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Encyclopedia > Lactate dehydrogenase
lactate dehydrogenase A
Identifiers
Symbol(s) LDHA
Entrez 3939
OMIM 150000
RefSeq NM_005566
UniProt P00338
Other data
EC number 1.1.1.27
Locus Chr. 11 p15.1
lactate dehydrogenase B
Identifiers
Symbol(s) LDHB
Entrez 3945
OMIM 150100
RefSeq NM_002300
UniProt P07195
Other data
EC number 1.1.1.27
Locus Chr. 12 p12.2-12.1
lactate dehydrogenase C
Identifiers
Symbol(s) LDHC
Entrez 3948
OMIM 150150
RefSeq NM_002301
UniProt P07864
Other data
EC number 1.1.1.27
Locus Chr. 11 p15.5-14.3

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme (EC 1.1.1.27) present in a wide variety of organisms, including plants and animals. It catalyses the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of NADH and NAD+. As it can also catalyze the oxidation of hydroxybutyrate, it is occasionally called Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase (HBD). Lactate dehydrogenase reaction Created by User:Jfdwolff for Wikipedia 355 x 148 File links The following pages link to this file: Lactate dehydrogenase Categories: GFDL images ... Hugo is a masculine name. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... In biology and evolutionary computation, a locus is the position of a gene (or other significant sequence) on a chromosome. ... Chromosome 11 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Hugo is a masculine name. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... In biology and evolutionary computation, a locus is the position of a gene (or other significant sequence) on a chromosome. ... Chromosome 12 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Hugo is a masculine name. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... In biology and evolutionary computation, a locus is the position of a gene (or other significant sequence) on a chromosome. ... Chromosome 11 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... Lactic acid is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are two important cofactors found in cells. ... Hydroxybutyrate may refer to: Beta-hydroxybutyrate Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid Category: ...

Contents

Enzyme isoforms

Usually LDH-2 is the predominant form in the serum. An LDH-1 level higher than the LDH-2 level (a "flipped pattern"), suggests myocardial infarction (damage to heart tissues releases heart LDH, which is rich in LDH-1, into the bloodstream). The use of this pheonomenon to diagnose infarction has been largely superseded by the use of Troponin I or T measurement. The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The reticuloendothelial system (RES), part of the immune system, consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue, primarily monocytes and macrophages. ... The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Liver of a sheep: (1) right lobe, (2) left lobe, (3) caudate lobe, (4) quadrate lobe, (5) hepatic artery and portal vein, (6) hepatic lymph nodes, (7) gall bladder. ... Structure of a skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, attached to the skeleton. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... Troponin is a protein complex that confers calcium sensitivity to muscle cells. ...


Genetics in Humans

The M and H subunits are encoded by two different genes: This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ...

Mutations of the M subunit have been linked to the rare disease exertional myoglobinuria (see OMIM article), and mutations of the H subunit have been described but do not appear to lead to disease. Figure 1: Chromosome. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ...


Medical use

=== Hemolysis way, elevated levels of LDH can be useful for determining if a patient has had a myocardial infarction if they come to doctors several days after an episode of chest pain.


Tissue turnover

Other uses are assessment of tissue breakdown in general; this is possible when there are no other indicators of hemolysis. It is used to follow-up cancer (especially lymphoma) patients, as cancer cells have a high rate of turnover, with destroyed cells leading to an elevated LDH activity. Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells and living tissue. ... Hemolysis (alternative spelling haemolysis) literally means the excessive breakdown of red blood cells. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Cancer (disambiguation). ...


Exudates and transudates

Measuring LDH in fluid aspirated from a pleural effusion (or pericardial effusion) can help in the distinction between exudates (actively secreted fluid, e.g. due to inflammation) or transudates (passively secreted fluid, due to a high hydrostatic pressure or a low oncotic pressure). LDH is elevated (>200 U/l) in an exudate and low in a transudate. In empyema, the LDH levels generally will exceed 1000 U/l. Pleural effusion Chest x-ray of a pleural effusion. ... Pericardial effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity. ... An exudate is any thick fluid that is actively secreted by cells as a result of disease. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... An exudate is any thick fluid that is actively secreted by cells as a result of disease or injury. ... Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid due to its weight. ... In blood plasma, the dissolved compounds have an osmotic pressure. ... An empyema is a collection of pus within a natural body cavity, most commonly the pleural space surrounding the lungs. ...


Meningitis and encephalitis

The enzyme is also found in cerebrospinal fluid where high levels of lactate dehydrogenase in cerebrospinal fluid are often associated with bacterial meningitis. High levels of the enzyme can also be found in cases of viral meningitis, generally indicating the presence of encephalitis and poor prognosis. Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain, usually due to bacterial or viral infections elsewhere in the body that has spread into the blood and into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (Latin, poison) is a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... ...


HIV and elevated LDH

LDH is often measured in HIV patients as a non-specific marker for Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly Pneumocystis carinii) pneumonia (PCP). Elevated LDH in the setting of upper respiratory symptoms in an HIV patient suggests, but is not diagnostic for, PCP.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lactic acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (961 words)
Lactate is constantly produced during normal metabolism and exercise but does not increase in concentration until the rate of lactate production exceeds the rate of lactate removal.
The increased lactate produced can be removed in a number of ways including: oxidation to pyruvate by well-oxygenated muscle cells which is then directly used to fuel the citric acid cycle and conversion to glucose via the Cori cycle in the liver through the process of gluconeogenesis.
This is because lactate itself is not capable of releasing a proton, and secondly, the acidic form of lactate (lactic acid) cannot be formed under normal circumstances in human tissues.
Lactate dehydrogenase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (493 words)
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme (EC 1.1.1.27) present in a wide variety of organisms, including plants and animals.
The enzyme is also found in cerebrospinal fluid where high levels of lactate dehydrogenase in cerebrospinal fluid are often associated with bacterial meningitis.
High levels of the enzyme can also be found in cases of viral meningitis, generally indicating the presence of encephalitis and poor prognosis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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