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Encyclopedia > Lactose

| IUPACName = | OtherNames = | Section1 = ! style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" | Identifiers |-


| bgcolor = "" | CAS number | bgcolor = "" | [63-42-3] |- | PubChem | 6134 |- CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ...



| MeSH | Lactose |- | Section2 = ! style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" | Properties |- | Molecular formula | C12H22O11 |- | Molar mass | 342.296 |- | Section3 = }} Lactose (also referred to as milk sugar) is a sugar which is found most notably in milk. Lactose makes up around 2–8% of milk (by weight). The name comes from the Latin word for milk, plus the -ose ending used to name sugars. Its systematic name is β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1↔4)β-D-glucopyranose. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... A glass of cows milk. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Chemistry

Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose fragments bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... A glycosidic bond is the linkage between two monosaccharides, that forms disaccharides and/or polysaccharides. ...


Solubility

Lactose has a solubility of 1 in 4.63 measured %w/v. This translates to 0.216 g of lactose dissolving readily in 1 mL of water.


The solubility of lactose in water is 18.9049 g at 25°C, 25.1484 g at 40°C and 37.2149 g at 60°C per 100 g solution. Its solubility in ethanol is 0.0111 g at 40°C and 0.0270 g at 60°C per 100 g solution.[1] Grain alcohol redirects here. ...


Digestion of lactose

Main article: Lactose intolerance

Infant mammals are fed on milk by their mothers. To digest it an enzyme called lactase (β-D-galactosidase) is secreted by the intestinal villi, and this enzyme cleaves the molecule into its two subunits glucose and galactose for absorption. Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ... Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine and have additional extensions called microvilli (singular: microvillus) which protrude from epithelial cells lining villi. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ...


Since lactose occurs mostly in milk, in most mammals the production of lactase gradually decreases with maturity.


Many people with ancestry in Europe, the Middle East, India, or parts of East Africa, maintain normal lactase production into adulthood. In many of these cultures, mammals such as cattle, goats, and sheep are milked for food. Hence, it was in these regions that genes for lifelong lactase production first evolved. The genes of lactose tolerance have evolved independently in various ethnic groups. [2] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... For the animal, see goat. ... Species See text. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


References

  1. ^ Machado, José J.B.; João A. Coutinho, Eugénia A. Macedo (2000). "Solid–liquid equilibrium of a-lactose in ethanol/water" (PDF). Fluid Phase Equilibria. 
  2. ^ People who are not tolerant may suffer certain socially unacceptable symptoms of too much lactose consumption. basically, lactose is not broken down and provides food for gas producing gut flora. This leads to bloating, and flatulence and perhaps GI upset. Nicholas Wade. "Study Detects Recent Instance of Human Evolution", The New York Times, December 10, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-12-05. 
The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Fischer projection of D-glyceraldehyde An aldose is a monosaccharide (a certain type of sugar) containing one aldehyde group per molecule and having a chemical formula of the form CnH2nOn (n>=3). ... Fructose, an example of a ketose. ... Glucose in its alpha-D-glucopyranose form Pyranose is a collective term for carbohydrates which have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbons and one oxygen. ... A furanose is a simple sugar that contains a furan ring and is a sub-terminal ketone which gives it reducing power. ... A triose is a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. ... A tetrose is a monosaccharide with 4 carbon atoms. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ... A hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms having the chemical formula C6H12O6. ... A heptose is a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms. ... Cyclohexane conformation is a much studied topic in organic chemistry because of the complex interrelationship between the different conformers of cyclohexane and its derivatives. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anomeric carbon. ... Mutarotation is the term given to the change in the specific rotation of plane polarized light, when it is passed through an aldohexose ( Monosaccharides with six carbon atoms and H-C=0 Group ). Mutarotation refers to the conversion of a pure anomer of a hemiacetal carbohydrate to an equilibrium mixture... Fischer projection of D-glyceraldehyde Glyceraldehyde is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3. ... Fischer projection of dihydroxyacetone Dihydroxyacetone (also know as DHA) is a triose carbohydrate with chemical formula C3H6O3. ... Fischer projection of D-erythrose D-Erythrose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Fischer projection of D-threose D-Threose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Fischer projection of D-erythrulose D-Erythrulose (also known as erythrulose) is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Sedoheptulose is a keto-heptose - a simple sugar with 5 carbon atoms and a ketone functional group. ... A triose is a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. ... Fischer projection of dihydroxyacetone Dihydroxyacetone (also know as DHA) is a triose carbohydrate with chemical formula C3H6O3. ... Fischer projection of D-glyceraldehyde Glyceraldehyde is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3. ... A tetrose is a monosaccharide with 4 carbon atoms. ... Fischer projection of D-erythrulose D-Erythrulose (also known as erythrulose) is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Fischer projection of D-erythrose D-Erythrose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... Fischer projection of D-threose D-Threose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ... Fischer projection of L-arabinose The chemical structure of D-arabinofuranose Arabinose is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde (CHO) functional group. ... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Lyxose is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Fischer projection of D-ribulose Ribulose is a ketopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including a ketone functional group. ... Xylose or wood sugar is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Xylulose is a sugar (a monosaccharide), one of the pentose series of carbohydrates. ... A hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms having the chemical formula C6H12O6. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... D and L forms Haworth projection of mannose in its α-D-mannopyranose form. ... Gulose is an aldohexose sugar. ... L-Idose is a 6 carbon monosaccharide(a hexose) It has an aldehyde group and is an aldose. ... Talose is an aldohexose sugar. ... Allose is an aldohexose sugar. ... Altrose is an aldohexose sugar. ... Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Fischer projection of L-sorbose Sorbose is a ketose belonging to the group of sugars known as monosaccharides. ... Tagatose is a functional sweetener. ... D-Psicose (D-ribo-2-hexulose, C6H12O6) is an ultralow-energy monosaccharide sugar. ... Fucose is a hexose sugar with the chemical formula C6H12O5. ... Rhamnose is a naturally-occurring sugar. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Trehalose, also known as mycose, is a type of alpha-linked disaccharide formed by an α, α-1, 1-glucoside bond between α-glucose units found extensively but not abundantly in nature. ... Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Amylose (CAS# 9005-82-7) is a linear polymer of glucose linked with mainly α(1→4) bonds. ... Amylopectin is a highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... Stachyose is an oligosaccharide (tetra-saccharide) consisting of two D-galactose units and one sucrose sequentially linked. ... Note: This article title may be easily confused with insulin. ... Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch. ... Chondroitin sulfate Hyaluronan Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. ... Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. ... Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in connective tissue and the nervous system, normally attached to a protein core. ... The repeating disaccharide unit of hyaluronan Hyaluronan (also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate) is a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. ... Heparan Sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. ... Dermatan sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan, formerly called a mucopolysaccharide, found mostly in skin, but also in blood vessels, heart valves, tendons, and lungs. ... Keratan sulfate, also called keratosulfate, is any of several sulfated glycosaminoglycans that have been found especially in the cornea, cartilage, and bone. ... Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... Kanamycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, available in both oral and intravenous forms, and used to treat a wide variety of infections. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Tobramycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infections. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... Paromomycin sulfate (brand name Humatin) is a drug that fights intestinal amoeba infection, or amebiasis. ... Apramycin (also Nebramycin II) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. ... Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... Netilmicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. ... Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Nucleotide sugars are biochemicals that act as donors of sugar residues in nucleotide sugars metabolism. ... Some common lipids. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Polypyrrole A Polypyrrole (PPy) is a chemical compound formed from a number of connected pyrrole ring structures. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is a nitrogen-containing naturally occurring compound, produced by a large variety of organisms, including fungi, plants, animals, and bacteria. ... Polyketides are secondary metabolites from bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
lactose intolerance: Information from Answers.com (2725 words)
Lactose intolerance is caused by reduced or absent activity of lactase thatprevents the splitting of lactose (lactase deficiency).
Lactose intolerance is the condition in which lactase, an enzyme needed for proper metabolization of lactose (a constituent of milk and other dairy products), is not produced in adulthood.
Lactose intolerance is an autosomal recessive trait, while lactase-persistence is the dominant allele.
Lactose Intolerance (1309 words)
Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest significant amounts of lactose, the predominant sugar of milk.
The lactose tolerance and hydrogen breath tests are not given to infants and very young children who are suspected of having lactose intolerance.
A large lactose load may be dangerous for very young individuals because they are more prone to dehydration that can result from diarrhea caused by the lactose.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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