmeh refers to a group of Crypto-Jews of the Near East who followed Sabbatai Zevi (also called Shabbatai Zvi) and converted to Islam in 1666. ...


The Spanish colonization of Northern Africa favoured the role of polyglot Sephardim who bridged between Spanish colonizers and Arab and Berber speakers.


From the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, Ladino was the predominant Jewish language in the Holy Land, though the dialect was different in some respects from that spoken in Greece and Turkey. Some Sephardi families have lived in Jerusalem for centuries, and preserve Ladino for cultural and folklore purposes, though they now use Hebrew in everyday life.


In the twentieth century, the number of speakers declined sharply: entire communities were eradicated in the Holocaust, while the remaining speakers, many of whom migrated to Israel, adopted Hebrew. The governments of the new nation-states encouraged instruction in the official languages. At the same time, it aroused the interest of philologists since it conserved language and literature which existed prior to the standardisation of Spanish. “Shoah” redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


Ladino is in serious danger of extinction because many native speakers today are elderly olim (immigrants to Israel), who have not transmitted the language to their children or grandchildren. However, it is experiencing a minor revival among Sephardic communities, especially in music. In addition, Sephardic communities in several Latin American countries still use Ladino. The danger of extinction is also due to the risk of assimilation by modern Castilian Spanish. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spanish () or Castilian () is an Iberian Romance language. ...


Kol Yisrael[7] and Radio Nacional de España[8] hold regular radio broadcasts in Ladino. Law & Order showed an episode with references to Ladino language. Films partially or totally in Ladino include Novia que te vea and Every Time We Say Goodbye. Kol Yisrael (The Voice of Israel) is the name of Israels public domestic and international radio service. ... Radio Nacional de España (RNE) is the Spanish national radio service which, since 1973, has formed part of the public media organisation Radiotelevisión Española (RTVE) which also includes Televisión Española (TVE). ... Law & Order is a long-running American television police procedural and legal drama set in New York City. ... Every Time We Say Goodbye is a 1986 film starring Tom Hanks and Cristina Marsillach. ...


The Jewish community of Belgrade still chants part of the Sabbath Prayers in Ladino. The Sephardic Synagogue Ezra Bessaroth in Seattle, State of Washington (US) was formed by Jews from Turkey and the Island of Rhodes and they use Ladino in some portions of their Shabbat services. The Siddur is called Zehut Yosef and was written by Hazzan Isaac Azose.


Songs

Folklorists have been collecting romances and other folk songs, some dating from before the expulsion.


Many religious songs in Ladino are translations of the Hebrew, usually with a different tune. For example, Ein k'Eloheynu looks like this in Ladino:

Non komo muestro Dio,
Non komo muestro Sinyor,
Non komo muestro Rey,
Non komo muestro Salvador.
etc.
Por una Ninya
(A song from Sofia, Bulgaria)
For a Girl (translation)
Por una ninya tan fermoza
l'alma yo la vo a dar
un kuchilyo de dos kortes
en el korason entro.
For such a beautiful girl
I will give my soul
a double-edged knife
pierced my heart.
No me mires ke'stó kantando
es lyorar ke kero yo
los mis males son muy grandes
no los puedo somportar.
Don't look at me; I am singing,
it is crying that I want,
my sorrows are so great
I can't bear them.
No te lo kontengas tu, fijika,
ke sos blanka komo'l simit,
ay morenas en el mundo
ke kemaron Selanik.
Don't hold your sorrows, young girl,
for you are white like bread,
there are brunette girls in the world
who set fire to Thessaloniki.
 
Quando el Rey Nimrod (Adaptation) When King Nimrod (translation)
Quando el Rey Nimrod al campo salía
mirava en el cielo y en la estrellería
vido una luz santa en la judería
que havía de nascer Abraham Avinu.
When King Nimrod was going out to the fields
He was looking at heaven and at the stars
He saw a holy light in the Jewish quarter
[A sign] that Abraham, our father, must have been born.
Abraham Avinu, Padre querido
Padre bendicho, la luz de Israel.
Abraham Avinu [our Father], dear father
Blessed Father, light of Israel.
Luego a las comadres encomendava
que toda mujer que preñada quedasse
si no pariera al punto, la matasse
que havía de nascer Abraham Avinu.
Then he was telling all the midwives
That every pregnant woman
Who did not give birth at once was going to be killed
because Abraham our father was going to born.
Abraham Avinu, Padre querido
Padre bendicho, luz de Israel. '
Abraham Avinu, dear father
Blessed Father, light of Israel.
La mujer de Terach quedó preñada
y de día en día le preguntava
¿De qué tenéis la cara demudada?
ella ya sabía bien qué tenía.
Terach's wife was pregnant
and each day he would ask her
Why do you look so distraught?
She already knew very well what she had.
Abraham Avinu, padre querido
Padre bendicho, luz de Israel.
Abraham Avinu, dear father
Blessed Father, light of Israel.
En fin de nueve meses parir quería
iva caminando por campos y viñas,
a su marido tal ni le descubría
topó una meara, allí lo pariría
After nine months she wanted to give birth
She was walking through the fields and vineyards
Such would not even reach her husband
She found a manger; there, she would give birth.
Abraham Avinu, Padre querido
Padre bendixo a la luz de Israel.
Abraham Avinu, dear father
Father who blessed the light of Israel.
En aquella hora el nascido fablava
"Andávos mi madre, de la meara
yo ya topo quién me alexasse
mandará del cielo quien me acompañará
porque só criado del Dios bendito."
In that hour the newborn was speaking
'Get away of the manger, my mother
I will somebody to take me out
He will send from the heaven the one that will go with me
Because I am a servant of the blessed God.'
Abraham Avinu, Padre querido
Padre bendicho, luz de Israel
Abraham Avinu, dear father
Blessed Father, light of Israel.

Anachronistically, Abraham - who in the Bible is the very first Jew and the ancestor of all who followed, hence his appellation "Avinu" (Our Father) - is in the Ladino song born already in the judería, the Jewish quarter. This makes Terach and his wife into Jews, as are the parents of other babies killed by Nimrod. In essence, unlike its Biblical model, the song is about a Jewish community persecuted by a cruel king and witnessing the birth of a miraculous saviour - a subject of obvious interest and attraction to the Jewish people who composed and sang it in Medieval Spain. Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Boyko Borisov Area  - City 1,349 km²  (520. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia. ... In the Bible and in legend, Nimrod (Standard Hebrew נִמְרוֹד Nimrod, Tiberian Hebrew נִמְרֹד Nimrōḏ), son of Cush, grandson of Ham, great-grandson of Noah, was a Mesopotamian monarch and a mighty hunter before Yahweh. He is mentioned in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10), in the First Book of Chronicles, and... An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. ... Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ... Terah or Térach (תֶּרַח / תָּרַח Wanderer; loiterer, Standard Hebrew Téraḥ / Táraḥ, Tiberian Hebrew Téraḥ / Tāraḥ) was the father of Abraham mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


The song attributes to Abraham elements from the story of Moses's birth (the cruel king killing innocent babies, with the midwives ordered to kill them) and from the careers of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego who emerged unscathed from the fire. Nimrod is thus made to conflate the role and attributes of two archetypal cruel and persecuting kings - Nebuchadnezzar and Pharaoh. For more information, see the Nimrod page, [1] Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The word Shadrach can refer to several things: A Hebrew boy in The Bible, also known as Hananiah, who, with his brothers Meshach and Abednego, defied Nebuchadnezzar. ... Meshach (me-shock) is the name given in Babylon to Mishael, one of the three young hebrew companions of Daniel (Daniel 1:7; 2:49; 3:12-30). ... Image:ThreeFaithfulMen. ... Nebuchadnezzar has several meanings: Nebuchadnezzar (also Nebuchadrezzar), the name of several kings of Babylonia: Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, the best known of these kings, who conquered Aram and Israel. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ...


It is also suggested that the song borrows from the Christian nativity story: for example the miraculous light that signalled the birth, the birth in a manger and the massacre of the innocents.


Jennifer Charles and Oren Bloedow from the New York-based band Elysian Fields released a CD in 2001 called La Mar Enfortuna, which featured modern versions of traditional Sephardic songs, many sung by Charles in Ladino. There are a number of groups in Turkey that sing in Ladino, notably Janet - Jak Esim Ensemble, Sefarad, Los Pasharos Sefaradis, and the children's chorus Las Estreyikas d'Estambol. There is Brazilian-born singer of Sepharadic origins called Fortuna that researches and plays Ladino music. Jennifer Charles (middle), with Mike Patton & Dan the Automator in Lovage Jennifer Charles (b. ... Oren Bloedow (b. ... Elysian Fields may refer to: In mythology: Elysium, a section of the underworld from Greek mythology In geography: Elysian Fields, Hoboken, New Jersey, site of the first organized baseball game Elysian Fields Avenue, New Orleans Avenue des Champs-Élysées, Paris In the arts: Elysian Fields (band), an American Dream... Fortuna is a Brazilian female singer-songwriter, with Jewish background, researcher of Sephardic tradition since 1992. ...


Adio querida


Tu madre cuando te parió
Y te quitó al mundo,
Coracon ella no te dió
Para amar segundo.
Coracon ella no te dió
Para amar segundo.


Adío,
Adío Querida,
No quero la vida,
Me l'amagrates tu.
Adío,
Adío Querida,
No quero la vida,
Me l'amargates tú.


Va, búxcate otro amor,
Aharva otras puertas,
Aspera otro ardor,
Que para mi sos muerta.
Aspera otro ardor,
Que para mi sos muerta.


Adío,
Adío Querida,
No quero la vida,
Me l'amagrates tu.
Adío,
Adío Querida,
No quero la vida,
Me l'amargates tú.


Sample

Ladino

El djudeo-espanyol, djudio, djudezmo o ladino es la lingua favlada por los sefardim, djudios ekspulsados de la Espanya enel 1492. Es una lingua derivada del espanyol i favlada por 150.000 personas en komunitas en Israel, la Turkia, antika Yugoslavia, la Gresia, el Maruekos, Boriken, Mayorka, entre otros.

Spanish

El judeo-español o ladino es la lengua hablada por los sefardíes, judíos expulsados de España en 1492. Es una lengua derivada del español y hablada por 150.000 personas en comunidades en Israel, Turquía, la Antigua Yugoslavia, Grecia, Marruecos, Puerto Rico, Mallorca, entre otros.

Portuguese

O judeu-espanhol ou ladino é a língua falada pelos sefarditas, judeus expulsos de Espanha em 1492. É uma língua derivada do espanhol e falada por 150.000 pessoas em comunidades em Israel, na Turquia, na antiga Iugoslávia, na Grécia, em Marrocos, Porto Rico, Maiorca, entre outros.

English

Judeo-Spanish or Ladino is a language spoken by the Sephardim, Jews expelled from Spain in 1492. It is a language derived from Spanish and spoken by 150,000 people in communities in Israel, Turkey, the former Yugoslavia, Greece, Morocco, Puerto Rico, and Mallorca, among others.

Notes

  1. ^ Judeoespañol in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE).
  2. ^ Ladino. 2nd sense in the DRAE
  3. ^ El ladino. Lengua litúrgica de los judíos españoles. Haim Vidal Sephiha. Historia 16, 1978
  4. ^ Ladino. 7th sense in the DRAE
  5. ^ "Clearing up Ladino, Judeo-Spanish, Sephardic Music" Judith Cohen, HaLapid, winter 2001; Sephardic Song Judith Cohen, Midstream July/August 2003
  6. ^ Verba Hispanica X: Los problemas del estudio de la lengua sefardí, Katja Smid, Ljubljana, pages 113-124: Es interesante el hecho que en Bulgaria se imprimieron unas pocas publicaciones en alfabeto cirílico búlgaro y en Grecia en alfabeto griego. [...] Nezirović (1992: 128) anota que también en Bosnia se ha encontrado un documento en que la lengua sefardí está escrita en alfabeto cirilico. The Nezirović reference is: Nezirović, M., Jevrejsko-Spanjolska knjitévnost. Institut za knjifevnost, Svjeálost, Sarajevo, 1992.
  7. ^ Reka Network: Kol Israel International
  8. ^ Radio Exterior de España: Emisión sefardí

The Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española or DRAE is the most authoritative dictionary of Castilian Spanish. ...

References

  • Hemsi, Alberto: Cancionero Sefardí
  • Molho, Michael: Usos y costumbres de los judíos de Salónica (1950)
  • Markus, Shimon, Ha-safa ha-sefaradit-yehudit (the Judeo-Spanish language): Jerusalem, 1965
  • Габинский, Марк А. Сефардский (еврейской-испанский) язык (M.A. Gabinsky. Sephardic (Judeo-Spanish) language, in Russian). Ştiinţa: Chişinău, 1992.
  • Kohen, Elli; Kohen-Gordon, Dahlia. Ladino-English, English-Ladino: Concise Encyclopedic Dictionary. Hippocrene Books: New York, 2000

See also

In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Judeo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Tetauni (Tetuani) is a dialect of Judaeo-Spanish, a Romance language that was spoken in the city of Oran in Algeria. ... Åžalom is a Jewish weekly newspaper published in Turkey. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of Romance languages development in Iberia. ... Judeo-Romance languages are those languages derived from Romance languages, spoken by the various Jewish communities, and altered to such an extent to gain recognition as languages in their own right, joining the great number of other Jewish languages. ... The preterite (also praeterite, in American English also preterit, or past historic) is the grammatical tense expressing actions which took place in the past. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Ladino language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • Ethnologue report for Ladino
  • Ladinokomunita, an email list in Ladino
  • La pajina djudeo-espanyola de Aki Yerushalayim
    • Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino
  • The Ladino Alphabet
  • Diksionario de Ladinokomunita
  • Judeo-Spanish (Ladino) at Orbis Latinus
  • Ladino music by SuZy and Margalit Matitiahu
  • Socolovsky, Jerome. "Lost Language of Ladino Revived in Spain", Morning Edition, National Public Radio, March 19, 2007.
  • A randomly selected example of use of ladino on the Worldwide Web: La komponente kulinaria i linguístika turka en la kuzina djudeo-espanyola
  • Israeli Ladino Language Forum (Hebrew)
  • LadinoType™ - A Ladino Transliteration System for Solitreo, Meruba, and Rashi
  • Habla Ladino? Sephardim meet to preserve language Friday January 9, 1998
  • Edición SEFARAD, Radio programme in Ladino from Radio Nacional de España


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... SuZy (Istanbul, 1961) is a Turkish-Israeli singer in ladino. ... Margalit Matitiahu (Tel Aviv, Israel, 1935) is a poet in Ladino and Hebrew from Israel. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Aragonese, IPA: (), is a Romance language now spoken by some 10,000 people over the valleys of the Aragón River, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Astur-Leonese is a Romance language group of the West Iberian group, spoken in the Spanish provinces of Asturias (Asturian Language, asturianu, or Bable), León, Zamora and Salamanca (Leonese language, Llïonés). ... Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as... Leonese (Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain. ... The Mirandese language (Lhéngua Mirandesa in Mirandese; Língua Mirandesa or Mirandês in Portuguese) is spoken in northeastern Portugal. ... Burgundian is either of the following; An extinct language of the Germanic language group spoken by the Burgundians. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Champenois is a language spoken by a minority of people in France and in Belgium. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... Gallurese (gadduresu) is a diasystem of the Sardinian language, spoken in the Gallura (Gaddura), north-eastern part of Sardinia including the town of Tempio Pausania (Tempiu). ... Sassarese is a diasystem of the Sardinian language, spoken in Sassaris area (north-western part of Sardinia) in Italy. ... Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken along the eastern Adriatic in Dalmatian coast of Croatia and as far south as Kotor (Cattaro) in Montenegro. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Areas where Emiliano-Romagnolo is spoken Emiliano-Romagnolo (also known as Emilian-Romagnolo) is a Romance language mostly spoken in Emilia-Romagna. ... Fala language (SIL Code: FAX; ISO 639-2 code: roa) is a Romance language from the Portuguese-Galician subgroup spoken in Spain by about 10,500 people, of which 5,500 live in a valley of the northwestern part of Extremadura near the border with Portugal. ... Franc-Comtois is a language spoken by a minority of people in Franche-Comté. It is one of the langues doïl and is a regional language of France. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Zarphatic or Judæo-French (Zarphatic: Tsarfatit) is an extinct Jewish language, formerly spoken among the Jewish communities of northern France and in parts of what is now west-central Germany, in such cities as Mainz, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Aachen. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Istriot is a Romance language spoken in the Western Region on the coast of the Istrian Peninsula (especially in the towns of Rovinj (Rovigno) and Vodnjan (Dignano)), on the upper northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language used in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Italiano centrale is a group of dialects of Italian spoken in Lazio and areas East of Lazio in Italy. ... The Florentine language was the language spoken in the Italian city of Florence. ... The Tuscan dialect is a dialect spoken in Tuscany, Italy. ... Romanesco is a group of Romance dialects spoken in Rome and most of the surrounding regions of Lazio, Umbria, central Marche and extreme southern Tuscany in central Italy. ... Judeo-Italian is a term referring to Italo-Romance linguistic varieties used between the 10th and the 20th centuries in Rome and in central and northern Italy. ... Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-South Tyrol and Veneto. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Tetauni (Tetuani) is a dialect of Judaeo-Spanish, a Romance language that was spoken in the city of Oran in Algeria. ... Ligurian is a Romance language, consisting of a group of Gallo-Italic dialects currently spoken in Liguria, northern Italy, and parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, and Monaco. ... Genoese (Zeneize) is the variety of the ligurian language spoken in Genoa, the capital city of Liguria (Italy) . The Ligurian is listed by Ethnologue as a language in its own right (not to be confused with the ancient Ligurian language). ... Street sign in French and Monégasc in Monaco-Ville Monégasque (natively Munegascu) is a Romance language and a dialect of the modern Ligurian language. ... Lorrain is a language spoken by a minority of people in Lorraine in France and in Gaume in Belgium. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of the Romance languages development in Iberia. ... Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: ) is a Romance language spoken in the city and region of Naples, Campania (Neapolitan: Nàpule, Italian: Napoli); close dialects are spoken throughout most of southern Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora districts of southern Lazio, parts of Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Auregnais or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (French:Aurigny, Auregnais:Aoeurgny/Auregny). ... Guernésiais, also known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of Norman language spoken in Guernsey. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ... Sercquiais also known as Sarkese or Sark-French is the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Sark. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Auvergnat (French name) or Auvernhat (native name) is one of several dialects of the Occitan language spoken in Auvergne, which is a historical province in the northern part of Occitania. ... Vivaro-Alpine (English name) or Vivaroalpenc, Vivaroaupenc (native name) is the northeastern dialect of the Occitan language. ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ... Aranese (aranés in Occitan/Gascon/Aranese) is a variety of Pyrenean Gascon (a dialect of the Occitan language), spoken in Val dAran, in northwestern Catalonia (Spain), where it is one of the three official languages besides Catalan and Spanish. ... Languedocien is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc. ... The Limousin dialect is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken or understood by about 400 000 people in the part of southern France known as Limousin. ... Provençal (Provençau in Provençal language) is one of several dialects spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Nicard (Niçois - French, Nissart - Niçard) is a distinct dialect of the Provençal language spoken in and around the city of Nice, or Nissa in Niçard, and the historical region Le Comté de Nice/Lou Coumtat de Nissa which is almost equivalent to the current French d... Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct Jewish language of southern France, also known as Judæo-Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Piedmontese (also known as Piemontèis, and Piemontese in Italian) is a language spoken by over 2 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy. ... Poitevin (Poetevin) is a language spoken by the people in Poitou. ... The Romance Pannonian language is an extinct language that was spoken in the romanized Pannonia after the fall of the Western Roman empire, until the X century. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Calabrian language is the name given to a number of Dialects spoken in parts of the Calabria region in Italy. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Talian is a dialect of the Venetian language spoken mainly in the wine-producing area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. ... Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ... Western Lombard is a Romance language spoken in Italy, in the Lombard provinces of Milan, Monza, Varese, Como, Lecco, Sondrio, a little part of Cremona (except Crema and its neighbours), Lodi and Pavia, and the Piedmont provinces of Novara, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola and a small part of Vercelli (Valsesia), and...

  Jewish Languages
v  d  e
Afro-Asiatic
Hebrew eras: Biblical | Mishnaic | Medieval | Modern
dialects: Ashkenazi | Sephardi | Yemenite | Sanaani | Tiberian | Mizrahi | Samaritan Hebrew
Judeo-Aramaic (Aramaic): Biblical | Targum | Talmudic | Barzani | Hulaulá | Lishana Deni | Lishán Didán | Lishanid Noshan | Samaritan Aramaic
Judeo-Arabic (Arabic): Southern Iraqi | Northern Iraqi | Moroccan | Yemenite | Libyan | Algerian
Other: Cushitic: Kayla | Qwara Berber: Judeo-Berber
Indo-European
Yiddish (Germanic) dialects: Eastern | Western | Litvish | Poylish | Ukrainish
argots: Klezmer-loshn
Jewish English: Yeshivish | Yinglish
Judeo-Romance (Romance): Catalanic | Judeo-Italian | Ladino | Haketia | Tetuani | La‘az | Shuadit | Zarphatic | Lusitanic | Judeo-Aragonese
Judeo-Persian (Iranian): Bukhori | Juhuri | Dzhidi | Judeo-Hamedani | Judeo-Shirazi | Judeo-Esfahani | Judeo-Kurdish | Judeo-Yazdi
Judeo-Kermani | Judeo-Kashani | Judeo-Borujerdi | Judeo-Khunsari | Judeo-Golpaygani | Judeo-Nehevandi
Other: Yevanic (Hellenic) | Knaanic (Slavic) | Judæo-Marathi (Indo-Aryan)
Turkic Dravidian Kartvelian
Krymchak | Karaim Judeo-Malayalam Gruzinic

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ladino (djudeoespanyol) language (0 words)
Ladino, Judezmo or Judeo-Spanish is a language derived from medieval Castilian Spanish.
There are currently about 700,000 speakers of Ladino in Israel, the USA and Argentina, although only about 200,000 of them use the language regularly.
Ladino is also written with the Latin alphabet.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m