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Encyclopedia > Ladakh
  ?Ladakh
Jammu and Kashmir • India
Tanglang La mountain pass in Ladakh
Tanglang La mountain pass in Ladakh
Map indicating the location of Ladakh Map of Kashmir with Ladakh highlighted in red[α]
Coordinates: 34°08′N 77°33′E / 34.14, 77.55
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 45,110 km² (17,417 sq mi)[β]
Largest city Leh
Population
Density
270,126 (2001)
• 6/km² (16/sq mi)[1]
Language(s) Ladakhi, Urdu
Infant mortality rate 19%[2] (1981)
Website: leh.nic.in

Coordinates: 34°08′N 77°33′E / 34.14, 77.55 , Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmiri: جۄم تٕہ کٔشِیر, ज्वम त॒ कॅशीर, Urdu: جموں Ùˆ کشمیر) (often abbreviated as Kashmir or J & K, is a disputed territory between India and Pakistan and lies mostly in the Himalayan mountains. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links India_Jammu_and_Kashmir_locator_map. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... View of Leh from Namgyal hill Leh Bazaar prior to 1871 Leh is the capital of the former Himalayan kingdom of Ladakh, which is now a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... This article is under construction. ... The Ladakhi language is the predominant language in the Ladakh region of the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: [lad̪ɑks], Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: [ləd̪.d̪ɑːx], Urdu: لدّاخ; "land of high passes") is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent. It is one of the most sparsely populated regions in India. Historically, the region included the Baltistan (Baltiyul) valleys, the Indus Valley, the remote Zanskar, Lahaul and Spiti to the south, Ngari including the Rudok region and Guge in the east, and Nubra valleys to the north over Khardung La in the Ladakh mountain range. Contemporary Ladakh borders Tibet to the east, the Lahaul and Spiti to the south, the Vale of Kashmir, Jammu and Baltiyul regions to the west, and the Trans -Kuen Lun territory of East Turkistan in Central Asia on the other side of the Kuen Lun range in Kashmir to the north. Running southwest to northeast, the altyn Tagh converges with the Kuen Lun range in Kashmir which runs southeast to northwest forming a "V" shape which converges at Pulu. The geographical divide between Ladakh in the highlands of Kashmir and the Tibetan Plateau commences in the vicinity of Pulu and continues southwards along the intricate maze of ridges situate east of Rudok, wherein are situate Aling Kangri and Mavang Kangri and culminates in the vicinity of Mayum La . This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Wylie transliteration scheme is a method for transliterating the Tibetan script using the keys on a typical English language typewriter. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union along with English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... India is a federal republic comprised of twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... , Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmiri: جۄم تٕہ کٔشِیر, ज्वम त॒ कॅशीर, Urdu: جموں Ùˆ کشمیر) (often abbreviated as Kashmir or J & K, is a disputed territory between India and Pakistan and lies mostly in the Himalayan mountains. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Region containing Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun mountain range (Kunlun Shan, 崑崙山) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 km. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... Baltistan (Urdu: بلتستان) , also known as Baltiyul in the Balti language, is a region to the north of Kashmir, bordering the Chinese region of Xinjiang. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Zanskar is a region in the Kargil district, part of the north-west Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Rudok is a small town on the Ladakh frontier of Tibet. ... Guge was an ancient kingdom in Western Tibet. ... Nubra Valley is situated about 150 km from Leh, the capital town of Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Khardung La (5602m) is highest known motorable pass in the world. ... Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... The district of Lahul and Spiti in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh consists of the two formerly separate districts of Lahul and Spiti. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Baltistan (Urdu: بلتستان) , also known as Baltiyul in the Balti language, is a region to the north of Kashmir, bordering the Chinese region of Xinjiang. ... Region containing Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun mountain range (Kunlun Shan, 崑崙山) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 km. ... Flag of East Turkistan East Turkistan (Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, Doğu Türkistan in Turkish) was the name of two shortlived states in Central Asia; the first one existed from 1932 to 1934, while the second one existed from 1944 to 1949. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Region containing Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun mountain range (Kunlun Shan, 崑崙山) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 km. ... Rudok is a small town on the Ladakh frontier of Tibet. ...


Ladakh is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and Buddhist culture. It is sometimes called "Little Tibet" as it has been strongly influenced by Tibetan culture. In the past Ladakh gained importance from its strategic location at the crossroads of important trade routes,[3] but since the Chinese authorities closed the borders with Tibet and Central Asia in the 1960, international trade has dwindled. Since 1974 the Indian Government has encouraged tourism in Ladakh. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Tibetan women demonstrating use of the butter churn at the Field Museum The Tibetan civilization boasts a rich culture. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... link titleLadakh (Ladakhi:ལདཁ , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Urdu: لدّاخ; IPA: ) , a word which means land of high passes, is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir of Northern India sandwiched between the Karakoram mountain range to the north and the Himalayas to the south. ...


The largest town in Ladakh is Leh. A majority of Ladakhis are Tibetan Buddhists and the majority of the remainder are Shia Muslims.[4] Ladakhis have in recent times called for Ladakh to be constituted as a union territory because of its religious and cultural differences with predominantly Muslim Kashmir.[5][6] View of Leh from Namgyal hill Leh Bazaar prior to 1871 Leh is the capital of the former Himalayan kingdom of Ladakh, which is now a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Tibetan Buddhism, (formerly also called Lamaism after their religious gurus known as lamas), is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Ladakh

Rock carvings have been found in many parts of Ladakh, showing that the area has been inhabited from the Neolithic times.[6] Ladakh's earliest inhabitants consisted of a mixed Indo-Aryan population of Mons and Dards,[7] who find mention in the works of Herodotus, [γ] Nearchus, Megasthenes, Pliny,[δ] Ptolemy,[ε] and the geographical lists of the Puranas.[8] Around the 1st century, Ladakh was a part of the Kushana empire. Buddhism came to western Ladakh via Kashmir in the 2nd century when much of eastern Ladakh and western Tibet was still practising the Bon religion. The 7th century Buddhist traveler Xuanzang also describes the region in his accounts.[στ] Hemis Monastery in the 1870s Information on Ladakh before the birth of the kingdom (10th century) is scarce. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Dards are various ethnic groups living in Afghanistan, India-occupied Kashmir, and Pakistan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nearchus (or Nearchos) was one of the officers in the army of Alexander the Great. ... Megasthenes (c. ... There are two famous persons named Pliny: Pliny the Elder, a Roman nobleman, scientist and historian who died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD The great-nephew of the former, Pliny the Younger, a statesman, orator, and writer who lived between 62 AD and 113 AD. This... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Bön has typically been described as the shamanistic religion in Tibet before the arrival of Buddhism in the 7th century C.E. With the recent exile of many Bönpo lamas to India, however, a more complex description of Bön is emerging and is now being considered by... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ...

Hemis Monastery in the 1870s
Hemis Monastery in the 1870s

In the 8th century, Ladakh was involved in the clash between Tibetan expansion pressing from the East and Chinese influence exerted from Central Asia through the passes, and suzerainty over Ladakh frequently changed hands between China and Tibet. In 842 Nyima-Gon, a Tibetan royal representative annexed Ladakh for himself after the break-up of the Tibetan empire, and founded a separate Ladakh dynasty. During this period Ladakh underwent Tibetanization resulting in a predominantly Tibetan population. The dynasty spearheaded the "Second Spreading of Buddhism" importing religious ideas from north-west India, particularly from Kashmir.[ζ] Download high resolution version (1671x1116, 607 KB)Taken from T. E. Gordons 1876 book: Roof of the World. ... Download high resolution version (1671x1116, 607 KB)Taken from T. E. Gordons 1876 book: Roof of the World. ...


Faced with the Islamic conquest of South Asia in the 13th century, Ladakh chose to seek and accept guidance in religious matters from Tibet. For nearly two centuries, till about 1600, Ladakh was subject to raids and invasions from neighbouring Muslim states, which led to weakening and fracturing of Ladakh, and partial conversion of Ladakhis to Islam.[4][8][6] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Tikse monastery, Ladakh
Tikse monastery, Ladakh

King Bhagan reunited and strengthened Ladakh and founded the Namgyal dynasty [η] which survives even today. The Namgyals repelled most Central Asian raiders and temporarily extended the kingdom as far as Nepal,[6] in the face of concerted attempts to convert the region to Islam and destroy Buddhist artifacts.[6][4] In the early 17th century efforts were made to restore destroyed artifacts and gompas, and the kingdom expanded into Zanskar and Spiti. Ladakh was, however defeated by the Mughals, who had already annexed Kashmir and Baltistan, but it retained its independence. Tikse monastery in Ladakh; This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Tikse monastery in Ladakh; This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Lhachen Bhagan was a Basgo king who united Ladakh in 1470 by overthrowing the king of Leh. ... The Namgyal dynasty of Ladakh was founded by Bhagan, a Basgo king, who reunited Ladakh by overthrowing the king of Leh. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


In the late 17th century, Ladakh sided with Bhutan in its dispute with Tibet, which resulted in an invasion by Tibet. Kashmiri help restored Ladakhi rule on the condition of that a mosque be built in Leh and that the Ladakhi king convert to Islam. The Treaty of Temisgam in 1684 settled the dispute between Tibet and Ladakh, but its independence was severely restricted. In 1834, the Dogras under Zorawar Singh, a general of Ranjit Singh invaded and annexed Ladakh. A Ladakhi rebellion in 1842 was crushed and Ladakh was incorporated into the Dogra state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Namgyal family was given the jagir of Stok, which it nominally retains to this day. Starting from the 1850s, European influence increased in Ladakh — geologists, sportsmen and tourists started exploring Ladakh. In 1885, Leh became the headquarters of a mission of the Moravian Church. Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Dogras are a Northern Indo-Aryan ethnic group in South Asia. ... Zorawar Singh Kahluria was born in 1786 in a village of Kahlur State (also called Bilaspur from its capital) in modern Himachal Pradesh. ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ... A Jagir is a small territory granted by a ruler to an army chieftain (called a sardar in Marathi language) in recognition of his military service. ... A Moravian is a Protestant belonging to a religious movement that originated in Moravia, Czech Republic. ...


At the time of the partition of India in 1947, the Dogra ruler Maharaja Hari Singh was undecided whether to accede to the Indian Union or to Pakistan. In 1948, Pakistani raiders invaded the region and occupied Kargil and Zanskar, reaching within 30 km (19 miles) of Leh.[6] The Indian government sent troops into the princely state after the ruler signed the Instrument of Accession making the state a part of the Union of India. In 1949, China closed the border between Nubra and Xinjiang, blocking old trade routes. The Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1950 led to a large influx of Tibetan refugees to the region. In 1962 China invaded and occupied Aksai Chin, and promptly built roads connecting Xinjiang and Tibet through it. It also built the Karakoram highway jointly with Pakistan. India built the Srinagar-Leh highway during this period, cutting the journey time between Srinagar to Leh from 16 days to two.[6] The entire state of Jammu and Kashmir continues to be the subject of a territorial dispute between India on the one hand and Pakistan and China on the other. Kargil was a scene of fighting in the wars of 1947, 1965, 1971 and the focal point of a potential nuclear conflict during the Kargil War in 1999. The region was bifurcated into Kargil and Leh districts in 1979. In 1989, there were violent riots between Buddhists and Muslims. Following demands for autonomy from the Kashmiri dominated state government, the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council was created in 1993. This article is under construction. ... It has been suggested that Maharaj be merged into this article or section. ... Hari Singh was the last maharaja of the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... Kargil was a part of Gilgit-Baltistan before 1947, but now is a town in the Indian-controlled Kashmir. ... Zanskar is a region in the Kargil district, part of the north-west Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... km redirects here. ... The Imperial units are an irregularly standardized system of units that have been used in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, including the Commonwealth countries. ... The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharajah Hari Singh, ruler of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, on October 26, 1947. ... Nubra Valley is situated about 150 km from Leh, the capital town of Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... China - India Western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Ä€kèsàiqÄ«n, Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the junction of the Peoples Republic of China, Pakistan, and India. ... Karakoram Highway route map The highest point on the highway: the Khunjerab Pass The Karakoram Highway (KKH) is the highest paved international road in the world. ... For main article about Kashmir see Kashmir // Partition, dispute and war Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) Indo-Pakistani wars and... Combatants India Mukti Bahini Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Ladakh
Map of the central Ladakh region
Map of the central Ladakh region
Landscape in Ladakh
Landscape in Ladakh

Ladakh is India’s highest plateau with much of it being over 3,000 m (9,800 ft).[4] It spans the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges and the upper Indus River valley. Historical Ladakh includes the fairly populous main Indus valley, the more remote Zangskar (in the south) and Nubra valleys (to the north over Khardung La), the almost deserted Aksai Chin, and Kargil and Suru Valley areas to the west (Kargil being the second most important town in Ladakh). Before partition, Baltistan (now under Pakistani administration) was a district in Ladakh. Skardu was the winter capital of Ladakh while Leh was the summer capital. The Pangong lake in Ladakh. ... Image File history File links Ladakh2. ... Image File history File links Ladakh2. ... Image File history File links Moon_desert_in_ladakh_001. ... Image File history File links Moon_desert_in_ladakh_001. ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindh; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδους Indus) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... Nubra Valley is situated about 150 km from Leh, the capital town of Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Khardung La (5602m) is highest known motorable pass in the world. ... China - India Western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Ä€kèsàiqÄ«n, Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the junction of the Peoples Republic of China, Pakistan, and India. ... Map of the Ladakh region with Suru Valley in the west The Suru valley is a valley in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, which is drained by the Suru river, a tributary of the Indus river. ... Skardu Town as seen from the Skardu Fort Skardu (Urdu: سکردو) is the principle town and capital of Baltistan district, one of the districts making up Pakistans Northern Areas (also part of the Pakistani-administered part of Kashmir). ...


The mountain ranges in this region were formed over a period of 45 million years by the folding of the Indian plate into the more stationary Eurasian Plate. The drift continues, causing frequent earthquakes in the Himalayan region.[θ][9] The peaks in the Ladakh range are at a medium altitude close to the Zoji-la (5,000–5,500 m or 16,000–18,050 ft), and increase towards south-east, reaching a climax in the twin summits of Nun-Kun (7000 m or 23,000 ft).  The Indian plate, shown in red Due to continental drift, the India Plate split from Madagascar and collided with the Eurasian Plate resulting in the formation of the Himalayas. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the continents Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... The Zoji Pass (also Zojila or Zoji-la Pass) is a pass from Srinagar to Ladakh through the western part of the Himalayan mountains. ... The Nun Kun mountain massif comprises a pair of Himalayan peaks Nun (7,135 m), the highest mountain in Kashmir, India, and Kun (7,035 m) are located in the Suru valley. ...


The Suru and Zangskar valleys form a great trough enclosed by the Himalayas and the Zanskar range. Rangdum is the highest inhabited region in the Suru valley, after which the valley rises to 4,400 m (14,436 ft) at Pensi-la, the gateway to Zanskar. Kargil, the only town in the Suru valley, was an important staging post on the routes of the trade caravans before 1947, being more or less equidistant, at about 230 kilometres from Srinagar, Leh, Skardu, and Padum. The Zangskar valley lies in the troughs of the Stod and the Lungnak rivers. The region experiences heavy snowfall; the Pensi-la is open only between June and mid-October. The Indus river is the backbone of Ladakh. All major historical and current towns — Shey, Leh, Basgo, and Tingmosgang, are situated close to the river. location map of Zanskar The Zanskar Range is a mountain range in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that separates Zanskar from Ladakh. ... Rangdum is a valley situated 3657 m above the sea level, in an isolated region of the Suru valley in Ladakh. ... Pensi-la is a mountain pass in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, which is known as the Gateway to Zanskar. ... Srinagar   (Hindi: श्रीनगर, Urdu: سرینگر, Kashmiri: سِرېنَگَر सिरीनगर) , is the summer capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India, and is situated in the valley of Kashmir. ... View of Leh from Namgyal hill Leh Bazaar prior to 1871 Leh is the capital of the former Himalayan kingdom of Ladakh, which is now a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Skardu Town as seen from the Skardu Fort Skardu (Urdu: سکردو) is the principle town and capital of Baltistan district, one of the districts making up Pakistans Northern Areas (also part of the Pakistani-administered part of Kashmir). ... Padum (also spelt Padam) is the largest town and adminstrative centre of Zanskar. ... Shey is a town in Ladakh that has the old summer Palace of the kings of Ladakh. ... View of Leh from Namgyal hill Leh Bazaar prior to 1871 Leh is the capital of the former Himalayan kingdom of Ladakh, which is now a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Basgo is a historical town situated on the bank of the Indus river in Ladakh. ... Tingmosgang is a town on the bank of Indus river in Ladakh. ...


The Ladakh range has no major peaks; its average height is a little less than 6,000 m (19,700 ft), and few of its passes are less than 5,000 m (16,400 ft). The Pangong range runs parallel to the Ladakh range about 100 km northwest from Chushul, along the southern shore of the Pangong Lake. Its highest range is 6,700 m (22,000 ft), and the northern slopes are heavily glaciated. The region comprising the valley of Shayok and Nubra rivers is known as Nubra. The Karakoram range in Ladakh is not as mighty as in Baltistan.[ι] North of the Karakoram lies the Kunlun. Thus, between Leh and eastern Central Asia, there is a triple barrier — Ladakh range, Karakoram range, and Kunlun. Nevertheless, a major trade route was established between Leh and Yarkand. The Ladakh Range is a segment of the Karakoram Range, that extends southeastward for 230 miles (370 km) from the mouth of the Shyok River in the Ladakh region to the Tibetan border. ... The Pangong range is a mountain range in Ladakh that runs parallel to the Ladakh range about 100 km northwest from Chushul, along the southern shore of the Pangong Lake. ... Pangong Tso Pangong Tso is a lake in the Himalayas situated at a height of about 4500m. ... Region containing Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun mountain range (崑崙山) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 km. ... Yarkand or Yecheng (modern Chinese name 叶城, pinyin: Yèchéng, also Chokkuka, anciently Suoju 莎車, also written Shache and Suoche; alt. ...

Monthly average temperature in Leh.
Monthly average temperature in Leh.

Ladakh is a high altitude desert as the Himalayas create a rain shadow, denying entry to monsoon clouds. The main source of water is the winter snowfall on the mountains. Recent flooding of the Indus river in the region has been attributed either to abnormal rain patterns, or the retreating of glaciers, both of which might be linked to global warming.[10] The Leh Nutrition Project, headed by Chewang Norphel, also known as the 'Glacier Man', currently creates artificial glaciers as one solution for this problem.[1][2] Image File history File links Ladakhtemp2. ... Image File history File links Ladakhtemp2. ... For the television series see Rain Shadow. ... Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a rainy season which lasts for several months and has lasting climatic effects. ...

Phyang Gompa, Ladakh, India
Phyang Gompa, Ladakh, India

The regions on the north flank of the Himalayas — Dras, the Suru valley and Zanskar — experience heavy snowfall and remain virtually cut off from the rest of the country for several months in the year. Summers are short, though they are long enough to grow crops in the lower reaches of the Suru valley. The summer weather is dry and pleasant, with average temperatures between 10–20 °C (50–70 °F), while in winter, the temperature may dip to −15 °C (5 °F). The proportion of oxygen is less than in many other places at comparable altitudes because of lack of vegetation. There is little moisture to temper the effects of rarefied air. Ladakh lies in the Very High Damage Risk cyclone zone.[11] Image File history File links Gompa-Phyang-1. ... Image File history File links Gompa-Phyang-1. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German-Dutch physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ...


Flora and fauna

White yak

The wildlife of this region was first studied by Ferdinand Stoliczka, an Austrian/Czech palaeontologist, who carried out a massive expedition in the region in the 1870s. Vegetation is extremely sparse in Ladakh except along streambeds and wetlands, where several wild herbs and shrubs can be seen. Some vegetation is also found on high slopes that receive more snow, and in irrigated places.[12] The flora and fauna of Ladakh was first studied by Ferdinand Stoliczka, an Austrian/Czech palaeontologist, who carried out a massive expedition in the region in the 1870s. ... Download high resolution version (900x600, 390 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Zanskar Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (900x600, 390 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Zanskar Categories: GFDL images ... Ferdinand Stoliczka (May 1838 - June 19, 1874) was an Austrian/Czech palaeontologist born at Hochwald in Moravia. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ...


The fauna of Ladakh have much in common with that of Central Asia in general and that of the Tibetan Plateau in particular. Exceptions to this are the birds, many of which migrate from the warmer parts of India to spend the summer in Ladakh. For such an arid area, Ladakh has a great diversity of birds — a total of 225 species have been recorded. Many species of finches, robins, redstarts (like the Black Redstart) and the Hoopoe are common in summer. The Brown-headed Gull is seen in summer on the river Indus and on some lakes of the Changthang. Resident water-birds include the Brahminy duck also known as the Ruddy Sheldrake and the Bar-headed Goose. The Black-necked Crane (Ladakhi: Thung Thung), a rare species found scattered in the Tibetan plateau is also found in parts of Ladakh. Other birds include the Raven, Red-billed Chough, Tibetan Snowcock and Chukar. The Lammergeier and the Golden Eagle are common raptors here. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... Binomial name Phoenicurus ochruros (S. G. Gmelin, 1774) The Black Redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros) is a small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the Thrush family (Turdidae), but is now more generally considered to be an Old World flycatcher (Muscicapidae). ... Binomial name Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758 The Hoopoe Upupa epops is in the same order of often colourful near passerine birds as the kingfishers, bee-eaters, and rollers. ... Binomial name Larus brunnicephalus Jerdon, 1840 The Brown-headed Gull , Larus brunnicephalus, is a small gull which breeds in the high plateaux of central Asia from Turkmenistan to Mongolia. ... Changthang is a high altitude plateau in eastern Ladakh and western and northern Tibet, with vast highlands and giant lakes. ... Binomial name Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas, 1764) The Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea) is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ... Binomial name Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas, 1764) The Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea) is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ... Binomial name Anser indicus (Latham, 1790) Synonyms Eulabeia indica The Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus) is a goose which breeds in Central Asia in colonies of thousands near mountain lakes. ... Binomial name Grus nigricollis Przhevalsky, 1876 The Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) is a large, whitish-gray crane. ... The Ladakhi language is the predominant language in the Ladakh region of the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax Linnaeus, 1758 The Red-billed Chough, or just Chough, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax is a member of the crow family, Corvidae. ... Binomial name Tetraogallus tibetanus Gould, 1854 The Tibetan Snowcock, (Tetraogallus tibetanus) is a snowcock in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. ... Binomial name Alectoris chukar (Gray, JE, 1830) The chukar, Alectoris chukar, is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. ... Binomial name Gypaetus barbatus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Lammergeier or Bearded Vulture, Gypaetus barbatus, is an Old World vulture, the only member of the genus Gypaetus. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 World distribution of the golden eagle Light green = Nesting area Blue = Wintering area Dark green = All year distribution Adult in flight. ...


The endangered Ibex, found in high craggy terrain, numbers several thousand in Ladakh. The Bharal, or blue sheep, is common in the Himalayas, ranging from Ladakh to as far as Sikkim. The Shapu is a rare goat that numbers about a thousand. Found at lower elevations, mostly in river valleys, it competes with domesticated animals. The Argali, or Nayan, is a relative of the Marco Polo sheep of the Pamirs with huge horizontal curving horns. They number only a couple hundred in Ladakh. The Chiru, or Tibetan antelope, (Ladakhi: Tsos) is an endangered[ια] animal that has traditionally been hunted for its wool [ιβ] known as shahtoosh, valued for its light weight and warmth and as a status symbol. The Kyang, or Tibetan Wild Ass, is common in the grasslands of Changthang, numbering about 1,500 individuals. There are about 200 Snow Leopards (Ladakhi: Shan) in Ladakh, especially in the Hemis High Altitude National Park. Other cats in Ladakh are even rarer than the snow leopard, the Lynx, numbering only a few individuals, and the Pallas's cat, which looks like a house cat. The Tibetan Wolf which preys on the livestock of the Ladakhis, is the most persecuted, reduced to just about 300. There are also a few brown bears in the Suru valley and the area around Dras. The Tibetan Sand Fox has recently been discovered in this region. Among smaller animals, Marmots, voles, hares, and several types of Pika are common. Species Capra ibex Capra nubiana Capra pyrenaica Capra sibirica Capra walie An ibex, also called steinbock, is a type of wild mountain goat with large recurved horns that are transversely ridged in front. ... Binomial name Pseudois nayaur Hodgson, 1833 The bharal or Himalayan blue sheep is a caprid found in the high Himalayas of Nepal, Tibet, China, throughout Northern Pakistan and Kashmir region. ... , Sikkim (also Sikhim) (DevanāgarÄ«: सिक्किम  ) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Marco Polo sheep is a species of sheep that takes its name from famed explorer Marco Polo. ... A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ... Binomial name Pantholops hodgsonii (Abel, 1826) The Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is a medium-sized bovid which is about 1. ... Shahtoosh (also written Shatush) - a Persian word meaning Pleasure of Kings - was the name given to a specific kind of shawl, which was woven with the down hair of the Chiru or Tibetan Antelope, by the weavers of Kashmir. ... A status symbol is something, usually an expensive or rare object, that indicates a high social status for its owner. ... Binomial name Schreber, 1775 Range map Synonyms Panthera uncia The Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia[1] or Panthera uncia[3]), sometimes known as the Ounce, is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of central and southern Asia. ... The Ladakhi language is the predominant language in the Ladakh region of the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Hemis National Park is a national park of India located in the Eastern Ladakh part of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Type species Felis lynx Linnaeus, 1758 The overall range of Lynx species. ... Binomial name Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... Binomial name Vulpes ferrilata (Hodgson, 1842) The Tibetan Fox (Vulpes ferrilata), also called the Tibetan Sand Fox or simply the Sand Fox, is a species of true fox that inhabits the high Tibetan Plateau in Nepal, China, and India, up to altitudes of about 5300 m. ... Species See text. ... Genera Microtus Myodes Phenacomys Lagurus Arvicola A vole is a small rodent resembling a mouse but with a stouter body, a shorter hairy tail, a slightly rounder head, and smaller ears and eyes. ... Jack rabbit and Jackrabbit redirect here. ... Type Species Ochotona minor Link, 1795 (= Lepus dauuricus Pallas, 1776) Species See text The name pika (archaically spelled pica) is used for any member of the Ochotonidae, a family within the order of lagomorphs, which also includes the Leporidae (rabbits and hares). ...


Government and politics

Ladakh comprises two districts of Jammu and Kashmir: Leh and Kargil. They are each governed by a Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, which are based on the pattern of the Darjeeling Gorkha Autonomous Hill Council. These were created as a compromise solution to the demands of Ladakhi people to make Leh district a union territory because of its religious and cultural differences with Kashmir. In October 1993, the Indian government and the State government agreed to grant each district of Ladakh the status of Autonomous Hill Council. This agreement was given effect by the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council Act, 1995. The council came into being with the holding of elections in Leh District on August 28, 1995. The inaugural meeting of the council was held at Leh on September 3, 1995. Kargil followed Ladakh's footsteps in July 2003, when the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council - Kargil was established.[13] The council works with village panchayats to take decisions on economic development, healthcare, education, land use, taxation, and local governance which are further reviewed at the Block Headquarters in the presence of the Chief Executive Councilor and Executive Councilors.[14] The government of Jammu and Kashmir looks after law and order, judicial system, communications and the higher education in the region. Ladakh sends one member (MP) to the Lok Sabha (lower house of the Indian parliament). The current MP from Ladakh in the current Lok Sabha is Thupstan Chhewang of the Ladakh Union Territory Front (LUTF). , Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmiri: جۄم تٕہ کٔشِیر, ज्वम त॒ कॅशीर, Urdu: جموں و کشمیر) (often abbreviated as Kashmir or J & K, is a disputed territory between India and Pakistan and lies mostly in the Himalayan mountains. ... Leh is one of the two districts located in Ladakh, the other being the Kargil District to the west, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Kargil was a part of Gilgit-Baltistan before 1947, but now is a town in the Indian-controlled Kashmir. ... The Darjeeling Gorkha Autonomous Hill Council (DGAHC), previously known as Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council (DGHC) is an autonomous body that looks after the District of Darjeeling in the state of West Bengal, India. ... // The Panchayat (पंचायत in Devanagiri) is an Indian political system that groups five villages in a quincunx (four peripheral villages around a central one were laid out as the 5 side of a die). ... The Lok Sabha is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... The Parliament of India is bicameral. ... The 14th Lok Sabha was convened after the election of April-May 2004. ...


Although on the whole there has been religious harmony in Ladakh, religion has tended to get politicized in the last few decades. As early as 1931, Kashmiri neo-Buddhists founded the Kashmir Raj Bodhi Mahasabha that led to some sense of separateness from the Muslims. The bifurcation of the region into Muslim majority Kargil district and Buddhist majority Leh district in 1979 again brought the communal question into fore. The Buddhists in Ladakh accused the overwhelmingly Muslim state government of continued apathy, corruption and a bias in favour of Muslims. On these grounds, they demanded union territory status for Ladakh. In 1989, there were violent riots between Buddhists and Muslims, provoking the Ladakh Buddhist Association to call for a social and economic boycott of Muslims which went on for three years before being lifted in 1992. The Ladakh Union Territory Front (LUTF), which controls the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council - Leh, demands union territory status for Ladakh. Kashmir Raj Bodhi Mahasabha was an organization founded by Kashmiri neo-Buddhists in 1931. ... Ladakh Buddhist Association (LBA) is an organization in Ladakh concerned with interests of Buddhists in Ladakh. ... Ladakh Union Territory Front is a political party in Jammu and Kashmir. ...


Economy

Market in Leh
Market in Leh

For centuries, Ladakh enjoyed a stable and self-reliant agricultural economy based on growing barley, wheat and peas, and keeping livestock, especially yak, dzos (yak-cow cross breed), cows, sheep and goats. At altitudes of 3,000 to 4,300 m (10,000 and 14,000 ft), the growing season is only a few months long every year. Animals are scarce and water is in short supply. The Ladakhis developed a small-scale farming system adapted to this unique environment. The land is irrigated by a system of channels which funnel water from the melted ice and snow of the mountains. The principal crop is barley. Rice had previously been a luxury in the Ladakhi diet, but has now become cheap and staple.[15] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (540x800, 60 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ladakh ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (540x800, 60 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ladakh ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 Subspecies Bos grunniens grunniens Bos grunniens mutus The yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired humped domestic bovine found in Tibet and throughout the Himalayan region of south Central Asia, as well as in Mongolia. ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ...


At lower elevations fruit is grown, while the high altitude Rupshu region is the preserve of nomadic herders. Surplus produce is traded for tea, sugar, salt and other items. Two items for export are apricots and pashmina. Grim, or naked barley is the staple crop all over Ladakh. It is sowed in May and reaped in mid-July. Growing times vary considerably with altitude. The extreme limit of cultivation is at Karzok, on the Tso-moriri lake, at 4,600 m (15,100 ft), which are widely considered to be the highest fields in the world.[4] Rupshu is a valley in southeast Ladakh, on the Leh-Manali highway. ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca The scientific name for the apricot is Prunus armeniaca L., which puts it in the same subgenus as the plum (Prunophora). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Karzok is a village in the Rupshu region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... link titleTso Moriri is a pearl-shaped saltwater lake situated at an altitude of 4,510 m about 240 km from Leh in southeast Ladakh. ...


In the past Ladakh's geographical position at the crossroads of some of the most important trade routes in Asia was exploited to the full. Ladakhis collected tax on goods that crossed their kingdom from Turkistan, Tibet, Punjab, Kashmir and Baltistan. A minority of Ladakhi people were also employed as merchants and caravan traders, facilitating trade in textiles, carpets, dyestuffs and narcotics between Punjab and Xinjiang. However, since the Chinese Government closed the borders with Tibet and Central Asia, this international trade has completely dried up.[6][16] Türkistan (also spelled Turkistan or Turkestan) is a region in Central Asia, largely inhabited by Turkic people. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word for stupor, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis). ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...

Leh Bazaar prior to 1871
Leh Bazaar prior to 1871

Since 1974, the Indian Government has encouraged a shift in trekking and other tourist activities from the troubled Kashmir region to the relatively unaffected areas of Ladakh. Although tourism employs only 4% of Ladakh's working population, it now accounts for 50% of the region's GNP.[6] Large-scale infrastructure projects — including, crucially, road links — have helped consolidate the new economy and create an urban alternative to farming. The combination of subsidised food and the new infrastructure has accelerated a mass migration of men folk from the farms into Leh to serve the tourism industry. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (719x867, 444 KB) Image taken from Robert Shaws 1871 book, Visits to High Tartary. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (719x867, 444 KB) Image taken from Robert Shaws 1871 book, Visits to High Tartary. ... Many beautiful natural scenes are only accessible if one is willing to hike to get to them. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ...


Adventure tourism in Ladakh started in the 19th century. By the turn of the 20th century, it was not uncommon for British officials to undertake the 14-stage trek from Srinagar to Leh as part of their annual leave. Agencies were set up in Srinagar and Shimla specialising in sports-related activities — hunting, fishing and trekking. This era is recorded in Arthur Neves The Tourist's Guide to Kashmir, Ladakh and Skardo, first published in 1911.[16] Today, about 18,000 tourists visit Ladakh every year. Among the popular places of tourist interest include Leh, Drass valley, Suru valley, Kargil, Zanskar, Zangla, Rangdum, Padum, Phugthal, Sani, Stongdey, Shyok Valley, Sankoo, Salt Valley and several popular trek routes like Manali to Ladakh, the Nubra valley, the Indus valley etc.[17] , Shimla   (Hindi: िशमला, Urdu: شملہ), originally called Simla, is a city in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. ... “Hunter” redirects here. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Many beautiful natural scenes are only accessible if one is willing to hike to get to them. ... View of Leh from Namgyal hill Leh Bazaar prior to 1871 Leh is the capital of the former Himalayan kingdom of Ladakh, which is now a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Drass is a tiny town in the Kargil District of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Kargil was a part of Gilgit-Baltistan before 1947, but now is a town in the Indian-controlled Kashmir. ... Zanskar is a region in the Kargil district, part of the north-west Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Zangla is a town in Zanskar, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Rangdum is a valley situated 3657 m above the sea level, in an isolated region of the Suru valley in Ladakh. ... Padum (also spelt Padam) is the largest town and adminstrative centre of Zanskar. ... Phugthal is a monastery in Ladakh, located on the mouth of a cave on the mountain face of a lateral gorge of a major tributary of the Lungnak (Lingti-Tsarap) River. ... There are places in the world that have the name Sani: Sani Beach - a hotel in Sani. ... Stongdey is a monastery situated 18 km to the north of Padum, on the road to Zangla. ... The Shyok Valley is the valley of the Shyok River -- the river of death situated in Ladakh. ... Sankoo is an upcoming township 42 km south of Kargil located in a bowl shaped valley drained by large tributary streams of the Suru river, the Kartse and the Nakpochu. ... The Salt Valley is a wide open area in Rupshu. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nubra Valley is situated about 150 kms from Leh, the capital town of Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India. ...


Transport

A bus on the Leh-Kargil highway
A bus on the Leh-Kargil highway

Ladakh was the connection point between Central Asia and South Asia when the Silk Road was in use. The sixty-day journey on the Ladakh route connecting Amritsar and Yarkand through eleven passes was frequently undertaken by traders till the third quarter of the 19th century.[3] Another common route in regular use was the Kalimpong route between Leh and Lhasa via Gartok, the administrative centre of western Tibet. Gartok could be reached either straight up the Indus in winter, or through either the Taglang la or the Chang la. Beyond Gartok, the Cherko la brought travelers to the Manasarovar and Rakshastal lakes, and then to Barka, which is connected to the main Lhasa road. These traditional routes have been closed since the Ladakh-Tibet border has been sealed by the Chinese government. Other less used routes connected Ladakh to Hunza and Chitral. Image File history File links Kashmir_Valley_to_Ladakh_bus_route. ... Image File history File links Kashmir_Valley_to_Ladakh_bus_route. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gartok is a trade-market of Tibet, situated on the bank of the Indus on the road between Shigatse and Leh, to the east of Simla. ... Cherko la is a mountain pass in Tibet, and forms the watershed between Sutlej and Indus rivers. ... Lake Manasarowar (also known as Lake Manasarover, Lake Mansarowar, or Mapam Yumco Lake) is a lake found on the Tibetan Plateau near Mount Kailash and Lake Rakshastal. ... Lake Rakshastal is a lake in Tibet lying close to the west of Lake Manasarowar and Mount Kailash. ... This page is about the town of Hunza in northern areas of Pakistan. ... Chitral Valley and Tirich Mir, 7,708 m (25,289 ft) Chitral, or Chatrāl (Urdu: چترال),in native language kalasha its pronounced chetrar(chetr meaning field) is the name of a town , valley, river, district, and former princely state in the former Malakand Division of the Northwest Frontier Province of...


In present times, the only two land routes to Ladakh in use are from Srinagar and Manali. Travelers from Srinagar start their journey from Sonamarg, through the Zoji la pass (3,450 m, 11,320 ft) via Dras and Kargil (2,750 m, 9,022 ft) passing through Namika la (3,700 m, 12,140 ft) and Fatu la (4,100 m, 13,450 ft.) This has been the main traditional gateway to Ladakh since historical times. However, with the rise of militancy in Kashmir, the main corridor for accessing the area has shifted from the Srinagar-Kargil-Leh route through Zoji la to the high altitude Manali-Leh Highway from Himachal Pradesh. The highway crosses four passes, Rohtang la (3,978 m, 13,050 ft), Baralacha la (4,892 m, 16,050 ft), Lungalacha la (5,059 m, 16,600 ft) and Tanglang la (5,325 m, 17,470 ft), and is open only between July and mid-October when snow is cleared from the road. There is one airport in Leh, from which there are multiple daily flights to Delhi on Jet Airways and Indian, and weekly flights to Srinagar and Jammu. The Zoji Pass (also Zojila or Zoji-la Pass) is a pass from Srinagar to Ladakh through the western part of the Himalayan mountains. ... Namika la is a mountain pass on the Srinagar-Leh highway, which passes through an altitude of 3700 m. ... Fatu la is a mountain pass on the Srinagar-Leh highway, which passes through an altitude of 4100 m. ... Tanglang La on the Leh-Manali Highway Traffic jam on the way to Rohtang Pass The Leh-Manali Highway is a highway in India connecting Leh and Manali. ... , Himachal Pradesh   (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA: ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Baralachala (4883m) is a mountain pass connecting Spiti (Himachal Pradesh) to Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir. ... Lachulanga la is a mountain pass on the Leh-Manali highway, which passes through an altitude of 5059 m. ... Tanglang la pass. ... , Delhi (Hindi: , Punjabi: , Urdu: ) sometimes referred to as Dilli, is the second-largest metropolis in India after Mumbai with a population of 13 million. ... Jet Airways is an airline based in Mumbai, India, operating domestic and international services. ...


Buses run from Leh to the surrounding villages. There is about 1,800 km (1,100 mi) of roads in Ladakh of which 800 km (500 mi) is surfaced.[18] The Manali-Leh-Srinagar road makes up about half of the road network, the remainder being spurs off it. Ladakh is criss-crossed by a complex network of mountain trails which, even today provides the only link to most of the valleys, villages and high pastures. For the traveler with a number of months it is possible to trek from one end of Ladakh to the other, or even from places in Himachal Pradesh. The large number of trails and the limited number of roads allows one to string together routes that have road access often enough to restock supplies, but avoid walking on motor roads almost entirely. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... View of Leh from Namgyal hill Leh Bazaar prior to 1871 Leh is the capital of the former Himalayan kingdom of Ladakh, which is now a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Srinagar   (Hindi: श्रीनगर, Urdu: سرینگر, Kashmiri: سِرېنَگَر सिरीनगर) , is the summer capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India, and is situated in the valley of Kashmir. ... , Himachal Pradesh   (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA: ) is a state in the north-west of India. ...


Demographics

Ladakh has a population of about 260,000 which is a blend of many different races, predominantly the Tibetans, Mons and the Dards. People of pure Dard descent predominate in Dras and Dha-Hanu valleys. The residents of Dha-Hanu, known as Brokpa, are followers of Tibetan Buddhism and have preserved much of their original Dardic traditions and customs. The Dards around Dras, however, have converted to Islam and have been strongly influenced by their Kashmiri neighbours. The Mons are descendants of earlier Indian settlers in Ladakh. They work as musicians, blacksmiths and carpenters. The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... The Dards are an Aryan people living in a few scattered villages in a remote region of Ladakh district, itself a remote region of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Dha and Hanu are two villages situated in the Dhahanu valley, about 163 km southwest of Leh in Ladakh. ... The Brokpa community is an Indo-Aryan community residing in the Dha-Hanu valley in Ladakh. ...


Unlike the rest of Jammu and Kashmir which is mainly Islamic, most of Ladakhis are Tibetan Buddhist (who mostly live in Ladakh), with most of the rest being Shia Muslims (mainly around Kargil and the lower Suru Valley). There are some Sunni Muslims of Kashmiri descent around Leh and also Padum in Zanskar). There are also small numbers of followers of the Bon religion, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity. Most Buddhists follow the tantric form of Buddhism known as Vajrayana Buddhism. Shias are mostly found among the Balti and Purig people. The people are of Tibetan descent with some Dardic and Mon admixture; the Balti and Purigs are believed to have more Dardic ancestry than the Ladakhis. The Changpa nomads who live in the Rupshu plateau are pure Tibetans, and it was probably herders like them who first settled in Ladakh and Baltistan. Since the early 1960s their numbers have increased as Chang Tang nomads from across the border flee Chinese-ruled Tibet. There are about 3,500 refugees in Leh alone. Muslim Arghons, descendants of Kashmiri or Central Asian merchants and Ladakhi women mainly live in Leh. The appearance and lifestyle of both central & Eastern Ladakhis and Zanskaris reflect a strong influence from Central Tibet, which diminishes westwards, being replaced by that of Dards. The Baltis of Kargil, Nubra, Suru Valley, and Baltistan, however, show strong Tibetan links in their appearance, and language and were Bonpa and Buddhists until recent times. Tibetan Buddhism, (formerly also called Lamaism after their religious gurus known as lamas), is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. ... Kargil was a part of Gilgit-Baltistan before 1947, but now is a town in the Indian-controlled Kashmir. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... View of Leh from Namgyal hill Leh Bazaar prior to 1871 Leh is the capital of the former Himalayan kingdom of Ladakh, which is now a district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Padum (also spelt Padam) is the largest town and adminstrative centre of Zanskar. ... Zanskar is a region in the Kargil district, part of the north-west Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Bön has typically been described as the shamanistic religion in Tibet before the arrival of Buddhism in the 7th century C.E. With the recent exile of many Bönpo lamas to India, however, a more complex description of Bön is emerging and is now being considered by... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... It has been suggested that Tantras be merged into this article or section. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... The Balti are the descendants of an amalagam of Tibetan, Indo-Aryan and Mon people, whose population of 400,000 is found in the Pakistani-controlled Baltistan (called Baltiyul by locals) and Kargil and Leh districts of Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir. ... The Burig, or Purik, are another group of Tibetan Muslims who live south of the Balti in Kashmir. ...


The principal language of Ladakh is Ladakhi, a Tibetan dialect that is different enough from Tibetan that Ladakhis and Tibetans often speak Hindi or English when they need to communicate. Urban Ladakhis usually know Hindi/Urdu and often English. Within Ladakh, there is a range of dialects, so that the language of the Chang-pa people may differ markedly from that of the Purig-pa in Kargil, or the Zanskaris, but they are all mutually comprehensible. Due to its position on important trade routes, the racial composition as well as the language of Leh is enriched with foreign influences. Traditionally, Ladakhi has had no written form distinct from classical Tibetan, but recently a number of Ladakhi scholars have started using the Tibetan script to write the colloquial tongue. Administrative work is carried out in Urdu and, increasingly, English. The Ladakhi language is the predominant language in the Ladakh region of the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ...


The Total Birth Rate in 2001 was 22.44, while it was 21.44 for Muslims and 24.46 for Buddhists. Brokpas had the highest TBR at 27.17 and Arghuns had the lowest at 14.25. TFR was 2.69 with 1.3 in Leh and 3.4 in Kargil. For Buddhists it was 2.79 and for Muslims it was 2.66. Baltis had a TFR of 3.12 and Arghuns had a TFR of 1.66. The Total Death Rate was 15.69, with Muslims having 16.37 and Budhists having 14.32. Highest was for Brokpas at 21.74 and lowest was for Bodhs at 14.32. [3]

Children from The Druk White Lotus School in performing a traditional dance.
Children from The Druk White Lotus School in performing a traditional dance.
Year [ιγ] Leh District (Population) Leh District (Sex ratio[ιδ]) Kargil District (Population) Kargil District (Sex ratio)
1951 40,484 (-) 1011 41,856 (-) 970
1961 43,587 (0.74) 1010 45,064 (0.74) 935
1971 51,891 (1.76) 1002 53,400 (1.71) 949
1981 68,380 (2.80) 886 65,992 (2.14) 853
2001 117,637 (2.75) 805 115,287 (2.83) 901

The sex ratio for Leh district has declined from 1011 in 1951 to 805 in 2001, while for Kargil district, it has declined from 970 to 901.[18] The urban sex ratio in both the districts is about 640. About 84% of Ladakh's population lives in villages.[19] The average annual population growth rate from 1981–2001 was 2.75% in Leh District and 2.83% in Kargil district.[18] Image File history File links Play_xl. ... Image File history File links Play_xl. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ... Leh is one of the two districts located in Ladakh, the other being the Kargil District to the west, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Sex ratio by country for total population. ... The town and district of Kargil was a part of Baltistan District before 1947, but is now administratively part of Ladakh in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ...


Culture

Chorten in Ladakh
Chorten in Ladakh

Ladakhi culture is similar to Tibetan culture. Ladakhi food has much in common with Tibetan food, the most prominent foods being thukpa, noodle soup; and tsampa, known in Ladakhi as ngampe, roasted barley flour. Eatable without cooking, tsampa makes useful, if dull trekking food. A dish that is strictly Ladakhi is skyu, a heavy pasta dish with root vegetables. As Ladakh moves toward a less sustainable cash-based economy, foods from the plains of India are becoming more common. Like in other parts of Central Asia, tea in Ladakh is traditionally made with strong green tea, butter, and salt; it is mixed in a large churn and known as gurgur cha, after the sound it makes when mixed. Sweet tea (cha ngarmo) is common now, made in the Indian style with milk and sugar. Most surplus barley produced is fermented into chang, an alcoholic beverage drunk especially on festive occasions.[20] Image File history File links Stupa_Chorten_Ladakh. ... Image File history File links Stupa_Chorten_Ladakh. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... Tibetan women demonstrating use of the butter churn at the Field Museum The Tibetan civilization boasts a rich culture. ... Some Tibetan foods include: Tsampa - a staple bread made from roasted barley flour and butter tea. ... Thukpa (Tibetan: ཐུག་པ་; Wylie: thug pa) is a Tibetan noodle soup, usually served with meat. ... Tsampa (Tibetan: rtsam pa) is a Tibetan staple foodstuff, particularly prominent in the central part of the country. ... Butter tea known as Po Cha is a drink of the Tibetans, and is also consumed in Bhutan. ...


The architecture of Ladakh contains Tibetan and Indian influences, and monastic architecture reflects a deeply Buddhist approach. The Buddhist wheel, along with two dragons, is a common feature on every Gompa (including the likes of Lamayuru, Likir, Thiske, Hemis, Alchi and Ridzong gompas). Many of the houses and monasteries are built on elevated, sunny sites facing the south, and are often made out a mixture of rocks, wood, cement and earth. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Gompas are Buddhist temples, located in Tibet, Ladakh (India), Nepal, and Bhutan. ... Lamayuru monastery Sacred festival (Tsechu) at Lamayuru monastery Lamayuru is a Tibetan Buddhist Gompa in Kargil District, Western Ladakh, situated on the Srinagar - Kargil - Leh road 15km east of the the Fatu La pass, at a height of 3510m. ... The Klu-kkhyil Gompa at Likir. ... Thiske Gompa near Leh in Ladakh and is typical of Tibetan Buddhist Gompa design. ... Hemis is a town 40 km southeast of Leh in Ladakh, well known for the Hemis monastery that was established in 1672 AD by king Senge Nampar Gyalva. ... The Indus Valley at Alchi, Ladakh. ...

Sacred festival (Tsechu) at Lamayuru monastery
Sacred festival (Tsechu) at Lamayuru monastery

The music of Ladakhi Buddhist monastic festivals, like Tibetan music, often involves religious chanting in Tibetan or Sanskrit, as an integral part of the religion. These chants are complex, often recitations of sacred texts or in celebration of various festivals. Yang chanting, performed without metrical timing, is accompanied by resonant drums and low, sustained syllables. Religious mask dances are an important part of Ladakh's cultural life. The Hemis monastery, a leading centre of Drukpa Buddhism, is a centre for an annual masked dance festival. The dances typically narrate a story of fight between good and evil, ending with the eventual victory of the former.[21] Weaving is an important part of traditional life in eastern Ladakh. Both women and men weave, on different looms.[22] Typical costumes include Gonchas of velvet, elaborately embroidered waistcoats and boots, and hats. The Ladakh festival is held every year in September. Performers, adorned with gold and silver ornaments and turquoise headgears throng the streets. Monks wear colourful masks and dance to the rhythm of cymbals, flutes and trumpets. The Yak, Lion and Tashispa dances depict the many legends and fables of Ladakh. Buddhist monasteries sporting prayer flags, display of 'thankas', archery competitions, a mock marriage, and horse-polo are the some highlights of this festival.[23] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (870x1024, 681 KB) http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (870x1024, 681 KB) http://www. ... Tibet is a region of China, culturally very distinct from the rest of China. ... A chant is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, either on a single pitch or with a simple notes and often including a great deal of repetition or statis. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts (or scriptures) are the Word of God, often feeling that the texts are wholly divine or spiritually inspired in origin. ... A festival is an event, usually staged by a local community, which centers on some unique aspect of that community. ... Look up yang in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... Hemis is a town 40 km southeast of Leh in Ladakh, well known for the Hemis monastery that was established in 1672 AD by king Senge Nampar Gyalva. ... The Drukpa is a major sect within the Kagyupa school of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Lungta-styel prayer flags hang along a mountain path in Nepal Tibetan prayer flags are colorful panels or rectangles of colourful cloth strung along mountain ridges and peaks in the Himalayas to bless the surrounding countryside. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Archery is a popular sport in Ladakh. Archery festivals are held during the summer months in villages. These are competitive events, to which all the surrounding villages send their teams. The sport is conducted with strict etiquette, to the accompaniment of the music of surna and daman (oboe and drum). Polo, the other traditional sport of Ladakh is indigenous to Baltistan and Gilgit, and was probably introduced into Ladakh in the mid-17th century by King Singge Namgyal, whose mother was a Balti princess.[24]


A feature of Ladakhi society that distinguishes it from the rest of the state is the high status and relative emancipation enjoyed by women compared to other rural parts of India. Fraternal polyandry and inheritance by primogeniture were actively practiced in Ladakh until the early 1940s when these were made illegal by the then government of Jammu and Kashmir, although they still exist in some areas. Another custom was known as khang-bu, or 'little house', in which the elders of a family, as soon as the eldest son has sufficiently matured, retire from participation in affairs, and taking only enough of the property for their own sustenance, yielding the headship of the family to him.[4] In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


A caste system exists in Buddhist Ladakh, wherein three groups, the Mons who play traditional music, the Garas who are blacksmiths, and the Bedas, who also play traditional music and are believed to have come in recent generations from Spiti area, are considered low caste by the middle (farmer) caste and the upper caste (former nobility). They were probably originally distinct ethnic groups from the majority of Ladakhis. Untouchability is still practiced against them, especially in the matter of eating and drinking utensils, choice of marriage partners, and seating order at public events. Such discrimination leads many low caste Buddhist girls to marry Muslim men in Kargil, where they can escape the caste system. The former nobility "skutraks" caste practicies untouchabilty against the middle and lower castes in eating, seating order, and marriage, but no longer commands any partcular respect, power, or economic clout. Claiming to be concerned about the relative loss of population to conversions, the Ladakh Buddhist Association (LBA) often takes out protests and forces the entire Leh Bazaar to close down when a Buddhist girl (of the middle or higher castes) marries a Muslim man. However, the LBA has never been seen to protest when a low caste girl marries a Muslim and converts.


Education

Pupils of the The Druk White Lotus School near Shey.

Traditionally there was little or nothing by way of formal education except in the gompas. Usually, one son from every family was obliged to master the Tibetan script in order to read the holy books.[4] The first school providing western education was opened by the Moravian Mission in Leh in October 1889, and the Wazir-i Wazarat[ιε] of Baltistan and Ladakh ordered that every family with more than one child should send one of them to school. This order met with great resistance from the local people who feared that the children would be forced to convert to Christianity. The school taught Tibetan, Urdu, English, Geography, Sciences, Nature study, Arithmetic, Geometry and Bible study.[7] Image File history File links Druk_white_lotus_school. ... Image File history File links Druk_white_lotus_school. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ...


According to the 2001 census, the overall literacy rate in the Leh District is 62% (72% for males and 50% for females), while it is 58% in Kargil district (74% for males and 41% for females).[25] Schools are well distributed throughout Ladakh, but 75% of them provide only primary education. 65% of the children attend school, but absenteeism of both students and teachers remains high. In both districts the failure rate at school-leaving level (class X) had for many years been around 85–95%, while of those managing to scrape through, barely half succeeded in qualifying for college entrance (class XII.) Before 1993, students were taught in Urdu till they were 14, after which the medium of instruction shifted to English. In 1993 the Students' Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL) launched 'Operation New Hope' (ONH), a campaign to provide 'culturally appropriate and locally relevant education' and make government schools more functional and effective. By 2001, ONH principles were being implemented in all the government schools of Leh District, and the matriculation exam pass rate had risen to 50%. A government degree college has been opened in Leh, enabling students to pursue higher education without having to leave Ladakh.[26] India has been a major seat of learning for thousands of years. ... The Students Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL) is an organisation founded in 1988 aimed at reforming the educational system of Ladakh. ... Operation New Hope (ONH) was a campaign started in Ladakh in 1994 to overhaul the primary education system in the government schools. ...


See also

link titleLadakh (Ladakhi:ལདཁ , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Urdu: لدّاخ; IPA: ) , a word which means land of high passes, is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir of Northern India sandwiched between the Karakoram mountain range to the north and the Himalayas to the south. ... Baltistan (Urdu: بلتستان) , also known as Baltiyul in the Balti language, is a region to the north of Kashmir, bordering the Chinese region of Xinjiang. ... Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ...

Notes

α. ^  The area under Indian administration is shown in dark pink, while additional areas claimed by the Indian government, which were parts of the historical Ladakh kingdom, are shown in pink.


β. ^  This excludes Aksai Chin (37555 km²), under Chinese administration. China - India Western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Ä€kèsàiqÄ«n, Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the junction of the Peoples Republic of China, Pakistan, and India. ...


γ. ^  He mentions twice a people called Dadikai, first along with the Gandarioi, and again in the catalogue of king Xerxes's army invading Greece. Herodotus also mentions the gold-digging ants of Central Asia. Definition = I ♥ E.B.Desciption = Frekles, skinny, and niceFacts = She goes to a middle school in PA, with red lockers Xerxes I, reigned 485–465 BC,also known as Xerxes the Great. ...


δ. ^  In the 1st century, Pliny repeats that the Dards were great producers of gold.


ε. ^  Ptolemy situates the Daradrai on the upper reaches of the Indus


στ. ^  See Petech, Luciano. The Kingdom of Ladakh c. 950–1842 A.D., Istituto Italiano per il media ed Estremo Oriente, 1977. Hsuan-tsang describes a journey from Ch'u-lu-to (Kuluta, Kullu) to Lo-hu-lo (Lahul), then goes on saying that "from there to the north, for over 2000 li, the road is very difficult, with cold wind and flying snow; thus one arrives in the kingdom of Mo-lo-so, or Mar-sa, synonymous with Mar-yul, a common name for Ladakh. Elsewhere, the text remarks that Mo-lo-so, also called San-po-ho borders with Suvarnagotra or Suvarnabhumi (Land of Gold), identical with the Kingdom of Women (Strirajya.) According to Tucci, the Zan-zun kingdom, or at least its southern districts were known by this name by the 7th century Indians. Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ... Kullu is the capital town of the Kullu district, in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. ... The district of Lahul and Spiti in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh consists of the two formerly separate districts of Lahul and Spiti. ... The li (里 lǐ) is a Chinese unit of distance, until recently usually considered to be about 576 metres, but is now standardised at a half a kilometre or 500 metres (547 yards). ...


ζ. ^  the First Spreading of Buddhism was the one in Tibet proper


η. ^  Namgyal means victorious in several Tibetan languages.


θ. ^  The Leh district is placed in Zone V, while the Kargil district is placed in Zone IV on the earthquake hazard scale The Indian subcontinent has had a history of devastating earthquakes. ...


ι. ^  The massifs to the north and east of the Nubra-Siachen line include the Apsarasas group (highest point 7,245 m, 23,770 ft), the Rimo group (highest point 7,385 m, 24,230 ft) and the Teram Kangri group (highest point 7,464 m, 24,488 ft), together with Mamostong Kangri (7,526 m, 24691 ft) and Singhi Kangri (7,751 m, 25,430 ft.)


ια. ^  Early in the 20th century the Chiru was seen in herds numbering in the thousands, surviving on remarkably sparse vegetation, they are very rare now.


ιβ. ^  The wool of Chiru must be pulled out by hand, a process done after the animal is killed.


ιγ. ^  Census was not carried out in Jammu and Kashmir in 1991 due to militancy


ιδ. ^  Sex ratio expressed as females per thousand males.


ιε. ^  Wazir-i Wazarat was ex officio Joint Commissioner with a British officer.

References

Carved stone tablets, each with the inscription "Om Mani Padme Hum" along the paths of Zanskar
Image:Example.of.complex.text.rendering.svg This article contains Indic text.
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Indic characters; or irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts.
  1. ^ Census 2001. Roof of the World. Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh (2001). Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
  2. ^ Wiley, AS (2001). The ecology of low natural fertility in Ladakh. Department of Anthropology, Binghamton University (SUNY) 13902-6000, USA, PubMed publication. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
  3. ^ a b Rizvi, Janet (2001). Trans-Himalayan Caravans – Merchant Princes and Peasant Traders in Ladakh. Oxford India Paperbacks. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Rizvi, Janet (1996). Ladakh - Crossroads of High Asia. Oxford University Press. 
  5. ^ Kargil Council For Greater Ladakh. The Statesman, August 9, 2003 (2003). Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Loram, Charlie [2000] (2004). Trekking in Ladakh, 2nd Edition (in English), Trailblazer Publications. 
  7. ^ a b Ray, John (2005). Ladakhi Histories - Local and Regional Perspectives (in English). Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. 
  8. ^ a b Petech, Luciano (1977). The Kingdom of Ladakh c. 950–1842 A.D. (in English). Istituto Italiano per il media ed Estremo Oriente. 
  9. ^ Hazard profiles of Indian districts (PDF). United Nations Development Program (2003). Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
  10. ^ Glaciers Melt Despite Cooler Temperatures; Heat Mortality and Adaptation; Hurricanes on the Rise. Cooler Heads Coalition (1999). Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
  11. ^ Hazard profiles of Indian districts. United Nations Development Program (1999). Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  12. ^ Flora and fauna of Ladakh. India Travel Agents. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  13. ^ Official website of the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Kargil. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  14. ^ India. Allrefer country study guide. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  15. ^ Shadows in the Kingdom of Light, Ladakh and Global Economy. www.paulkingsnorth.net. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  16. ^ a b Weare, Garry (2002). Trekking in the Indian Himalaya, 4th, Lonely Planet. 
  17. ^ Leh Ladakh Adventure tours and trekking tour packages website. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  18. ^ a b c State Development Report -- Jammu and Kashmir, Chapter 3A (PDF). Planning Commission of India (2001). Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  19. ^ Rural population. Education for all in India (1999). Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  20. ^ Norberg-Hodge, Helena (2000). Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh.. Oxford India Paperbacks. 
  21. ^ Masks : Reflections of Culture and Religion. Dolls of India. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  22. ^ Living Fabric: Weaving Among the Nomads of Ladakh Himalaya. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  23. ^ Indian festivals. Webzine Communications Ltd. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  24. ^ Ladakh culture. Jammu and Kashmir Tourism. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  25. ^ District-specific Literates and Literacy Rates. Education for all website (2001). Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  26. ^ Education in Ladakh. Visit Ladakh Travel. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.

Download high resolution version (900x600, 245 KB) Along the paths of Zanskar, the traveller is often confronted with Mani walls. ... Download high resolution version (900x600, 245 KB) Along the paths of Zanskar, the traveller is often confronted with Mani walls. ... Om Mani Padme Hum, written in Tibetan, on a rock outside the Potala Palace in Tibet. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lonely Planet logo Lonely Planet Publications (usually known as Lonely Planet or LP for short) claims to be the largest independently owned travel guidebook publisher in the world. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ladakh
  • Allan, Nigel J. R. 1995 Karakorum Himalaya: Sourcebook for a Protected Area. IUCN. ISBN 969-8141-13-8 PDF
  • Cunningham, Alexander. 1854. Ladak: Physical, Statistical, and Historical; with notices of the surrounding countries. Reprint: Sagar Publications, New Delhi. 1977.
  • Drew, Federic. 1877. The Northern Barrier of India: a popular account of the Jammoo and Kashmir Territories with Illustrations. 1st edition: Edward Stanford, London. Reprint: Light & Life Publishers, Jammu. 1971.
  • Francke, A. H. 1920, 1926. Antiquities of Indian Tibet. Vol. 1: Personal Narrative; Vol. 2: The Chronicles of Ladak and Minor Chronicles, texts and translations, with Notes and Maps. Reprint 1972. S. Chand & Co., New Delhi.
  • Gordon, T. E. 1876. The Roof of the World: Being the Narrative of a Journey over the high plateau of Tibet to the Russian Frontier and the Oxus sources on Pamir. Edinburgh. Edmonston and Douglas. Reprint: Ch’eng Wen Publishing Company. Tapei. 1971.
  • Harvey, Andrew. 1983. A Journey in Ladakh. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York.
  • Knight, E. F. 1893. Where Three Empires Meet: A Narrative of Recent Travel in: Kashmir, Western Tibet, Gilgit, and the adjoining countries. Longmans, Green, and Co., London. Reprint: Ch'eng Wen Publishing Company, Taipei. 1971.
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825, Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971.
  • Norberg-Hodge, Helena. 2000. Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh. Rider Books, London.
  • Peissel, Michel. 1984. The Ants' Gold: The Discovery of the Greek El Dorado in the Himalayas. Harvill Press, London.
  • Rizvi, Janet. 1998. Ladakh, Crossroads of High Asia. Oxford University Press
  • Trekking in Zanskar & Ladakh: Nubra Valley, Tso Moriri & Pangong Lake, Step By step Details of Every Trek: a Most Authentic & Colourful Trekkers' guide with maps 2001–2002 [4]

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... William Moorcroft (c. ... George Trebeck (1800-1825) ...was born in Middlesex, England in the year 1800. ...

External links

  • Community Portal of Ladakh. Jullay.com. Retrieved on June 06, 2006.
  • Official website of Government of Jammu and Kashmir. Jammu and Kashmir Tourism.
  • Ladakh. Wikitravel. Retrieved on June 06, 2006.
  • Ladakh Pictures. Retrieved on June 06, 2006.
  • 462 Ladakh Pictures. Retrieved on June 06, 2006.
  • Images of Ladakh. Retrieved on March, 2007.
  • Many useful resources including a number of full text historical works. Silk Road Seattle. Retrieved on June 06, 2006.
  • Pictures of Leh and Ladakh. Ladhaki people seen by two amator photographers. Retrieved on March 07, 2007.
  • Sustainable development and appropriate technology issues. The Ladakh Project. Retrieved on February 25, 2007.
  • Improvement of rural people livelihood in cold desert areas of the Western Himalayas. International NGO Network & 20 years experience of GERES] in Ladakh. Retrieved on June 04, 2007.
  • The Druk White Lotus School. Award winning education project, with emphasis on ecological sustainability and preservation of local culture.. Retrieved on November 11, 2006.
  • Pictures, Ladakh motorcycle-tour.
  • Photos, History, Regions, Places of Interest and Climate of Ladakh(A Ladakhi travel Company). Retrieved on June 06, 2006.
  • Official site of the Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh. Retrieved on June 06, 2006.
  • Ladakh, pictures of people, landscapes and more. Retrieved on November 22, 2006.
  • Spiritual Ladakh Picture Gallery.
  • India's Little Tibet: Ladakh - A mystic land of adventure Retrieved on January 02, 2007.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ladakh: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (5720 words)
Ladakh (Ladakhi: ལདཁ, Tibetan: ལ་དྭགས་, Hindi: लद्दाख़, Urdu: لدّاخ; IPA: [ləd̪.d̪ɑːx], "land of high passes") is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Karakoram mountain range to the north and the Himalayas to the south.
Contemporary Ladakh borders Tibet to the east, the Lahaul and Spiti to the south, Kashmir, Jammu and Gilgit regions to the west, and Central Asia to the north.
The peaks in the Ladakh range are at a medium altitude close to the Zoji-la (5,000–5,500 m or 16,000–18,050 ft), and increase towards south-east, reaching a climax in the twin summits of Nun-Kun (7000 m or 23,000 ft).
Ladakh (3156 words)
Ladakh, a poetical name and a harsh reality a great plateau of mountains, a stone desert with little water, little food, and settlements few and far apart.
Ladakh was also a land of the Mahayana Buddhist religion, and the lowlanders had little understanding of the people of that strange (to them) faith and of the environment within which they lived and survived.
I was in Ladakh to document ancient murals in the temples, observing Buddhist culture undiluted by New Delhi, London, or New York.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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