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Encyclopedia > Lactam

A lactam (the noun is a portmanteau of the wods lactone + amide) is a cyclic amide. Prefixes may indicate the ring size: β-lactam (4-membered), γ-lactam (5-membered), δ-lactam (6-membered ring). That order in the nomenclature is because beta β, gamma γ and delta δ are the second, third and fourth letters in the alphabetical order of the Greek alphabet, respectively. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A lactone is a cyclic ester in organic chemistry. ... Amide functional group In chemistry, an amide is one of two kinds of compounds: - the organic functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (C=O) linked to a nitrogen atom (N), or a compound that contains this functional group (pictured to the right); or - a particular kind of nitrogen anion. ... Simple aromatic rings are aromatic organic compounds (also known as arenes or aromatics) that consist only of conjugated planar ring systems with delocalized pi electron clouds instead of discrete alternating single and double bonds. ... Amide functional group In chemistry, an amide is one of two kinds of compounds: - the organic functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (C=O) linked to a nitrogen atom (N), or a compound that contains this functional group (pictured to the right); or - a particular kind of nitrogen anion. ... A beta-lactam (β-lactam) or penam is a lactam with a heteroatomic ring structure, consisting of three carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. ... Beta (upper case Î’, lower case β) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Look up Δ, δ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...

Contents

Synthesis

General synthetic methods exist for the organic synthesis of lactams. Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ...

Iodolactamization reaction
  • Lactams form by copper catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of alkynes and nitrones in the Kinugasa reaction

In chemistry, the Beckmann rearrangement is the rearrangement of a ketoxime to the corresponding amide in concentrated sulfuric acid, phosphorus pentachloride or a few other catalysts. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... An iminium salt or ion in organic chemistry has the general structure R1-CH=NH+-R2 and is as such a protonated imine. ... A halonium ion in organic chemistry is any onium ion containing a bridged halogen atom carrying a positive charge. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Atomic mass 126. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (996x184, 4 KB) Iodolactamization of alkenes I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... A nitrone is the N-oxide of an imine and a functional group in organic chemistry. ...

Reactions

A polyamide is a polymer containing monomers joined by peptide bonds. ...

See also

  • β-lactam with a four-membered ring found in beta-lactam antibiotics. Penicillin, considered the most famous antibiotic, is a β-lactam antibiotic.
  • Lactone, a cyclic ester.
  • Caprolactam

A beta-lactam (β-lactam) or penam is a lactam with a heteroatomic ring structure, consisting of three carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. ... β-lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics including penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and β-lactamase inhibitors; basically any antibiotic agent which contains a β-lactam nucleus in its molecular structure. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... A lactone is a cyclic ester in organic chemistry. ... General formula of a carboxylate ester. ... Caprolactam (C6H11ON) is the monomer used in the production of nylon 6. ...

References

  1. ^ Spencer Knapp, Frank S. Gibson Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 9, p.516 (1998); Vol. 70, p.101 (1992) Online article

Organic Syntheses is a scientific journal that Since 1921 has provided the chemistry community with annual collections of detailed and checked procedures for the organic synthesis of organic compounds. ...

External links

  • Links to external chemical sources

  Results from FactBites:
 
Beta-lactam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (228 words)
Beta lactam is the square at the center.
A beta-lactam ring (β-lactam) or penam is a lactam with a heteroatomic ring structure, consisting of three carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom.
As a response to bacterial resistance to beta lactam drugs, there are drugs, such as Augmentin, which are designed to disable the beta-lactamase enzyme.
Method for producing pressure sensitive poly (N-vinyl lactam) - Patent 5409966 (8130 words)
A hydrophilic, pressure-sensitive adhesive composition prepared by irradiating solid poly(N-vinyl lactam) with ionizing radiation to crosslink the poly(N-vinyl lactam) and thereafter mixing the radiation-crosslinked poly(N-vinyl lactam) with essentially unirradiated plasticizer in an amount sufficient to form a cohesive, pressure-sensitive adhesive composition.
The crosslinked, cohesive, swellable polymeric matrix is formed from the free-radical polymerization of a precursor having a monomeric species of N-vinyl lactam, and a crosslinker of a multi-ethylenically unsaturated compound wherein the ethylenic groups are vinyl, allyl, or methallyl groups bonded to nitrogen or oxygen atoms.
Poly(N-vinyl lactam) in a solid form can be a noncrosslinked homopolymer or a noncrosslinked copolymer containing N-vinyl lactam monomeric units, which after irradiation is swellable in a plasticizer biocompatible with mammalian skin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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