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Encyclopedia > Lachish

Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). This town was first mentioned in the Amarna letters as Lakisha (EA 287, 288, 328, 329, 335). The Israelites captured and destroyed Lachish for joining the league against the Gibeonites (Josh. 10:31-33), but the territory was later assigned to the tribe of Judah (15:39). Shephelah (Hebrew: הַשְפֵלָה) - which means lowland - is a designation usually applied to the region of low hills between Israels central mountain range and the coastal plains of Philistia. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Amarna letters is the name popularly given to a cache of correspondence, mostly diplomatic, found at Amarna, the modern name for the capital of the Egyptian New Kingdom primarily from the reign of pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known as Akhenaten (1369 - 1353 BCE). ... The city of Gibeon in Canaan (about 6 miles north of the center of Jerusalem in the West Bank) was one of the four cities of the Hivites, which did not easily fall to the Hebrews. ... The Tribe of Judah (יְהוּדָה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is one of the Hebrew tribes, founded by Judah son of Jacob. ...


Under Rehoboam, it became the second most important city of Israel. In 701 BC, during the revolt of king Hezekiah against Assyria, it was captured by Sennacherib despite determined resistance. The town later came under the control of the kings of Judah, only to fall to Nebuchadnezzar in his campaign against Judah (586 BC). Rehoboam was king of Judah, succeeding his father Solomon. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Hezekiah (which means whom God has strengthened) was king of Judah, the son of Ahaz (2 Kings 18:1; 2 Chronicles 29:1). ... Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the city of Ashur. ... Sennacherib in his chariot Sennacherib (in Akkadian Sin-ahhe-eriba, Sin (the moon god) has taken the place of brothers to me) was the son of Sargon II, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (705 BC–681 BC). ... The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC Events and Trends 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt 588 BC _ Nebuchadnezzar II of...


During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Lachish was identified with Tell el-Hesy from a cuneiform tablet found there (EA 333). The tablet is a letter from an Egyptian official named Paapu, reporting cases of treachery involving a local kinglet, Zimredda. Excavations at Tell el-Hesy were conducted by Petrie and Bliss for the Palestine Exploration Fund during the years 1890 - 1893, and among other discoveries was the remains of what was identified as an iron blast furnace, with slag and ashes, which was dated to 1500 BC. If the theories of experts are correct, the use of the hot-air blast instead of cold air was known at an extremely early age. A British society founded in 1865 by a group of Biblical archaeologists. ... A blast furnace is a type of furnace for smelting whereby the combustion material and ore are supplied with air from the bottom of the chamber such that the chemical reaction does not take place only at the surface. ... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been...


More recent excavations have identified Tell ed-Duweir as Lachish beyond reasonable doubt. Excavation campaigns by James Leslie Starkey recovered a number of ostraca (18 in 1935, three more in 1938) from the latest occupational level immediately before the Chaldean siege. They form the only known corpus of documents in classical Hebrew. Chaldea was a nation in the southern portion of Babylonia, Lower Mesopotamia, lying chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but commonly used to refer to the whole of the Mesopotamian plain. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ...


Another major contribution to Biblical archaeology from excavations at Lachish are the LMLK seals, which were stamped on the handles of a particular form of ancient storage jar. More of these artifacts were found at this site (over 400; Ussishkin, 2004, pp. 2151-9) than any other place in Israel (Jerusalem remains in second place with more than 300). Most of them were collected from the surface during Starkey's excavations, but others were found in Level 1 (Persian and Greek era), Level 2 (period preceding Babylonian conquest by Nebuchadnezzar), and Level 3 (period preceding Assyrian conquest by Sennacherib). It is thanks to the work of David Ussishkin's team working at the site from 1973 - 1994 that eight of these stamped jars were restored (Ussishkin, 1983), thereby demonstrating lack of relevance between the jar volumes (which deviated as much as 5 gallons or 12 litres), and also proving their relation to the reign of Biblical king Hezekiah. Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible. ... LMLK seals were stamped on the handles of large storage jars in and around Jerusalem during the reign of King Hezekiah (circa 700 BC) based on several complete jars found in situ buried under a destruction layer caused by Sennacherib at Lachish. ... Jerusalem (31°46′ N 35°14′ E; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim; Arabic: القدس al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ... Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the city of Ashur. ... Sennacherib in his chariot Sennacherib (in Akkadian Sin-ahhe-eriba, Sin (the moon god) has taken the place of brothers to me) was the son of Sargon II, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (705 BC–681 BC). ... The gallon (abbr. ... The litre (spelled liter in American English) is a metric unit of volume. ... Hezekiah (which means whom God has strengthened) was king of Judah, the son of Ahaz (2 Kings 18:1; 2 Chronicles 29:1). ...


References

  • Grena, G.M. (2004). LMLK--A Mystery Belonging to the King vol. 1. Redondo Beach, California: 4000 Years of Writing History. ISBN 0-9748786-0-X.
  • Ussishkin, David (1983). "Excavations at Tel Lachish 1978-1983, second preliminary report". Tel Aviv 10 (2): 160-3.
  • Ussishkin, David (2004). The Renewed Archaeological Excavations at Lachish (1973 - 1994) Volume 4. Tel Aviv, Israel: Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University. ISBN 965-5-266-017.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lachish (859 words)
The king of Lachish was one of the five kings of the Canaanites who fought against Joshua at the city of Gibeon and who were killed at the cave of Makkedah (Joshua 10:23).
In Middle Bronze II Lachish was an important Canaanite fortress, protected by a glacis and a moat.
After the Captivity, although the region of Lachish was part of the Persian province of Idumaea, returning Jews resettled the city (Nehemiah 11:30).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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