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Encyclopedia > Lactic acid
Lactic acid
Skeletal formula of lactic acid Ball-and-stick model of lactic acid
Chemical name 2-hydroxypropanoic acid
Chemical formula C3H6O3
Molecular mass 90.08 g/mol
CAS number [50-21-5]
L: [79-33-4]
D: [10326-41-7]
D/L: [598-82-3]
Melting point L: 53 °C
D: 53 °C
D/L: 16.8 °C
Boiling point 122 °C @ 12 mmHg
Disclaimer and references

For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x1012, 16 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Lactic acid User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x876, 143 KB) [[PD-self}} File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lactic acid ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. ...

Lactic acid (IUPAC systematic name: 2-hydroxypropanoic acid), also known as milk acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. It was first isolated in 1780 by a Swedish chemist, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, and is a carboxylic acid with a chemical formula of C3H6O3. It has a hydroxyl group adjacent to the carboxyl group, making it an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA). In solution, it can lose a proton from the acidic group, producing the lactate ion CH3CH(OH)COO. It is miscible with water or ethanol, and is hygroscopic.dfa The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... There are millions of possible objects that can be described in science, too many to create common names for every one. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Carl Wilhelm Scheele Scheeles house with his pharmacy in Köping. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... A carboxyl or carboxylic group is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom and an oxygen atom doubly bonded to each other. ... α-Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) are naturally occurring carboxylic acids which are well-known for their use in the cosmetics industry. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow robert ford An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... Hygroscopy is the ability of a substance to attract water molecules from the surrounding environment through either absorption or adsorption. ...

Lactic acid is chiral and has two optical isomers. One is known as L-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, its mirror image, is D-(-)-lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. L-(+)-Lactic acid is the biologically important isomer. The term chiral (pronounced ) is used to describe an object which is non-superimposable on its mirror image. ... Optical isomerism is a form of isomerism (specifically stereoisomerism) whereby the different 2 isomers are the same in every way except being non-superimposable mirror images* of each other. ...

In animals, L-lactate is constantly produced from pyruvate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a process of fermentation during normal metabolism and exercise. It does not increase in concentration until the rate of lactate production exceeds the rate of lactate removal which is governed by a number of factors including: monocarboxylate transporters, concentration and isoform of LDH and oxidative capacity of tissues. The concentration of blood lactate is usually 1-2 mmol/L at rest, but can rise to over 20 mmol/L during intense exertion. Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme (EC 1. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ...

Lactic acid fermentation is also performed by Lactobacillus bacteria. These bacteria can operate in the mouth; the acid they produce is responsible for the tooth decay known as caries. Species L. acidophilus L. brevis L. delbrueckii subsp. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mouth (human). ... Acidity redirects here. ... The visible teeth of a smile. ... Caries is a progressive destruction of any kind of bone structure, including the skull, the ribs and other bones. ...

In medicine, lactate is one of the main components of Ringer's lactate or lactated Ringer's solution. This intravenous fluid consists of sodium and potassium cations, with lactatechloride anions, in solution with distilled water in concentration so as to be isotonic compared to human blood. It is most commonly used for fluid resuscitation after blood loss due to trauma, surgery or a burn injury. medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Lactated Ringers Solution is a solution that is isotonic with blood and intended for intravenous administration. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... For other meanings of CPR, see CPR (disambiguation). ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Look up burn in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Exercise and lactate

During intense exercise, such as sprinting type activities, when the rate of demand for energy is high, lactate is produced faster than the ability of the tissues to remove it and lactate concentration begins to rise. This is a beneficial process since the regeneration of NAD+ ensures that energy production is maintained and exercise can continue. The increased lactate produced can be removed in a number of ways including: oxidation to pyruvate by well-oxygenated muscle cells which is then directly used to fuel the citric acid cycle and conversion to glucose via the Cori cycle in the liver through the process of gluconeogenesis. Space-filling model of NADH Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an important coenzymes found in cells. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. POOP Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle, after Hans Adolf Krebs who identified the cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... The Cori cycle, named after its discoverers, Carl Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the cycling of lactate produced by red blood cells and muscle (during anaerobic respiration) back into glucose. ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ...

Contrary to popular belief, this increased concentration of lactate does not directly cause acidosis, nor is it responsible for delayed onset muscle soreness.[1] This is because lactate itself is not capable of releasing a proton, and secondly, the acidic form of lactate, lactic acid, cannot be formed under normal circumstances in human tissues. Analysis of the glycolytic pathway in humans indicates that there are not enough hydrogen ions present in the glycolytic intermediates to produce lactic or any other acid. Acidosis is an increased acidity (i. ... Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) is the pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after exercising and subsides generally within 2 to 3 days. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ...

The acidosis that is associated with increases in lactate concentration during heavy exercise arises from a separate reaction. When ATP is hydrolysed, a hydrogen ion is released. ATP-derived hydrogen ions are primarily responsible for the decrease in pH. During intense exercise, aerobic metabolism cannot produce ATP quickly enough to supply the demands of the muscle. As a result, anaerobic metabolism becomes the dominant energy producing pathway as it can form ATP at high rates. Due to the large amounts of ATP being produced and hydrolysed in a short period of time, the buffering systems of the tissues are overcome, causing pH to fall and creating a state of acidosis. This may be one factor, among many, that contributes to the acute muscular discomfort experienced shortly after intense exercise.[citations needed] Acidosis is an increased acidity (i. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ... This article or section should include material from aerobic respiration. ... Glycolysis is the initial metabolic pathway of carbohydrate catabolism. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit Buffer solutions are solutions which resist change...

The effect of lactate on acidosis has been the topic of many recent conferences in the field of exercise physiology. Robergs et al. have accurately chased the proton movement that occurs during glycolysis. However, in doing so, they have suggested that [H+] is an independent variable that determines its own concentration. A recent review by Lindinger et al. has been written to rebut the stoichiometric approach used by Robergs et al. In using this stoichiometric process, Robergs et al. have ignored the causitive factors (independent variables) of [H+]. These factors are strong ion difference [SID], PCO2, and weak acid buffers. Lactate is a strong anion, and causes a reduction in [SID] which causes and increase in [H+] to maintain electroneutrality. PCO2 also causes an increase in [H+]. During exercise, intramuscular [lactate] and PCO2 increase, causing an increase in [H+], and thus a decrease in pH.

Lactic acid as a polymer precursor

Two molecules of lactic acid can be dehydrated to lactide, a cyclic lactone. A variety of catalysts can polymerise lactide to either heterotactic or syndiotactic polylactide, which as biodegradable polyesters with valuable (inter alia) medical properties are currently attracting much attention. Lactide is the anhydride of lactic acid. ... A catalyst (Greek: καταλύτης) is a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction, at some temperature, but without itself being transformed or consumed by the reaction (see also catalysis). ... A syndiotactic macromolecule in polymer chemistry is a tactic macromolecule essentially comprising alternating enantiomeric configurational base units which have chiral or prochiral atoms in the main chain in a unique arrangement with respect to their adjacent constitutional units. ... The skeletal formula of polylactic acid Polylactic acid or Polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable, thermoplastic, aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources. ... Biodegradation is the decomposition of material by microorganisms. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ...

Lactic acid in food

Lactic acid is primarily found in sour milk products, such as: koumiss, leban, yogurt, kefir and some cottage cheeses. The casein in fermented milk is coagulated (curdled) by lactic acid. A glass of cows milk. ... Kumis (called airag by the Mongolians), is a traditional drink of the people of Central Asia. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... Grains of kefir For the Islamic term, see Kaffir. ... A tub of cottage cheese Cottage cheese comes from chickens and is a cheese curd product with a mild flavor. ... Casein is the most predominant phosphoprotein found in milk and cheese. ...

Although it can be fermented from lactose (milk sugar), most commercially used lactic acid is derived by using bacteria such as Bacillus acidilacti, Lactobacillus delbueckii or Lactobacillus bulgaricus to ferment carbohydrates from nondairy sources such as cornstarch, potatoes and molasses. Thus, although it is commonly known as "milk acid", products claiming to be vegan do sometimes feature lactic acid as an ingredient. Beer fermenting at a brewery. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Binomial name Lactobacillus bulgaricus Orla-Jensen, 1919 Lactobacillus bulgaricus (Official name Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecius bulgaricus, LBB) is one of several bacteria used for the production of Kisselo mlyako(Bulgarian)- Sour milkyoghurt (yogurt). ... Products treated with cornstarch Cornstarch, or cornflour, is the starch of the maize grain, commonly known as corn. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ...

Lactic acid may also be found in various processed foods, usually either as a pH adjusting ingredient, or as a preservative (either as antioxidant or for control of pathogenic micro-organisms). It may also be used as a fermentation booster in rye and sourdough breads.[2] A preservative is a natural or synthetic chemical that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, etc. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


  1. ^ Robergs R, Ghiasvand F, Parker D (2004). "Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis.". Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287 (3): R502-16. PMID 15308499. 
  2. ^ "Food Applications". Galactic Div. of Finasucre. 2006. http://www.lactic.com/

See also

The Cori cycle, named after its discoverers, Carl Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the cycling of lactate produced by red blood cells and muscle (during anaerobic respiration) back into glucose. ... The alanine cycle is quite similar to the Cori cycle. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Lactic Acid (1556 words)
Lactic acid has been blamed for soreness, injury to muscles, cramps, oxygen debt, etc. Lactic acid really is not so bad.
Lactic acid can also be used as an important fuel or as a source for glucose and glycogen synthesis.
The removal of accumulated lactic acid helps avert excessively high levels, and the conversion of lactate into glucose helps maintain sufficient levels of blood glucose, which is important during prolonged exercise.
Lactic Acid - LoveToKnow 1911 (415 words)
It may be prepared by the lactic fermentation of starches, sugars, gums, andc., the sugar being dissolved in water and acidified by a small quantity of tartaric acid and then fermented by the addition of sour milk, with a little putrid cheese.
27); by the oxidation of propylene glycol (A. Wurtz); by boiling a-chlorpropionic acid with caustic alkalis, or with silver oxide and water; by the reduction of pyruvic acid with sodium amalgam; or from acetaldehyde by the cyanhydrin reaction (J. Wislicenus, Ann., 1863, 128, p.
Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and carbon dioxide; potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyruvic acid; nitric acid to oxalic acid, and a mixture of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide.
  More results at FactBites »



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