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Encyclopedia > Lactose intolerance
Lactose intolerance
Classification and external resources
Lactose (disaccharide of β-D-galactose & β-D-glucose) is normally split by lactase.
ICD-10 E73.
ICD-9 271.3
OMIM 223100 150220
DiseasesDB 7238
MedlinePlus 000276
eMedicine med/3429  ped/1270
MeSH D007787

Lactose intolerance is the inability to metabolize lactose, a sugar found in milk and other dairy products, because the required enzyme lactase is absent or its availability is lowered. It is estimated that 70% of adult humans are lactose intolerant.[1] Image File history File links Lactose(lac). ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... A glass of cows milk. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ...

Contents

Overview

Disaccharides cannot be absorbed through the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream, so in the absence of lactase, lactose present in ingested dairy products remains uncleaved and passes intact into the colon. The operons of enteric bacteria quickly switch over to lactose metabolism, and the resultant in vivo fermentation produces copious amounts of gas (a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane). This, in turn, may cause a range of unpleasant abdominal symptoms, including stomach cramps, bloating, and flatulence. In addition, as with other unabsorbed sugars (such as sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol), the presence of lactose and its fermentation products raises the osmotic pressure of the colon contents, thereby preventing the colon from reabsorbing water, and causing osmotic diarrhea. Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Colon has several meanings: colon (anatomy) colon (punctuation) colon (rhetoric) See also Colón This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... An operon is a group of key nucleotide sequences including an operator, a common promoter, and one or more structural genes that are controlled as a unit to produce messenger RNA (mRNA). ... Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... This article is about muscular pain. ... Bloating is any abnormal general swelling, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases in the digestive tract of mammals. ... Sorbitol, also known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol the body metabolises slowly. ... Mannitol or hexan-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol (C6H8(OH)6) is an osmotic diuretic agent and a weak renal vasodilator. ... Xylitol, also called wood sugar or birch sugar, is a five-carbon sugar alcohol that is used as a sugar substitute. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ...


Classification

There are three major types of lactose intolerance:[2]

  1. Primary lactose intolerance. Environmentally induced when weaning a child in non dairy consuming societies.[3] This is found in many Asian and African cultures, where industrialized and commercial dairy products are uncommon.
  2. Secondary lactose intolerance. Environmentally induced, resulting from certain gastrointestinal diseases, including exposure to intestinal parasites such as giardia.[4][5] In such cases the production of lactase may be permanently disrupted.[4][5][6] A very common cause of temporary lactose intolerance is gastroenteritis, particularly when the gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus. Another form of temporary lactose intolerance is lactose overload in infants.[7]
  3. Congenital lactase deficiency. A genetic disorder which prevents enzymatic production of lactase. Present at birth, and diagnosed in early infancy.

All diseases that pertain to the gastrointestinal tract are labelled as digestive diseases. ... Intestinal parasites are parasites that populate the gastro-intestinal tract. ... Binomial name Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) Giardia lamblia (formerly also Lamblia intestinalis) is a protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of humans. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Lactase biology

The enzyme lactase, also called beta-D-galactosidase, is synthesized if at least one of the two genes for it are present. Only when both gene expressions are affected is lactase enzyme synthesis reduced, which in turn reduces lactose digestion.[8]. Lactase persistence, allowing lactose digestion to proceed, is the dominant allele. Physiological lactose intolerance, therefore, is an autosomal recessive trait. In genetics, dominant allele refers to a genetic feature that hides the recessive allele. ... ...


However, cultures such as that of Japan, where dairy consumption has been on the increase, demonstrate a lower prevalence of lactose intolerance in spite of a genetic predisposition[9].


The normal mammalian condition is for the young of a species to experience reduced lactase production at the end of the weaning period (a species-specific length of time). In non dairy consuming societies, lactase production usually drops about 90% during the first four years of life, although the exact drop over time varies widely. However, certain human populations have a mutation on chromosome 2 which results in a bypass of the common shutdown in lactase production, making it possible for members of these populations to continue consumption of fresh milk and other dairy products throughout their lives. Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ... A breastfeeding infant Breastfeeding is the practice of a woman feeding an infant (or sometimes a toddler or a young child) with milk produced from her mammary glands, usually directly from the nipples. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, see chromosome (genetic algorithm). ...


Pathological lactose intolerance can be caused by Coeliac disease, which damages the villi in the small intestine that produce lactase. This lactose intolerance is temporary. Lactose intolerance associated with coeliac disease ceases after the patient has been on a gluten-free diet long enough for the villi to recover[citation needed]. Coeliac disease (pronounced ), also spelt celiac disease, is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages from middle infancy. ... A gluten-free diet, recommended in the treatment of celiac disease, is a diet completely free of ingredients derived from gluten-containing cereals: wheat (including Kamut and spelt), barley, rye, oats and triticale. ...


Certain people who report problems with consuming lactose are not actually lactose intolerant. In a study of 323 Sicilian adults, Carroccio et al. (1998) found only 4% were both lactose intolerant and lactose maldigesters, while 32.2% were lactose maldigesters but did not test as lactose intolerant. However, Burgio et al. (1984) found that 72% of 100 Sicilians were lactose intolerant in their study and 106 of 208 northern Italians (i.e., 51%) were lactose intolerant. Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


Lactose intolerance by group

Lactose Intolerance by Region (African countries are only a rough guess)
Lactose Intolerance by Region (African countries are only a rough guess)
Human groups Individuals Examined Percent Intolerant Allele frequency
Dutch N/A 1%[10] N/A
Swedes N/A 2%[11] 0.14
Europeans in Australia 160 4%[11] 0.20
Northern Europeans and Scandinavians 5%[3][12] N/A
Danes N/A 5%[13] N/A
Basques 85 <10%[14] N/A
British N/A 5–15%[15] N/A
Swiss N/A 10%[11] 0.316
European Americans 245 12%[11] 0.346
Tuareg N/A 13%[15] N/A
Germans N/A 15%[15] N/A
Austrians N/A 15–20%[15] N/A
Eastern Slavs (Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians) N/A 15%[16] N/A
Northern French N/A 17%[15] N/A
Finns 134 18%[11] 0.424
Central Italians 65 19%[17] N/A
Indian Children N/A 20%[3][12] N/A
African Tutsi N/A 20%[11] 0.447
African Fulani N/A 23%[11] 0.48
Bedouins N/A 25%[15] N/A
Northern Indians N/A 27%[18] N/A
Portuguese adults 102 <35%[19] N/A
African American Children N/A 45%[3] N/A
Indian Adults 150 50%[3][12][20] N/A
Southern Italians 51 41%[17] N/A
Saami (in Russia and Finland) N/A 25–60%[21] N/A
Northern Italians 89 52%[17] N/A
North American Hispanics N/A 53%[15] N/A
Balkans N/A 55%[15] N/A
Mexican American Males N/A 55%[3][12] N/A
Cretans N/A 56%[3] N/A
African Maasai 21 62%[22] N/A
Southern French N/A 65%[15] N/A
Greek Cypriots N/A 66%[3][12] N/A
North American Jews N/A 68.8%[3][12] N/A
Southern Indians N/A 70%[18] N/A
Sicilians 100 71%[23][24] N/A
South Americans N/A 65–75%[15] N/A
Rural Mexicans N/A 73.8%[3][12] N/A
African Americans 20 75%[11] 0.87
Kazakhs from northwest Xinjiang 195 76.4% [25]
Lebanese 75 78%[26] N/A
Central Asians N/A 80%[15] N/A
Alaskan Eskimo N/A 80%[3][12] N/A
Australian Aborigines 44 85%[11] 0.922
Inner Mongolians 198 87.9%[25]
African Bantu 59 89%[11] 0.943
Asian Americans N/A 90%[3][12] N/A
Northeastern Han Chinese 248 92.3%[25]
Chinese 71 93%[11] 0.964
Southeast Asians N/A 98%[3][12] N/A
Thais 134 98%[11] 0.99
Native Americans 24 100%[11] 1.00

The statistical significance varies greatly depending on number of people sampled. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1427x628, 51 KB) Update of en:Image:LacIntol-World. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1427x628, 51 KB) Update of en:Image:LacIntol-World. ... Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele on a genetic locus in a population. ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... Anglo-Celtic Australian is an ethnic or cultural category, used to describe the majority of Australians of North West European descent. ... Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... The Danish nation is a concept closely connected to 19th century ethnic nationalism. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with English population statistics. ... Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... For a specific analysis of the population of France, see Demographics of France. ... Language(s) Finnish, Swedish Languages related to Finnish include Estonian, Karelian, Vepsian, Võro and to a lesser extent, all Finno-Ugric Languages. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... Categories: Africa-related stubs | Burkina Faso | Cameroon | Ethnic groups of Africa | Fulani Empire | Mali | Nigeria ... A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... Balkan redirects here. ... The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... Crete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... Language(s) Maa (É”l Maa) Religion(s) Monotheism including Christianity Related ethnic groups Samburu The Masai are an indigenous African ethnic group of semi-nomadic people located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. ... For a specific analysis of the population of France, see Demographics of France. ... Greek Cypriot refers to the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus. ... American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Jews who are American citizens or resident aliens. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Mexican may have several meanings. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Kazakh may refer to An ethnic group: the Kazakhs The Kazakh language The Culture of Kazakhstan Suhbat. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of the Americas native to the state of Alaska within the United States. ... Australian Aborigines are the main indigenous people of Australia. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (light brown) vs. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... In statistics, a result is called statistically significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance. ...


Lactose intolerance levels also increase with age. At ages 2 - 3 yrs., 6 yrs., and 9 - 10 yrs., the amount of lactose intolerance is, respectively:

Chinese and Japanese populations typically lose between 80 and 90 percent of their ability to digest lactose within three to four years of weaning. Most Japanese can consume 200 ml (8 fl oz) of milk without severe symptoms (McGee 2004; Swagerty et al, 2002).[9] The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... Look up South Africa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Government South Africa Government Online official government site Parliament of South Africa official site Statistics South Africa official government site News AllAfrica. ... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ...


Ashkenazi Jews can keep 20 - 30 percent of their ability to digest lactose for many years.[27] [29][30] Of the 10% of the Northern European population that develops lactose intolerance, the development of lactose intolerance is a gradual process spread out over as many as 20 years.[31] Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, Standard Hebrew Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzîm), are Jews who are descendants of Jews from Germany, Poland, Austria and Eastern Europe. ...


Diagnosis

To assess lactose intolerance, the intestinal function is challenged by ingesting more dairy than can be readily digested. Clinical symptoms typically appear within 30 minutes but may take up to 1-2 hours depending on other foods and activities.[32] Substantial variability of the clinical response (symptoms of nausea, cramping, bloating, diarrhea, and flatulence) are to be expected as the extent and severity of lactose intolerance varies between individuals.


When considering the need for confirmation, it is important to distinguish lactose intolerance from milk allergy, which is an abnormal immune response (usually) to milk proteins. Since lactose intolerance is the normal state for most adults on a worldwide scale, and not considered a disease condition, a medical diagnosis is not normally required. However, if confirmation is necessary, three tests are available: Milk allergy is an immunologically mediated adverse reaction to one or more cows milk proteins. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ...


Hydrogen breath test

In a hydrogen breath test, after an overnight fast, 50 grams of lactose (in a solution with water) are swallowed. If the lactose cannot be digested, enteric bacteria metabolize it and produce hydrogen. This can be detected in the patient's breath by a clinical gas chromatograph or a compact solid state detector. The test takes about 2 to 3 hours. A medical condition with similar symptoms is fructose malabsorption. A Hydrogen Breath Test (or HBT) is used as a clinical medical diagnosis for people with irritable bowel syndrome, and common food intolerances. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Fructose malabsorption is a condition in which the fructose carrier in enterocytes is deficient. ...


In conjunction, measuring the blood glucose level every 10 - 15 minutes after ingestion will show a "flat curve" in individuals with lactose malabsorption, while the lactase persistent will have a significant "top", with an elevation of typically 50 to 100% within 1 - 2 hours. However, given the need for frequent blood drawns, this approach has been largley supplanted by breath testing.


Stool acidity

Can be used to diagnose lactose intolerance in small infants, for whom other forms of testing are risky or impractical.[33]


Intestinal biopsy

An intestinal biopsy can confirm lactose intolerance following discovery of elevated hydrogen in the hydrogen breath test.[34]. However, given the invasive nature of this test, and the need for a highly specialized laboratory to measure lactase enzymes or mRNA in the biposy tissue, this approach is used almost exclusively in clinical research.


History of diagnosis

The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 B.C.) first noted gastrointestinal upset and skin problems in some who consumed milk;[35] patients experiencing the former symptom may likely have been suffering from lactose intolerance. However, it was only in the last few decades that the syndrome was more widely described by modern medical science. The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ...


The condition was first recognized in the 1950s and 1960s when various organizations like the United Nations began to engage in systematic famine-relief efforts in countries outside Europe for the first time. Holzel et al (1959) and Durand (1959) produced two of the earliest studies of lactose intolerance. As anecdotes of embarrassing dairy-induced discomfort increased, the First World donor countries could no longer ascribe the reports to spoilage in transit or inappropriate food preparation by the Third World recipients. UN redirects here. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Because the first nations to industrialize and develop modern scientific medicine were dominated by people of European descent, adult dairy consumption was long taken for granted. Westerners for some time did not recognize that the majority of the human ethno-genetic groups could not consume dairy products during adulthood. Although there had been regular contact between Europeans and non-Europeans throughout history, the notion that large-scale medical studies should be representative of the ethnic diversity of the human populations (as well as all genders and ages) did not become well-established until after the American Civil Rights Movement. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ...


Since then, the relationship between lactase and lactose has been thoroughly investigated in food science due to the growing market for dairy products among non-Europeans. Food science is a discipline concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption. ...


Originally it was hypothesised that gut bacteria such as E. coli produced the lactase enzyme needed to cleave lactose into its constituent monosaccharides and thus become metabolisable and digestible by humans. Some form of human-bacteria symbiosis was proposed as a means of producing lactase in the human digestive tract. Genetics and protein analysis techniques by the early 1970s revealed this to be untrue; humans produce their own lactase enzyme natively in intestine cells.[citation needed] Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ... Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ...


According to Heyman (2006), approximately 70% of the global population cannot tolerate lactose in adulthood. Thus, some argue that the terminology should be reversed — lactose intolerance should be seen as the norm, and the minority groups should be labeled as having lactase persistence. A counter argument to this is that the cultures that don't generally consume unmodified milk products have little need to discuss their intolerance to it, leaving the cultures for which lactose intolerance is a significant dietary issue to define its terminology.


History of genetic prevalence

Lactose intolerance has been studied as an aid in understanding ancient diets and population movement in prehistoric societies. Milking an animal vastly increases the efficiency of raising it in regards to the calories that can be extracted compared to consumption of its meat alone. It is not surprising then, that consuming milk products became an important part of the agricultural way of life in the Neolithic. It is believed that most of the milk was used to make mature cheeses which are mostly lactose free.[citation needed] An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ...


Roman authors recorded that the people of northern Europe, particularly Britain and Germany drank unprocessed milk (as opposed to the Romans who made cheese).[citation needed] This corresponds very closely with modern European distributions of lactose intolerance, where the people of Britain, Germany and Scandinavia have a good tolerance, and those of southern Europe, especially Italy, have a poorer tolerance.[36] Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


In east Asia, historical sources also attest that the Chinese did not consume milk, whereas the nomads that lived on the borders did. Again, this reflects modern distributions of intolerance. China is particularly notable as a place of poor tolerance, whereas in Mongolia and the Asian steppes horse milk is drunk regularly. This tolerance is thought to be advantageous as the nomads do not settle down long enough to process mature cheese. Given that their prime source of income is generated through horses, to ignore their milk as a source of calories would be greatly detrimental. The nomads also make an alcoholic beverage, called Kumis, from horse milk, although the fermentation process reduces the amount of lactose present. This article is about the ecological zone type. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ...


The African Fulani have a nomadic origin and their culture once completely revolved around cow, goat, and sheep herding. Dairy products were once a large source of nutrition for them. As might be expected if lactase persistence evolved in response to dairy product consumption, they are particularly tolerant to lactose (about 77% of the population). Many Fulani live in Guinea-Conakry, Burkina Faso, Mali, Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, and Chad. The Fulani Empire was one of the most powerful states in sub-Saharan Africa in the years prior to European colonization. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Look up Guinea on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Government Permanent UN Mission of the Republic of Guinea official government site News AllAfrica. ...


There is some debate on exactly where and when genetic mutation(s) occurred. Some argue for separate mutation events in Sweden (which has one of the lowest levels of lactose intolerance in the world) and the Arabian Peninsula around 4000 BC. However, others argue for a single mutation event in the Middle East at about 4500 BC which then subsequently radiated. Some sources suggest a third and more recent mutation in the East African Tutsi. Whatever the precise origin in time and place, most modern Western Europeans and people of European ancestry show the effects of this mutation (that is, they are able to safely consume milk products all their lives) while most modern East Asians, sub-Saharan Africans and native peoples of the Americas and Pacific Islands do not (making them lactose intolerant as adults).[citation needed] The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... Tuamotu, French Polynesia The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands (the exact number has yet to be precisely determined). ...


The Maasai ability to consume dairy without exhibiting symptoms may be due to a different genetic mutation than Westeners.[37] Or it may be due to the fact that they curdle their milk before they consume it, removing the lactose. Language(s) Maa (ɔl Maa) Religion(s) Monotheism including Christianity Related ethnic groups Samburu The Masai are an indigenous African ethnic group of semi-nomadic people located in Kenya and northern Tanzania. ...


A thorough scientific overview of genetic polymorphisms of intestinal lactase activity in adult hypolactasia, is in chapter 76 of OMMBID.[38] A noncoding variation in the MCM6 gene has been strongly associated with adult type hypolactasia.[39]


Managing lactose intolerance

For persons living in societies where the diet contains relatively little dairy, lactose intolerance is not considered a condition that requires treatment. However, those living among societies that are largely lactose-tolerant may find lactose intolerance troublesome. Although there are still no methodologies to reinstate lactase production, some individuals have reported their intolerance to vary over time (depending on health status and pregnancy[40]). Lactose intolerance is not usually an all-or-nothing condition: the reduction in lactase production, and hence, the amount of lactose that can be tolerated varies from person to person. Since lactose intolerance poses no further threat to a person's health, managing the condition consists in minimizing the occurrence and severity of symptoms. Berdanier and Hargrove recognise 4 general principles: 1)avoidance of dietary lactose, 2)substitution to maintain nutrient intake, 3)regulation of calcium intake, 4)use of enzyme substitute.


Avoiding lactose-containing products

Since each individual's tolerance to lactose varies, according to the US National Institute of Health, "Dietary control of lactose intolerance depends on people learning through trial and error how much lactose they can handle."[41] Label reading is essential as commercial terminology varies according to language and region.[34] The National Institutes of Health is an institution of the United States government which focuses on medical research. ...


Lactose is present in 2 large food categories: Conventional dairy products, and as a food additive (in dairy and non dairy products).


Dairy products

Lactose is a water soluble molecule. Therefore fat percentage and the curdling process have an impact on which foods may be tolerated. In the curdling process lactose is found in the water portion along with whey and casein, but is not found in the fat portion. Dairy products which are "fat reduced" or "fat free" generally have a slightly higher lactose percentage. Additionally, low fat dairy foods also often have various dairy derivatives such as milk solids added to them to enhance sweetness, increasing the lactose content. Curd is a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey). ... Curd is a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Casein (from Latin caseus cheese) is the most predominant phosphoprotein found in milk and cheese. ... Diet food (or dietetic food) refers to any food or drink whose recipe has been altered in some way to make it part of a body modification diet. ...


Milk. Human milk has the highest lactose percentage at around 9%. Unprocessed cow milk has 4.7% lactose. Unprocessed milk from other mammals contains similar lactose percentages (goat milk 4.1%,[42] buffalo 4.86%,[43] yak 4.93%,[44] sheep milk 4.6%) Breast milk usually refers to the milk produced by a human female which is usually fed to infants by breastfeeding. ... A glass of cows milk A goat kid feeding on its mothers milk Milk is the nutrient fluid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae (or bovines) includes a diverse group of about 24 species of medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, Bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ...


Butter. The butter making process separates milk's water components from the fat components. Lactose, being a water soluble molecule, will not be present in the butter unless milk solids are added to the ingredients.


Yogurt and kefir. People can be more tolerant of traditionally made yogurt than milk because it contains lactase enzyme produced by the bacterial cultures used to make the yogurt. However, many commercial brands contain milk solids, increasing the lactose content. Grains of kefir For the Islamic term, see Kaffir. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ...


Cheeses. Traditionally made hard cheese (such as Swiss cheese) and soft ripened cheeses may create less reaction than the equivalent amount of milk because of the processes involved. Fermentation and higher fat content contribute to lesser amounts of lactose. Traditionally made Swiss or Cheddar might contain 10% of the lactose found in whole milk. In addition, the traditional aging methods of cheese (over 2 years) reduces their lactose content to practically nothing.[1] Commercial cheese brands, however, are generally manufactured by modern processes that do not have the same lactose reducing properties, and as no regulations mandate what qualifies as an "aged" cheese, this description does not provide any indication of whether the process used significantly reduced lactose. This article describes a kind of cheese produced primarily in the United States and Canada. ... Fermentation in progress Fermentation typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast. ... Country of origin England Region, town Somerset, Cheddar Source of milk Cows, rarely Goats Pasteurised Frequently Texture hard/semi-hard Aging time 3–30 months depending on variety Certification West Country farmhouse Cheddar Only: PDO Cheddar cheese is a fairly hard, pale yellow to orange, sharp-tasting cheese originating from... A glass of cows milk. ...


Buttermilk, sour cream and ice cream, like yogurt, if made the traditional way, will generally be quite tolerable, but most modern brands add milk solids.[45] Consult labels.[46]


Examples of lactose levels in foods. As scientific consensus has not been reached concerning lactose percentage analysis methods [47] (non-hydrated form or the mono-hydrated form), and considering that dairy content varies greatly according to labeling practices, geography and manufacturing processes, lactose numbers may not be very reliable. The following are examples of lactose levels in foods which commonly set off symptoms.[41] These quantities are to be treated as guidelines only.

Dairy product Lactose Content
Yogurt, plain, low-fat, 240 mL 5 g  
Milk, reduced fat, 240 mL 11 g  
Swiss cheese, 28 g 1 g  
Ice cream, 120 mL 6 g  
Cottage cheese, 120 mL 2–3 g  

Lactose in non-dairy products

Lactose (also present when labels state lactoserum, whey, milk solids, modified milk ingredients, etc) is a commercial food additive used for its texture, flavor and adhesive qualities, and is found in foods such as processed meats[48] (sausages/hot dogs, sliced meats, Pâtés), gravy stock powder, margarines[49], sliced breads,[50][51] breakfast cereals,[48] dried fruit, processed foods, medications, preprepared meals, meal replacement (powders and bars), protein supplements (powders and bars). Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... This article is about the prepared meat. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... Various pâtés and terrines Salmon terrine, with a cream and herb sauce A slice of Bloc de foie gras Pâté (French pronunciation: ; RP pronunciation: ; General American pronunciation ) is a form of spreadable paste, usually made from meat (although vegetarian variants exist), and often served with toast as... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans or animals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Kosher products labeled pareve are free of milk. However, if a "D" (for "Dairy) is present next to the circled "K," "U," or other hechsher, the food likely contains milk solids[48] (although it may also simply indicate that the product was produced on equipment shared with other products containing milk derivatives). The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... Kosher foods are those that meet certain criteria of Jewish law. ... Hechsher (הכשר Hebrew: kosher approval , plural: hechsherim) is the formal granting of certification, usually by an authorized rabbi, that a product is certified as kosher (meaning fit [for consumption].) A hechsher is usually conveyed to the public by a special marking on products (generally foods) certifying that the item is certified...


Alternative products

Milk. The dairy industry has created quality low-lactose or lactose-free products to replace regular dairy. Lactose-free milk can be produced by passing milk over lactase enzyme bound to an inert carrier: once the molecule is cleaved, there are no lactose ill-effects. A form is available with reduced amounts of lactose (typically 30% of normal), and alternatively with almost 0%. Finland has had "HYLA" (acronym for hydrolysed lactose) products available for many years, even though the number of lactose intolerant people there is relatively small. These low-lactose level cow's milk products, ranging from ice cream to cheese, use a Valio patented chromatographic separation method to remove lactose. The ultra-pasteurization process, combined with aseptic packaging, ensures a long shelf-life. Recently, the range of low-lactose products available in Finland has been augmented with milk and other dairy products (such as ice cream, butter, and buttermilk) that contain no lactose at all. The remaining about 20% of lactose in HYLA products is taken care of enzymatically. These typically cost 2 - 4 times more than equivalent products containing lactose. Valio also markets these products in Sweden. Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or more properly, an animal husbandry enterprise, raising female cattle for long-term production of milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy for processing and eventual retail sale. ... Valio is one of the biggest companies in Finland and mostly produces dairy products such as ice cream, butter, yoghurt and milk. ...


Alternatively, a bacterium such as L. acidophilus may be added, which affects the lactose in milk the same way it affects the lactose in yogurt (see above). Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ...


Plant based milks and derivatives are the only ones to be 100% lactose free (soy milk, almond milk, oat milk, rice milk, peanut milk). Plant milk is a general term for any non-dairy substitute for animal-based milk products. ... A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Greek Café Frappé prepared with soy milk, topped with additional cinnamon 1 l (2. ... Raw almonds Almond milk is a milky drink made from ground almonds. ... Grain milk is a milk substitute made from fermented grain or from flour. ... Rice milk is a kind of grain milk processed from rice. ... Peanut milk in a blender before filtering. ...


Lactase supplementation

When lactose avoidance is not possible, or on occasions when a person chooses to consume such items, then enzymatic lactase supplements may be used.[52][53] Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ...


Lactase enzymes similar to the those produced in the small intestines of humans are produced industrially by fungi of the genus aspergillus. The enzyme, β-galactosidase, is available in tablet form in a variety of doses, in many countries without a prescription. It functions well only in high-acid environments, such as that found in the human gut due to the addition of gastric juices from the stomach. Unfortunately, too much acid can denature it,[54] and it therefore should not be taken on an empty stomach. Also, the enzyme is ineffective if it does not reach the small intestine by the time the problematic food does. Lactose-sensitive individuals should experiment with both timing and dosage to fit their particular need. But supplements such as these may not be able to provide the accurate amount of lactase needed[citation needed] to adequately digest the lactose contained in dairy products, which may lead to symptoms similar to the existing lactose intolerance. Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Aspergillus caesiellus Aspergillus candidus Aspergillus carneus Aspergillus clavatus Aspergillus deflectus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus glaucus Aspergillus nidulans Aspergillus niger Aspergillus ochraceus Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus parasiticus Aspergillus penicilloides Aspergillus restrictus Aspergillus sojae Aspergillus sydowi Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus ustus Aspergillus versicolor Aspergillus is a genus of around 200 filamentous fungi... Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ...


While essentially the same process as normal intestinal lactose digestion, direct treatment of milk employs a different variety of industrially produced lactase. This enzyme, produced by yeast from the genus kluyveromyces, takes much longer to act, must be thoroughly mixed throughout the product, and is destroyed by even mildly acidic environments. It therefore has been much less popular as a consumer product[citation needed] (sold, where available, as a liquid) than the aspergillus-produced tablets, despite its predictable effectiveness. Its main use is in producing the lactose-free or lactose-reduced dairy products sold in supermarkets. Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... Species K. lactis K. marxianus Kluyveromyces is a genus of ascomycetous yeasts in the family Saccharomycetaceae. ...


Enzymatic lactase supplementation may have an advantage over avoiding dairy products, in that alternative provision does not need to be made to provide sufficient calcium intake, especially in children.[55]


Rehabituation to dairy products

Wiktionary has an entry for rehabituation.

For healthy individuals with Secondary lactose intolerance, it may be possible to train bacteria in the large intestine to break down lactose more effectively[2] by consuming small quantities of dairy products several times a day over a couple of weeks. Reintroducing dairy in this way to people who have an underlying or chronic illness, however, is not recommended, as certain illnesses damage the intestinal tract in a way which prevents the lactase enzyme from being expressed. The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ...


However, other studies have shown that lactase production does not seem to be induced by dairy/lactose consumption.[3] Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ...


Nutritional concerns

Primary lactose intolerance

Populations where primary lactose intolerance is the norm have demonstrated similar health levels to westerners (outside of malnutrition issues; see the History of genetic prevalence subsection above) or better health (Japan).


Secondary lactose intolerance

While secondary lactose intolerance does not inherently affect an individual's nutritional needs, according to mainstream media and "accepted" doctrines in western European and North American countries, dairy is an essential part of a healthy diet. Dairy products are relatively good and accessible sources of calcium and potassium and many countries mandate that milk be fortified with vitamin A and vitamin D. Consequently, in dairy consuming societies, dairy is often a main source of these nutrients; and, for lacto-vegetarians, a main source of vitamin B12. Individuals who reduce or eliminate consumption of dairy must obtain these nutrients elsewhere. Asian populations for whom dairy is not part of their food culture do not present decreased health and sometimes present above average health, like Japan. For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... A lacto vegetarian diet is a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products such as milk, cheese, yogurt, butter, cream, and kefir. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ...


Plant based milk substitutes are not naturally rich in calcium, potassium, or vitamins A or D (and, like all non-animal products, contain no vitamin B12). However, prominent brands are often voluntarily fortified with many of these nutrients, although one should read the label to be certain.


An increasing number of calcium-fortified breakfast foods, such as orange juice, bread, and dry cereal, have been appearing on supermarket shelves. Many fruits and vegetables are rich in potassium and vitamin A; animal products like meat and eggs are rich in vitamin B12, and the human body itself produces some vitamin D from exposure to direct sunlight. Finally, a dietitian or physician may recommend a vitamin or mineral supplement to make up for any remaining nutritional shortfall. For other uses, see Orange juice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A dietitian (sometimes spelled dietician) is an expert in food and nutrition. ...


Lactose-reduced dairy products have the same nutritional content as their full-lactose counterparts, but their taste and appearance may differ slightly.


Most infants with gastroenteritis due to rotavirus do not develop lactose intolerance,[56] so these infants do not benefit from being put on a lactose-free diet unless symptoms of lactose intolerance are severe and persistent. A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Congenital lactase deficiency

Congenital lactase deficiency, or CLD, is an autosomal recessive disorder which prevents the expression of lactase.[57] Before the 20th century, infants with this disease rarely survived. As substitute and lactose-free infant formulas later became available, nursing infants affected with CLD could now have their normal nutritional needs met. Beyond infancy, individuals with CLD usually have the same nutritional concerns as those affected by secondary lactose intolerance. An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. ... In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ...


See also

Gastroenterology (MeSH heading[2] ) is the branch of medicine where the digestive system and its disorders are studied. ... Coeliac disease (also called celiac disease, non-tropical sprue, c(o)eliac sprue and gluten intolerance) is a digestive disorder. ... Milk allergy is an immunologically mediated adverse reaction to one or more cows milk proteins. ... Plant milk is a general term for any non-dairy substitute for animal-based milk products. ... Soy cheese is an alternative that is relatively new to most markets. ... Sucrose intolerance, also called Congenital Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency (CSID) or Sucrase-isomaltase deficiency , is the condition in which sucrase, an enzyme needed for proper metabolization of sucrose, is not produced in the small intestine. ...

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  • Holzel A, Schwarz V, Sutcliffe KW (1959). "Defective lactose absorption causing malnutrition in infancy". Lancet 1 (7083): 1126–8. PMID 13665980. 
  • Carroccio A, Montalto G, Cavera G, Notarbatolo A (1998). "Lactose intolerance and self-reported milk intolerance: relationship with lactose maldigestion and nutrient intake. Lactase Deficiency Study Group". J Am Coll Nutr 17 (6): 631–6. PMID 9853544. 
  • McGee, Harold (2004). "Milk after infancy: dealing with lactose", On food and cooking: the science and lore of the kitchen. New York: Scribner, pp 14–15. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 
  • Rusynyk RA, Still CD (2001). "Lactose intolerance" (PDF). J Am Osteopath Assoc 101 (4 Suppl Pt 1): S10–2. PMID 11392211. 

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  57. ^ Lactose Intolerance at eMedicine Guandalini S, Frye R, Rivera-Hernández D, Miller L, Borowitz S

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Since its inception in 1948, The American Journal of Human Genetics has provided a record of research and review relating to heredity in humans and to the application of genetic principles in medicine and public policy, as well as in related areas of molecular and cell biology. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Robert Scriver (born November 7, 1930) is a Canadian physician and genetics researcher. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ...

External links

  • Great german website about lactose intolerance
  • United States National Institutes of Health page regarding lactose intolerance
  • Scientific American: African Adaptation to Digesting Milk Is "Strongest Signal of Selection Ever" (East African cattle herding communities rapidly and independently evolved ability to digest lactose)
Hematemesis or haematemesis is the vomiting of fresh red blood. ... In medicine, melena or melaena refers to the black, tarry feces that are associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. ... Gastrointestinal bleeding describes every form of hemorrhage (blood loss) in the gastrointestinal tract, from the pharynx to the rectum. ... Endoscopic image of a posterior wall duodenal ulcer with a clean base, which is a common cause of upper GI hemorrhage. ... Lower gastrointestinal bleeding refers to any form of bleeding in the Lower gastrointestinal tract. ... Inborn errors of metabolism comprise a large class of genetic diseases involving disorders of metabolism. ... Glycogen storage disease is any one of several inborn errors of metabolism that result from enzyme defects that affect the processing of glycogen synthesis or breakdown within muscles, liver, and other cell types. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Sucrose intolerance, also called Congenital Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency (CSID) or Sucrase-isomaltase deficiency , is the condition in which sucrase, an enzyme needed for proper metabolization of sucrose, is not produced in the small intestine. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Essential fructosuria is a condition caused by a deficiency in hepatic fructokinase. ... Fructose intolerance is a hereditary condition due to a deficiency of liver enzymes that metabolise fructose. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Galactosemia is a rare genetic metabolic disorder which affects an individuals ability to properly digest the sugar galactose. ... Galactokinase deficiency, also known as Galactosemia type 2 or GALK deficiency, is marked by an accumulation of galactose and galactitol secondary to the decreased conversion of galactose to galactose-1-phosphate by galactokinase. ... Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase galactosemia (or type 1) is the most common type of galactosemia. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Glucose-galactose malabsorption is a condition in which the cells lining the intestine cannot take in the sugars glucose and galactose, which prevents proper digestion of these molecules and larger molecules made from them. ... Renal glycosuria, also known as renal glucosuria, is a rare condition in which the simple sugar glucose is excreted in the urine despite normal or low blood glucose levels. ... Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of ATP. The word is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ... Phosphofructokinase deficiency, also known as Taruis disease[1], is a metabolic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, in which deficiency of the M subunit of the phosphofructokinase enzyme impairs the ability of cells such as erythrocytes and rhabdomyocytes to use carbohydrates (such as glucose) for energy. ... Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder which affects the survival of red blood cells, causing them to break down easily. ... Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (PDHA) is a human genetic disease. ... Fumarase deficiency is an enzyme irregularity that causes severe mental retardation, unusual facial features, brain malformation, and epileptic seizures due to an abnormally low amount of fumarase in cells. ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ... Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes lactic acid and other potentially toxic compounds to accumulate in the blood. ... Fructose bisphosphatase (EC 3. ... Glycogen storage disease type I or von Gierkes disease, is the most common of the glycogen storage diseases. ... Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen. ... Glycogen storage disease type IV is a very rare hereditary metabolic disorder. ... Glycogen Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Glycogenolysis is the catabolism of glycogen by removal of a glucose monomer and addition of phosphate to produce glucose-1-phosphate. ... Glycogen storage disease type II (also called Pompe disease or infantile acid maltase deficiency) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency in the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), which is needed to break down glycogen, a stored form of sugar used for energy. ... Glycogen storage disease type III is characterized by a deficiency in glycogen debranching enzymes. ... Glycogen storage disease type V is a metabolic disorder, more specifically a glycogen storage disease, caused by a deficiency of myophosphorylase, the muscle isoform of the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase. ... Glycogen storage disease type VI is a type of glycogen storage disease caused by a deficiency in liver glycogen phosphorylase. ... Glycogen storage disease type I or von Gierkes disease, is the most common of the glycogen storage diseases. ... The pentose phosphate pathways Nonoxidative phase The pentose phosphate pathway (also called Phosphogluconate Pathway, or Hexose Monophosphate Shunt [HMP shunt]) is a process that serves to generate NADPH and the synthesis of pentose (5-carbon) sugars. ... Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive hereditary disease featuring nonimmune hemolytic anemia in response to a number of causes. ... Pentosuria is a condition where xylulose (a pentose) presents in the urine in unusually high concentrations. ... Hyperoxaluria is an excessive urinary excretion of oxalate. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lactose Intolerance (2048 words)
Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest significant amounts of lactose, the major sugar found in milk.
Lactose intolerance is caused by a shortage of the enzyme lactase, which is produced by the cells that line the small intestine.
However, lactose intolerance and cow’s milk intolerance are not related.
Lactose Intolerance Symptoms (302 words)
Lactose intolerance is one of the most widespread complaints among adults in the world.
Having said this, the vast majority of people are completely unaware of what lactose intolerance is, and moreover, are completely unaware their gastric problems are in fact classic lactose intolerance symptoms.
When somebody is said to be lactose intolerant, this means their bodies have a hard time processing a sugar compound called lactose, without feeling some kind of negative effect.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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