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Encyclopedia > Labyrinth
Classical labyrinth.
Medieval labyrinth.
Walking the famous labyrinth on floor of Chartres Cathedral.
Chakravyuha, a threefold seed pattern with a spiral at the centre, one of the troop formations employed at the battle of Kurukshetra, as recounted in the Mahabharata.
I'itoi, the "Man in the Maze", a popular design in Native American basketry.

The term labyrinth is often used interchangeably with maze, but modern scholars of the subject use a stricter definition. For them, a maze is a tour puzzle in the form of a complex branching passage with choices of path and direction; while a single-path ("unicursal") labyrinth has only a single Eulerian path to the center. A labyrinth has an unambiguous through-route to the center and back and is not designed to be difficult to navigate. Public hedge maze in the English Garden at SchÃ¶nbusch Park, Aschaffenburg, Germany A small maze A maze is a tour puzzle in the form of a complex branching passage through which the solver must find a route. ... A puzzle is a problem or enigma that challenges ingenuity. ... The KÃ¶nigsberg Bridges graph In the mathematical field of graph theory, an Eulerian path is a path in a graph which visits each edge exactly once. ...

This unicursal design was wide-spread in artistic depictions of the Minotaur's Labyrinth even though both logic and literary descriptions of it make it clear that the Minotaur was trapped in a multicursal maze.[2] Logic (from Classical Greek Î»ÏŒÎ³Î¿Ï‚ logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ...

A labyrinth can be represented both symbolically and/or physically. Symbolically it is represented in art or designs on pottery, as body art, etched on walls of caves, etc. Physical representations are common throughout the world, and are generally constructed on the ground so they may be walked along from entry point to center and back again. They have historically been used in both group ritual and for private meditation. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Complex Kadakali makeup is a form of body art Body art is art made on, with, or consisting of, the human body. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ...

## Ancient labyrinths GA_googleFillSlot("encyclopedia_square");

Pliny's Natural History mentions four ancient labyrinths: the Cretan labyrinth, an "Egyptian labyrinth", a "Lemnian labyrinth" and an "Italian labyrinth". Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ...

"Labyrinth" is a word of pre-Greek ("Pelasgian") origin absorbed by classical Greek, and is perhaps related to the Lydian "labrys" ("double-edged axe," a symbol of royal power, which fits with the theory that the labyrinth was originally the royal Minoan palace on Crete and meant "palace of the double-axe"), with -inthos connoting "place" (as in "Corinth"). The complex palace of Knossos in Crete is usually implicated, though the actual dancing-ground, depicted in frescoed patterns at Knossos, has not been found. Something was being shown to visitors as a labyrinth at Knossos in the 1st century AD (Philostratos, De vita Apollonii Tyanei iv.34, noted in Kerenyi, p 101 n. 171) Ancient Greek writers used the name Pelasgian to refer to groups of people who preceded the Greeks and dwelt in several locations in mainland Greece, Crete, and other regions of the Aegean as neighbors of the Hellenes. ... Lydian was an Indo-European language, one of the Anatolian languages, that was spoken in the city-state of Lydia in Anatolia, present day Turkey. ... Minoan symbolic labrys of gold, 2nd millennium BC: many have been found in the sacred cave of Arkalochori on Crete) Labrys is the term for a doubleheaded axe, known to the Classical Greeks as pelekus Ï€Î­Î»ÎµÎºÏ…Ï‚ or sagaris (the term for a single-bladed axe being hÄ“mipelekus half-pelekus, e. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: ÎšÏŒÏÎ¹Î½Î¸Î¿Ï‚, KÃ³rinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Engraved portrait of Apollonius of Tyana. ...

Greek mythology did not recall, however, that in Crete there was a Lady who presided over the Labyrinth. A tablet inscribed in Linear B found at Knossos records a gift "to all the gods honey; to the mistress of the labyrinth honey." All the gods together receive as much honey as the Mistress of the Labyrinth alone. "She must have been a Great Goddess", Kerenyi observes (Kerenyi 1976 p 91). This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... A Mother Goddess is a goddess portrayed as the Earth Mother who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ...

That the Cretan labyrinth had been a dancing-ground and was made for Ariadne rather than for Minos was remembered by Homer in Iliad xviii.590–593 where, in the pattern that Hephaestus inscribed on Achilles' shield, one incident pictured was a dancing-ground "like the one that Daedalus designed in the spacious town of Knossos for Ariadne of the lovely locks". Even the labyrinth dance was depicted on the shield, where "youths and marriageable maidens were dancing on it with their hands on one another's wrists... circling as smoothly on their accomplished feet as the wheel of a potter...and there they ran in lines to meet each other." Drinking scene with Dionysus and Ariadne on his lap. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Hephaestus, Greek god of forging, riding a Donkey; Greek drinking cup (skyphos) made in the 5th century BC Hephaestus (IPA pronunciation: or ; Greek HÃªphaistos) was the Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology including, specifically blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and...

The labyrinth is the referent in the familiar Greek patterns of the endlessly running meander, to give the "Greek key" its common modern name. In the 3rd century BCE coins from Knossos were still struck with the labyrinth symbol. The predominant labyrinth form during this period is the simple 7-circuit style known as the classical labyrinth. Meander pavement in the streets of Rhodes In art and architecture, a meander is a decorative border constructed from a continuous line, shaped into a repeated motif. ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy...

The term labyrinth came to be applied to any unicursal maze, whether of a particular circular shape (illustration) or rendered as square. At the center, a decisive turn brought one out again. In the Socratic dialogue that Plato produced as Euthydemus, Socrates describes the labyrinthine line of a logical argument: PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus (230-200 B.C.) Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and possible Satrap of Sogdiana, who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 BC according to Polybius. ... This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ...

 “ Then it seemed like falling into a labyrinth: we thought we were at the finish, but our way bent round and we found ourselves as it were back at the beginning, and just as far from that which we were seeking at first. Thus the present-day notion of a labyrinth as a place where one can lose [his] way must be set aside. It is a confusing path, hard to follow without a thread, but, provided [the traverser] is not devoured at the midpoint, it leads surely, despite twists and turns, back to the beginning. (Kerenyi, p. 91.) ”

### Herodotus' "Egyptian labyrinth"

Even more generally, "labyrinth" might be applied to any extremely complicated maze-like structure. Herodotus, in Book II of his Histories, describes as a "labyrinth" a building complex in Egypt, "near the place called the City of Crocodiles," that he considered to surpass the pyramids in its astonishing ambition: Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos HalikarnÄsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... Crocodilopolis or Krokodilopolis (Greek: ) or Ptolemais Euergetis or Arsinoe (Greek: ) was an ancient city in the Heptanomis, Egypt, the capital of Arsinoites nome, on the western bank of the Nile, between the river and the Lake Moeris, southwest of Memphis, in lat. ...

 “ It has twelve covered courts — six in a row facing north, six south — the gates of the one range exactly fronting the gates of the other. Inside, the building is of two storeys and contains three thousand rooms, of which half are underground, and the other half directly above them. I was taken through the rooms in the upper storey, so what I shall say of them is from my own observation, but the underground ones I can speak of only from report, because the Egyptians in charge refused to let me see them, as they contain the tombs of the kings who built the labyrinth, and also the tombs of the sacred crocodiles. The upper rooms, on the contrary, I did actually see, and it is hard to believe that they are the work of men; the baffling and intricate passages from room to room and from court to court were an endless wonder to me, as we passed from a courtyard into rooms, from rooms into galleries, from galleries into more rooms and thence into yet more courtyards. The roof of every chamber, courtyard, and gallery is, like the walls, of stone. The walls are covered with carved figures, and each court is exquisitely built of white marble and surrounded by a colonnade. ”

### Pliny's "Lemnian labyrinth"

Pliny's Natural History (36.90) lists the legendary Smilis, reputed to be a contemporary of Daedalus, together with the historical mid sixth-century BCE architects and sculptors Rhoikos and Theodoros as two of the makers of the "Lemnian labyrinth", which Andrew Stewart (One Hundred Greek Sculptors: Their Careers and Extant Works, "Smilis") regards as "evidently a misunderstanding of the Samian temple's location en limnais, "in the marsh". Smilis was a Greek sculptor of legend, the contemporary of Daedalus, whose name was associated with the archaic cult figure of Hera at Samos (Pausanias, Description of Greece 7. ...

### Pliny's "Italian labyrinth"

According to Pliny, the tomb of the great Etruscan general Lars Porsena contained an underground maze. Pliny's description of the exposed portion of the tomb is intractable; Pliny, it seems clear, had not observed this structure himself, but is quoting the historian and Roman antiquarian Varro. Lars Porsena (sometimes spelled Lars Porsenna) was an Etruscan king known for his war against the city of Rome. ... Marcus Terentius Varro ([[116 BC]&#8211;27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer, who the Romans came to call the most learned of all the Romans. ...

### Ancient labyrinths outside Europe

At about the same time as the appearance of the Greek labyrinth, a topologically identical pattern appeared in Native American culture, the Tohono O'odham labyrinth which features I'itoi, the "Man in the Maze". The Tonoho O'odham pattern has two distinct differences from the Greek: it is radial in design, and the entrance is at the top, where traditional Greek labyrinths have the entrance at the bottom (see below). This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Tohono Oodham are a Native American tribe formerly known as the Papago who reside primarily in the Sonoran Desert of the southwest United States and northwest Mexico. ... Iitoi, the Man in the Maze, a popular design in basketry of the Pima Iitoi is the michievous creator god who resides in a cave just below the peak of Baboquivari Mountain, part of the Tohono Oodham Indian Nation. ...

A prehistoric petroglyph on a riverbank in Goa shows the same pattern and has been dated to circa 2500 BCE. Other examples have been found among cave art in northern India and on a dolmen shrine in the Nilgiri Mountains, but are difficult to date accurately. Early labyrinths in India all follow the Classical pattern; some have been described as plans of forts or cities [1]. Labyrinths appear in Indian manuscripts and Tantric texts from the 17th century onward. They are often called "Chakravyuha" in reference to an impregnable battle formation described in the ancient Mahabharata epic. For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Map of The Nilgiris district The Nilgiris or Blue Mountains are a range of mountains and a district in the south-Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Chakravyuha is an army formation mentioned in the Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...

## Labyrinth as pattern

In antiquity the less complicated labyrinth pattern familiar from medieval examples was already developed. In Roman floor mosaics the simple classical labyrinth is framed in the meander border pattern, squared off as the medium requires, but still recognisable. Often an image of a bull-man, a minotaur, appears in the centre of these mosaic labyrinths. Roman meander patterns gradually developed in complexity towards the fourfold shape that is now familiarly known as the medieval form. The labyrinth retains its connection with death and a triumphant return: at Hadrumentum in North Africa (now Sousse), a Roman family tomb has a fourfold labyrinth mosaic floor, with a dying Minotaur in the center and a mosaic inscription: HICINCLUSUS.VITAMPERDIT "Enclosed here, he loses life" (Kerenyi, fig.31). In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Greek: ÎœÎ¹Î½ÏŒÏ„Î±Ï…ÏÎ¿Ï‚, MinÃ³tauros) was a creature that was said to be part man and part bull. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Hadrumetum was a Phoenician colony earlier than Carthage, and was already an important town when the latter rose to greatness. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... View from the Abou Nawas Hotel over to the main beach in Sousse (Bou Jaafar) The Grand Mosque of Sousse, Tunisia, as seen from the tower of the Ribat The Ribat of Sousse Sousse (Arabic Ø³ÙˆØ³Ø© Susa), is a city of Tunisia. ...

## Medieval labyrinths and "turf mazes"

The full flowering of the medieval labyrinth design came about during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries with the grand pavement labyrinths of the gothic cathedrals, most notably Chartres and Amiens in Northern France and the Duomo di Siena in Tuscany. It is this version of the design that is thought to be the inspiration for the many secular turf mazes in the UK, such as survive at Wing, Rutland, Hilton, Cambridgeshire, Alkborough (North Lincolnshire), and at Saffron Walden in Essex. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres, French: CathÃ©drale Notre-Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles (80 km) from Paris, is considered one of the finest examples in all France of the Gothic style of architecture. ... The cathedral in Amiens Close-up of a stained glass window The Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens (French: CathÃ©drale Notre-Dame dAmiens), or just Amiens Cathedral, is the tallest complete cathedral in France with the greatest interior volume, estimated at 200,000 mÂ³. The vaults of the... Duomo di Siena is the medieval cathedral of Siena, Italy. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Walking the turf maze at Wing, Rutland Historically, a turf maze is a labyrinth made by cutting a convoluted path into a level area of short grass, turf or lawn. ... Wing is a small village in the county of Rutland in the East Midlands of England. ... Map sources for Hilton, Cambridgeshire at grid reference TL289661 Hilton is a village in Cambridgeshire, England, about 11 miles (18 km) northwest of Cambridge. ... Alkborough is an English village of about 450 people in North Lincolnshire, located in an isolated but attractive position near the northern end of the Cliff range of hills overlooking the point called Trent Falls, where the Rivers Trent and Ouse join to form the River Humber. ... St Clements Church, Worlaby North Lincolnshire is a unitary authority in the region of Yorkshire and the Humber in England. ... Saffron Walden is a small market town in the Uttlesford district of Essex, England. ... This article is about the county of Essex in England. ...

Over the same period some 500 or more non-ecclesiastical labyrinths were constructed in Scandinavia. These labyrinths, generally in coastal areas, are marked out with stones most often in the simple classical form. They often have names which translate as "Troy Town". They are thought to have been constructed by early fishing communities, to trap malevolent trolls/winds in the labyrinth's coils in order to ensure a safe fishing expedition. There are also stone labyrinths on the Isles of Scilly, although none of them is known to date back as far as the Scandinavian ones. Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... The City of Troy near Dalby, North Yorkshire, is said to be Europes smallest turf maze Many turf mazes in England were named Troy Town, Troy-town or variations on that theme (such as Troy, The City of Troy Troys Walls or The Walls of Troy) presumably because... Trolls with an abducted princess (John Bauer, 1915). ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ...

There are remarkable examples of the labyrinth shape from a whole range of ancient and disparate cultures. The symbol has appeared in all its forms and media (petroglyphs, classic-form, medieval-form, pavement, turf and basketry) at some time, throughout most parts of the world, from Java, Native North and South America, Australia, India and Nepal. Petroglyphs on Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument, southern Utah, USA Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surfaces by incising, pecking, carving, and abrading. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

## Modern labyrinths

Labyrinth at St. Lambertus, Mingolsheim, Germany.
Labyrinth on floor of Grace Cathedral, San Francisco.

Countless computer games depict mazes and labyrinths. A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ...

On bobsled, luge, and skeleton tracks, a labyrinth is where there are three to four curves in succession without a straight line in between any of the turns. Bobsleigh is a winter sport in which teams make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked purpose-built iced tracks in a gravity-powered, steerable sled. ... Icon of Luge at the 2006 Winter Olympics A luge is small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine and feet-first. ... United States Air Force Major Brady Canfield, 2003 U.S. skeleton champion, shows his takeoff form. ...

### Modern takes on Greek labyrinth

In modern imagery, the labyrinth is often confused with the maze, in which one may become lost. Public hedge maze in the English Garden at SchÃ¶nbusch Park, Aschaffenburg, Germany A small maze A maze is a tour puzzle in the form of a complex branching passage through which the solver must find a route. ...

The myth of the labyrinth has in recent times found incarnation in a stage play by Ilinka Crvenkovska which explores notions of a man's ability to control his own fate. Theseus in an act of suicide is killed by the Minotaur, who is himself killed by the horrified townspeople. Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Greek: ÎœÎ¹Î½ÏŒÏ„Î±Ï…ÏÎ¿Ï‚, MinÃ³tauros) was a creature that was said to be part man and part bull. ...

The Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges was entranced with the idea of the labyrinth, and used it extensively in his short stories. His use of it has inspired other authors' works (e.g. Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose, Mark Z. Danielewski's House of Leaves). Additionally, Roger Zelazny's fantasy series, The Chronicles of Amber, features a labyrinth, called "the Pattern," which grants those who walk it the power to move between parallel worlds. The avant-garde multi-screen film, In the Labyrinth, presents a search for meaning in a symbolic modern labyrinth. Jorge Luis Borges (August 24, 1899 â€“ June 14, 1986) was an Argentine writer. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... The Name of the Rose, a novel by Umberto Eco, is a murder mystery set in an Italian monastery in the year 1327. ... House of Leaves is the debut novel by the American author writer Mark Z. Danielewski, published by Pantheon Books (ISBN 0-375-70376-4). ... Roger Joseph Zelazny (May 13, 1937 â€“ June 14, 1995) was an American writer of fantasy and science fiction short stories and novels. ... The Chronicles of Amber is a popular fantasy series by Roger Zelazny. ... In the Labyrinth was a groundbreaking multi-screen presentation at Expo 67. ...

The labyrinth is also an important subject in contemporary fine arts. Remarkable 20th-century examples include Piet Mondrian's Dam and Ocean (1915), Joan Miro's Labirynth (1923), Pablo Picasso's Minotauromachia (1935), M.C. Escher's Relativity (1953), Friedensreich Hundertwasser's Labyrinth (1957), Jean Dubuffet's Logological Cabinet (1970), Richard Long's Connemara sculpture (1971), Joe Tilson's Earth Maze (1975), Richard Fleischner's Chain Link Maze (1978), István Orosz's Atlantis Anamorphosis (2000), and Dmitry Rakov's Labyrinth (2003). Fine art is a term used to refer to fields traditionally considered to be artistic. ... It has been suggested that Survey of the twentieth century, The 20th century in review be merged into this article or section. ... Piet Mondrian in his studio in 1941 photographed by Arnold Newman Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian, (pronounced: Pete Mon-dree-on, IPA: ) (b. ... Joan Miró (April 20, 1893 - December 25, 1983) was a painter, sculptor and ceramist born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... â€œPicassoâ€ redirects here. ... Hand with Reflecting Sphere (Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror), 1935. ... Hundertwasser (left) 1965 in Hannover Hundertwasser 1998 in New Zealand Friedensreich Regentag Dunkelbunt Hundertwasser (born Friedrich Stowasser December 15, 1928 â€“ February 19, 2000) was an Austrian painter, and sculptor. ... Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (July 31, 1901 - May 12, 1985) was a French artist. ... Detail of Riverlines installed in the lobby of the Hearst Tower (New York City) Richard Long (born June 2, 1945) is an English sculptor, photographer and painter, one of the best known British land artists. ... Connemara (Irish Conamara), which derives from Conmhaicne Mara (meaning: descendants of Con Mhac, of the sea), is a district in the west of Ireland (County Galway). ... IstvÃ¡n Orosz (b. ...

## Cultural meanings

Prehistoric labyrinths are believed to have served as traps for malevolent spirits or as defined paths for ritual dances. In medieval times, the labyrinth symbolized a hard path to God with a clearly defined center (God) and one entrance (birth). Prehistory (Greek words &#960;&#961;&#959; = before and &#953;&#963;&#964;&#959;&#961;&#943;&#945; = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ...

Labyrinths can be thought of as symbolic forms of pilgrimage; people can walk the path, ascending toward salvation or enlightenment. Many people could not afford to travel to holy sites and lands, so labyrinths and prayer substituted for such travel. Later the religious significance of labyrinths faded, and they served primarily for entertainment, though recently their spiritual aspect has seen a resurgence. This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Many newly-made labyrinths exist today, in churches and parks. Labyrinths are used by modern mystics to help achieve a contemplative state. Walking among the turnings, one loses track of direction and of the outside world, and thus quiets his mind. The result is a relaxed mental attitude, free of internal dialog. This is a form of meditation. Many people believe that meditation has health benefits as well as spiritual benefits. The Labyrinth Society provides a locator for modern labyrinths in North America. For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Look up mystic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...

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## References

1. ^ Penelope Reed Doob, The Idea of the Labyrinth: from Classical Antiquity through the Middle Ages, p 36, ISBN 0-8014-8000-0
2. ^ Penelope Reed Doob, The Idea of the Labyrinth: from Classical Antiquity through the Middle Ages, p 40-1, ISBN 0-8014-8000-0

• Kereny, Karl, 1976. Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life, (Princeton University Press).
• Adrian Fisher & Georg Gerster, The Art of the Maze, Weidenfeld & Nicolson (1990) ISBN 0-297-83027-9
• [W.H. Matthews, 1922. Mazes and Labyrinths: A general Account of Their History and Development (London: Longmans, Green) on-line]
• Jeff Saward, Magical Paths, Mitchell Beazley (2002) ISBN 1-84000-573-4
• W.H. Matthews, Mazes and Labyrinths: Their History and Development (1927). Includes Bibliography. Dover Publications (1970) ISBN 0-486-22614-X
• Henning Eichberg, 2005: Racing in the labyrinth? About some inner contradictions of running. In: Athletics, Society & Identity. Imeros, Journal for Culture and Technology, 5:1) Athen: Foundation of the Hellenic World, 169-192.
• Edward Hays, The Lenten Labyrinth: Daily Reflections for the Journey of Lent, 1994.

One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Labyrinth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1714 words) In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth was an elaborate structure constructed for King Minos of Crete and designed by the legendary artificer Daedalus to hold the Minotaur, a creature that was half man and half bull and which was eventually killed by the Athenian hero Theseus. The term labyrinth is often used interchangeably with maze, but a maze is a tour puzzle in the form of a complex branching passage, with choices of path and direction, while a single-path ("unicursal") labyrinth has only a single, Eulerian path to the centre. Labyrinth is a word of pre-Greek ("Pelasgian") origin absorbed by classical Greek, and is apparently related to labrys, a word for the archaic iconic "double axe", with -inthos connoting "place" (as in "Corinth").
 Labyrinths and Mazes (4042 words) If you walk the labyrinth with the full dedication of a pilgrim, you won't be the same anymore upon exiting: the old you will be grounded at the threshold stone and a purified you will emerge, ready to tackle new directions in your life's journey. These labyrinths were all laid out according to the same basic pattern: twelve rings that enclose a single path meandering path which slowly leads one to the center rosette. Thus, the labyrinth experience is a potent practice of Self-Integration as it encapsulates the spiraling journey in & out of incarnation: on the journey in, towards the center, one cleanses the dirt from the road.
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