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Encyclopedia > Lack of outside support in the Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
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The Warsaw Uprising, in 1944 ended in the capitulation of the city and its near total destruction. According to many historians, a major cause of this was the almost complete lack of outside support and the late arrival of the support which did arrive. The only support operation which ran continuously for the duration of the Uprising were night supply drops by long-range planes of the RAF, other Commonwealth air forces, and units of the Polish Air Force, which had to use distant airfields in Italy and so had very limited effect. Ruins of Bank Polski area during the Warsaw Uprising, see also Image:Uprising bank polski. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Antoni Chruściel, Tadeusz Pełczyński Erich von dem Bach, Rainer Stahel, Heinz Reinefarth, Bronislav Kaminski Strength 50,000 troops 25,000 troops Casualties 18,000 killed, 12,000 wounded, 15,000 taken prisoner 250,000 civilians killed 10,000 killed... The Warsaw Uprising occurred at a stage of the Second World War when it was becoming clear that Nazi Germany was likely to lose. ... The Warsaw Uprising began with simultaneous pre-arranged attacks at 17:00 hours August 1, 1944. ... The Warsaw Uprising of 1944 was ended through a capitulation agreement which guaranteed not only the rights of the insurgents to be treated as Prisoners of War but also was designed to guarantee the fair treatment of the civilians living in Warsaw. ... The failure of the Warsaw Uprising and subsequent Capitulation agreement left Warsaw almost uninhabited. ... The representation of the Warsaw Uprising in the media had already become controversial even before it begun. ... This is a list of military units taking part in the Warsaw Uprising, a Polish insurgence during the Second World War that began on August 1, 1944. ... This is a list of notable individuals who were involved in the Warsaw Uprising, a Polish insurgence during the Second World War that begun on August 1 of 1944. ... This page covers facts and statistics about the Warsaw Uprising, a Polish insurgence during the Second World War that begun on August 1 of 1944. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Antoni Chruściel, Tadeusz Pełczyński Erich von dem Bach, Rainer Stahel, Heinz Reinefarth, Bronislav Kaminski Strength 50,000 troops 25,000 troops Casualties 18,000 killed, 12,000 wounded, 15,000 taken prisoner 250,000 civilians killed 10,000 killed... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... The Warsaw Uprising of 1944 was ended through a capitulation agreement which guaranteed not only the rights of the insurgents to be treated as Prisoners of War but also was designed to guarantee the fair treatment of the civilians living in Warsaw. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


One explanation which has been given for the lack of outside support is that the uprising began too early and so the nearby Soviet forces were not ready to support. This explanation, however, appears to be contradicted by the fact that, at times during the uprising the NKVD was actively arresting Home Army forces in the East of Warsaw and that a large proportion of RAF losses were caused by Soviet anti-aircraft fire. Two further explanations have been given for the failure of Allied support. The first is that the Soviets misunderstood the circumstances of the uprising, though, again this cannot easily explain their attacks on their own allies, the British, without some further complication. The second is that the Soviet forces deliberately blocked the Western Allies from providing support to the Polish forces to support their desire to have Warsaw and any independent-minded Polish forces destroyed before their arrival. The Warsaw Uprising occurred at a stage of the Second World War when it was becoming clear that Nazi Germany was likely to lose. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... The NKVD (Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del )(Russian: НКВД, Народный комиссариат внутренних дел) or Peoples Commisariat for Internal Affairs was a government department which handled a number of the Soviet Unions affairs of state. ... The Armia Krajowa (Home Army) or AK functioned as the dominant resistance movement in German-occupied Poland, which was active in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries supporting the Triple Entente who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of... Soviet redirects here. ...


An alternative explanation is that, regardless of Stalin's political intentions, the Red Army was simply exhausted and hence unable to extend effective support to the Uprising. In support of this thesis, it is often claimed that since the opening of Operation Bagration many of Red Army units had covered several hundred miles in a far-ranging offensive, and their advance elements were at the very end of their logistical tether. This, coupled with the presence of several fresh SS and Panzer divisions around Warsaw which administered a sharp reverse to the Soviet 2nd Tank Army in the final days of July, was, according to this view, sufficient to stop the Red Army in its tracks on the Warsaw front. However, it must be kept in mind that the units which reached Warsaw in late July 1944 were not part of Bagration, but instead advanced from Western Ukraine as part of the Lublin-Brest Operation, covering a much smaller distance. Those units were in fact able to operate quite effectively against German forces to the south and north of Warsaw during August and September, successfully securing bridgeheads over the Vistula and Narew rivers in those sectors. Given that Soviet success, the apparent inactivity on the most direct route of approach towards Warsaw, through the suburb of Praga, lasting through August and the first half of September, is to say the least puzzling. Furthermore, once the Soviet forces seized Praga in mid-September 1944, only poorly supported units of the inexperienced 1st Polish Army were assigned to attempt the crossing of the river Vistula to aid the insurgents. Those crossings failed to establish a durable foothold on the left bank of the river, and caused considerable casualties among the Polish units involved. It is an open question whether an earlier Soviet effort using more experienced units with adequate support would have been able to reach and cross the Vistula in the Warsaw sector, and provide timely and effective support to the Polish units fighting in the main part of the city. The continued difficulty in accessing the Soviet documents of the time presently located in the Russian archives makes it difficult for historians to answer this question with any degree of certainty. Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... Polish flag over Berlin. ...

Contents


The airdrops

Armia Krajowa 26th Infantry Regiment en route to Warsaw from the Kielce-Radom area, marching in an attempt to join the Warsaw Uprising during the Operation Tempest
Armia Krajowa 26th Infantry Regiment en route to Warsaw from the Kielce-Radom area, marching in an attempt to join the Warsaw Uprising during the Operation Tempest
Cichociemni after being delivered to the Radom-Kielce Armia Krajowa inspectorate on September 22, 1944
Enlarge
Cichociemni after being delivered to the Radom-Kielce Armia Krajowa inspectorate on September 22, 1944
The monument shown in this photograph was erected to commemorate the allied airmen who lost their lives over Warsaw.
The monument shown in this photograph was erected to commemorate the allied airmen who lost their lives over Warsaw.

From August 4 the Western Allies begun supporting the Warsaw Uprising with airdrops of munitions and other supplies. Initially the air raids were carried out mostly by 1568 Polish Flight of the PAF stationed in Bari and Brindisi in Italy. Later on at the insistence of the Polish government-in-exile they were joined by the Liberators of 2 Wing - 31 and 34 Squadrons of the SAAF based at Foggia in Southern Italy, and Halifaxes, flown by 148 and 178 Squadrons of the RAF. The drops continued September 21. The total weight of allied drops was 104 tons. Image File history File links 26PPAK_relief_Warsaw_Uprising. ... Image File history File links 26PPAK_relief_Warsaw_Uprising. ... The Armia Krajowa (Home Army) or AK functioned as the dominant resistance movement in German-occupied Poland, which was active in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Kielce (pronounce: [ˈkjεlʦε]) is a city in central Poland with 202,609 inhabitants (2006). ... Radom (pronounce: [radÉ”m]) is a city in central Poland with 227 309 inhabitants. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Antoni ChruÅ›ciel, Tadeusz PeÅ‚czyÅ„ski Erich von dem Bach, Rainer Stahel, Heinz Reinefarth, Bronislav Kaminski Strength 50,000 troops 25,000 troops Casualties 18,000 killed, 12,000 wounded, 15,000 taken prisoner 250,000 civilians killed 10,000 killed... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Image File history File links Cichociemni_Radom-Kielce_22Sept1944. ... Image File history File links Cichociemni_Radom-Kielce_22Sept1944. ... Symbol Silent and Dark Cichociemni (Polish for Silent and dark) were a secret unit of the Polish Army in exile created to maintain contact with occupied Poland during World War II The name Initially the name was informal and used only by the soldiers who volunteered to be dropped over... Radom (pronounce: [radÉ”m]) is a city in central Poland with 227 309 inhabitants. ... Kielce (pronounce: [ˈkjεlʦε]) is a city in central Poland with 202,609 inhabitants (2006). ... The Armia Krajowa (Home Army) or AK functioned as the dominant resistance movement in German-occupied Poland, which was active in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Download high resolution version (853x640, 98 KB)Monument to the Allied airmen who fell during the Warsaw Uprising, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (853x640, 98 KB)Monument to the Allied airmen who fell during the Warsaw Uprising, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Taj Mahal, commissioned by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, as a mausoleum for his wife, Arjumand Banu Begum. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... A C-130 Hercules airdropping a light tank. ... Flag of the Polish Air Force Polish Air Force (SiÅ‚y Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SiÅ‚y Powietrzne RP). ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... Categories: Italy-related stubs | Towns in Puglia ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... Royal Canadian Air Force B-24 Liberator A B-24 Liberator photographed from above while in flight The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was produced in greater numbers than any other American combat aircraft, and was used by most of the Allied air forces in World War II. Designed as a... The South African Air Force roundel The South African Air Force (SAAF) (Afrikaans: Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag) is the air force of South Africa. ... Region Apulia Mayor Orazio Ciliberti Area  116 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Density 146. ... Halifax W1057 ZA-X of No. ... [[[[No. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ...


The Soviet Union did not give permission to the Allies for use of its airports for those supply operations and thus the planes were forced to use bases in the United Kingdom and Italy which reduced their carrying weight and number of sorties. The Allies specific request for the use of landing strips made on 20 August was denied by Stalin on 22 August (he referred to the insurgents as 'a handful of criminals'). August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ...


United States planes did not join the operation. After Stalin's objections to support for the uprising, Churchill telegrammed Roosevelt on August 25 and proposed sending planes in defiance of Stalin and to 'see what happens'. Roosevelt replied on August 26: 'I do not consider it advantageous to the long-range general war prospect for me to join you in the proposed message to Uncle Joe'[1]. August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ...


Although German air defence over the Warsaw area itself was almost non-existent about 12% of the 296 planes taking part in the operations were lost because they had to fly 1,600 km out over heavily defended enemy territory and then back over the same route. Most of the drops were made during night, and poor accuracy left many parachuted packages stranded behind German-controlled territory.


From September 13 on the Soviets began their own airdrop raids with supplies, and dropped about 55 tons in total. The drops continued until September 28. Since the Soviet airmen did not equip the containers with parachutes, the majority of recovered packages were damaged. Finally on September 18 the Soviets allowed one USAAF flight of 110 B-17s of the 3 division Eighth Air Force to re-fuel at Soviet airfields used in Operation Frantic, but it was too little too late. September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (272nd in leap years). ... The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was a part of the U.S. Army during World War II. The direct precursor to the U.S. Air Force, the USAAF formally existed between 1941 and 1947. ... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress was the first mass-produced, four-engine heavy bomber. ... The Eighth Air Force is a numbered air force (NAF) of the major command (MAJCOM) of Air Combat Command of the United States Air Force and it is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. ...


Soviet 'help': Berling landings on Powiśle

The role of the Red Army during the Warsaw Uprising remains controversial and is still disputed by some historians. The Uprising started when the Red Army appeared on the city's doorstep, and the Poles in Warsaw were counting on Soviet aid coming in a matter of days. This basic scenario of an uprising against the Germans launched a few days before the arrival of Allied forces played out successfully in a number of European capitals, notably Paris and Prague. However, despite standing for about 40 days less than 10 km from Warsaw's city center, and then moving even closer, to the right bank of the Vistula river a few hundred meters away from the main battle of the uprising during its last two weeks, the Red Army did not extend effective aid to the desperate city. Some Western historians, as well as the official line of the Communist regime in Poland before 1989, claimed that the Red Army, exhausted by its long advance on its way to Warsaw, lacked sufficient fighting power to overcome the German forces around Warsaw and extend effective aid to the Uprising. However, the clear consensus among most historians is that Stalin did not want to aid the Home Army in Warsaw, made up of likely opponents of the Communist regime that he wanted to impose on Poland after the war. In that view, the Red Army had the ability to come to the Uprising's aid but was directed not to do so. The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city For other uses, see Paris (disambiguation). ... Prague (Czech: Praha (IPA: ), see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Red Army reached the outskirts of Warsaw in the final days of July, 1944. The Soviet units belonged to the 1st Belorussian Front, participating in the Lublin-Brest Operation, between the Lvov-Sandomierz Operation on its left and Operation Bagration on its right. These two operations were colossal defeats for the German army and completely destroyed a large number of German formations. As a consequence, the Germans at this time were desperately trying to put together a new force to hold the line of the Vistula river, the last major river barrier between the Red Army and Germany proper, rushing in units in various stages of readiness from all over Europe. These units included a few high quality panzer and SS divisions pulled from their refits, but also many infantry units of poor quality. In terms of combat power this scratch force was considerably inferior to what the Soviets had available. On the other hand, after their long advances in June and July the Soviet suffered from the usual difficulties with supply accompanying any long-range Soviet offensive that has advanced far beyond its starting line. The Soviet plan was to seize bridgeheads across the Vistula and the Narew rivers as jumping off points for the next offensive and then stop to resupply their units. This put Warsaw, straddling the river Vistula, right at the limit of planned Soviet advance. From the operational viewpoint seizing Warsaw was not a major priority for the Soviets, though clearly having possession of the city would be advantageous to them, especially if it could be captured with its infrastructure intact. However, it was not essential, as the Soviets already seized a series of convenient bridgeheads to the south of Warsaw, and were concentrating on defending them against vigorous German counterattacks. The Red Army was also gearing for a major thrust into the Balkans through Romania at around this time and a large proportion of Soviet resources was being sent in that direction. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... The 1st Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 1st Byelorussian Front and 1st Belarusian Front) was a Soviet Army Front during the Great Patriotic War. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 368,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 37,400 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Operation was... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ...


In the initial battle of Radzymin Soviet advance armored units of the 2nd Tank Army suffered a setback which prevented them from taking Warsaw from the march. It was the presence of Soviet tanks in nearby Wołomin that sealed the decision of the Home Army leaders in Warsaw to launch the uprising. As a result of the battle, the Soviet tank army was pushed out of Wołomin to the east of Warsaw and pushed back about 10 km[2][3][4][5]. However, the defeat did not change the fact of the overwhelming Soviet superiority over the Germans in the sector. The Soviets retained their positions to the south-east of Warsaw along the Vistula river, barely 10 km away from the city center, at the outskirts of the Warsaw right bank suburb Praga. The Poles fighting in the Uprising were counting that the Soviet forces would seize Praga in a matter of days and then be in a position to have Red Army units cross to the left bank where the main battle of the Uprising was occurring and come to its aid. The Battle of Radzymin was a clash between the Red Army and the Wehrmacht that happened between August 1 and August 10 near the town of Radzymin in the vicinity of Warsaw. ... Coat of arms of WoÅ‚omin WoÅ‚omin is the main town of the Wolomin county situated in Masovian Voivodship. ... Praga Północ and Praga PoÅ‚udnie Pragas market, Jan Piotr Norblin, 1791. ...


However, on that line along the outskirts of Praga, on the most direct route of advance towards Warsaw, the Soviets stopped their advance and the front line did not move for the next 45 days. The sector was held by the understrength German 73rd infantry division, destroyed many times on the Eastern Front and recently reconstituted[6]. The division, though weak, did not experience significant Soviet pressure during that period. At the same time, the Red Army was fighting intense battles to the south of Warsaw, to seize and maintain bridgeheads over the Vistula river, and to the north, to gain bridgeheads over the river Narew. It was on those sectors that the best panzer and armored divisions that the Germans had were fighting. Despite that, both of these objectives have been mostly secured by early September. The inactivity of the Red Army directly in front of Warsaw elicited this reaction of amazement from Germans, recorded in the operations journal of German 9th Army on 16 August 1944: Contrary to our expectations, the enemy has halted all of their offensive actions alongside the entire front of the 9th Army. The German 73rd Infantry Division was a German military unit which served during World War II. The division consisted of more than 10,000 soldiers, primarily of the infantry branch, with supporting artillery. ... Narew (Belarusian: На́раў) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. ...


Finally, on September 11, the Soviet 47th army began its advance into Praga. The resistance by the German 73rd division was weak and collapsed quickly, with the Soviets gaining control of the suburb by September 14. With the taking of Praga, the Soviet forces were now directly across the river from the Uprising fighting in left-bank Warsaw. If the Soviets had reached this stage in early August, the crossing of the river would have been easy, as the Poles then held considerable stretches of the riverfront. By mid-September a series of German attacks have reduced the Poles to holding one narrow stretch of the riverbank, in the district of Czerniakow. Nevertheless, the Soviets now made an attempt to aid the Uprising, but not by using Red Army units.


In the Praga area Polish units under command of General Zygmunt Berling (thus sometimes known as 'berlingowcy' - 'the Berling men'), the 1st Polish Army (1 Armia Wojska Polskiego) were in position. On the night of 14/15th of September three patrols from landed on the shore of Czerniaków and Powiśle areas and made contacts with Home Army forces. Under heavy German fire only small elements of main units made it ashore (I and III battalions of 9th infantry regiment, 3rd Infantry Division). At the same time the commanders of the Red Army declined to support the Polish troops with artillery, tanks or bombers. Praga Północ and Praga PoÅ‚udnie Pragas market, Jan Piotr Norblin, 1791. ... General Zygmunt Berling Zygmunt Henryk Berling (27 April 1896 - 11 July 1980), Polish general and politician, most known as the commander of the 1st Polish Army during the Second World War. ... Polish flag over Berlin. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


The Germans intensified their attacks on the Home Army positions near the river to prevent any further landings, which could seriously compromise their line of defence, but weren't able to made any significant advances for several days, while Polish forces held those vital positions in preparation for new expected wave of Soviet landings. Polish units from the eastern shore attempted several more landings, and during the next few days sustained heavy losses (including destruction of all landing boats and most of other river crossing equipment). Other Soviet units limited their assistance to sporadic and insignificant artillery and air support.


Shortly after the Berling landings, the Soviets decide to postpone all plans for a river crossing in Warsaw "for at least 4 months" and soon afterwards general Berling was relieved of his command. On the night of September 19, after no further attempts from the other side of the river were made and the promised evacuation of wounded did not take place, Home Army soldiers and landed elements of Wojsko Polskie were forced to begin a retreat from their positions on the bank of the river. September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ...


Out of approximately 3,000 men who made it ashore only around 900 made it back to the eastern shores of Vistula, approximately 600 of them seriously wounded. The Vistula (Polish: Wisła) is the longest river in Poland. ...


Closed or destroyed military archives

A grave of a Hungarian honved captain and 6 of his men who fell fighting on the Polish side during the Uprising
A grave of a Hungarian honved captain and 6 of his men who fell fighting on the Polish side during the Uprising

Research into the lack of support of the Warsaw Uprising is (according to historians such as Norman Davies) currently very difficult due to lack of access to archives. For records related to the period, currently both the United Kingdom archives and Russian archives (where the majority of Soviet archives are kept) remain mostly closed to the public. Further complicating the matter is the United Kingdom's claim that they accidentally destroyed the archives of the Polish Government in Exile[7]. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 3400 KB) A grave of capt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 3400 KB) A grave of capt. ... The Honvéd was a specifically Hungarian army within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, distinct from the Austrian Landwehr. ... Prof. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile was the government of Poland after the German occupation of Poland in September 1939. ...


See also

Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Antoni Chruściel, Tadeusz Pełczyński Erich von dem Bach, Rainer Stahel, Heinz Reinefarth, Bronislav Kaminski Strength 50,000 troops 25,000 troops Casualties 18,000 killed, 12,000 wounded, 15,000 taken prisoner 250,000 civilians killed 10,000 killed... The Battle of Radzymin was a clash between the Red Army and the Wehrmacht that happened between August 1 and August 10 near the town of Radzymin in the vicinity of Warsaw. ...

External link

  • Britain and the Warsaw Rising - and article by N. Davies

Prof. ...

Notes:

  1. ^ CNN Presents: The Warsaw Uprising. CNN. Retrieved on March 15, 2006.
  2. ^ www.rkka.ru - Map of 2nd Tank Army operations around Warsaw - 1-5 August, 1944 map
  3. ^ The Soviet Conduct of Tactical Maneuver: Spearhead of the Offensive by David M Glantz. Map of the front lines on August 3, 1944 - Google book search
  4. ^ ibid, Google book search result
  5. ^ Map of 2nd Tank Army operations map
  6. ^ SS: The Waffen-SS War in Russia 1941-45 Relevant page viewable via Google book search
  7. ^ Rising 44, Norman Davies, Pan Books, 2004, ISBN 0330488635, Chapter VII: Stalinist Repression, Page 528, "[the post Communist Polish Government was] told that the files had been 'inadvertently destroyed'"; Davies refers to http://www.archiwa.gov.pl/kronika as the place a report on the subject should be delivered in 2003, but that link appears dead.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Warsaw Uprising (12657 words)
Warsaw surrounded by the Soviet Army and in the city the uprising.
Warsaw is burning, her people are dying and somehow our allies don't seem to be in a hurry.
From the moment when the uprising began the roles were reversed; the underground army came into the open and the civilian population went to the underground.
Korbonski - The Warsaw Uprising (1426 words)
A successful outcome of the uprising was not in the interest of Moscow, because it was bound to bring demands totally incompatible with Moscow's intended course of action.
On August 14, General Bor ordered the Home Army units outside of Warsaw to come to the rescue of the fighting capital; these units were intercepted by the Soviets on their way to Warsaw, disarmed and interned (e.g., detachments of the 3rd, the 9th, the 10th, and the 30th infantry divisions).
Throughout the uprising, the official Soviet TASS agency and other organs of Soviet propaganda deluged the world with mendacious information about the uprising, starting with claims that there was no rising in Warsaw at all and ending with assertions that the High Command of the Home Army wanted no Soviet help whatsoever.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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