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Encyclopedia > Labrador Retriever
Labrador Retriever

This yellow Lab's nose is pink rather than black.
Country of origin Colony of Newfoundland and Labrador, which became a province of Canada in 1949
Nicknames Lab
Labrador

Labby Image File history File linksMetadata YellowLabradorLooking. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...

Traits
Weight Male 27–36 kg (60–80 lb)
Female 25–32 kg (55–70 lb)
Height Male 56–63 cm (22–25 in)
Female 54–60 cm (21–24 in)
Coat Smooth and oily
Color Black, chocolate or yellow
Litter size 10–12 pups
Life span 10–13 years

The Labrador Retriever (also Labrador, Labby or Lab for short), is one of several kinds of retriever, a type of gun dog. The Labrador is considered the most popular breed of dog (by registered ownership) in the world, and is by a large margin the most popular breed by registration in the United States (since 1991)[1] the United Kingdom,[2] Poland, and several other countries.[3] It is also the most popular breed of assistance dog in the United States, Australia, and many other countries, as well as being widely used by police and other official bodies for their detection and working abilities.[4] They are exceptionally affable, gentle, intelligent, energetic and good natured,[3][4][5] making them both excellent companions and working dogs. Although somewhat boisterous if untrained, Labrador Retrievers respond well to praise and positive attention, and are considerably "food and fun" oriented. These dogs are as well loyal and great with little children. They may be used in shows. With training, the Lab is one of the most dependable, obedient and multi-talented breeds in the world.[4][3][6] Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) (English, World Canine Organization), is an international Kennel Club based in Thuin, Belgium. ... © The American Kennel Club (or AKC) is the largest registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States. ... The Australian National Kennel Council (ANKC) is the peak body in Australia responsible for promoting excellence in breeding, showing, trialling, obedience, and other canine-related activities and the ownership of temperamentally and physically sound purebred dogs by responsible individuals across Australia. ... The Canadian Kennel Club (or C.K.C.) is the primary registry body for purebred dog pedigrees in Canada. ... The Kennel Club in the United Kingdom is a club aiming to improve the relationships between dogs and their owners. ... The New Zealand Kennel Club is an organisation responsible for dog pedigree registration services in New Zealand. ... The United Kennel Club (or UKC) is the second oldest all-breed registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States and the second largest in the world. ... A retriever is a type of gundog that retrieves game for a hunter. ... Gundogs, also called bird dogs, are a category of dog breeds developed to assist hunters to find and retrieve game, usually birds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... An assistance dog is a dog trained to help a person with a disability. ... A working dog refers to a dog that performs tasks to assist its human companions. ...

Contents

Description

A black lab
A black lab

Appearance

Labradors are relatively large, with males typically weighing 30–36 kg (65–80 lb) and females 25–32 kg (55–70 lb) under AKC standards,[7] but some labs do become overweight and may weigh significantly more. Their coats are short and smooth, and they possess a straight, powerful tail often likened to that of an otter. The majority of the characteristics of this breed, with the exception of colour, are the result of breeding to produce a working retriever. © The American Kennel Club (or AKC) is the largest registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States. ... This article is about the carnivorous mammals. ... A retriever is a type of gundog that retrieves game for a hunter. ...


As with some other breeds, the English (typically "show" or "bench") and the American (typically "working" or "field") lines differ. Today, "English" and "American" lines exist in both the United Kingdom and in North America. In general, however, in the United Kingdom, Labs tend to be bred as medium-sized dogs, shorter and stockier with fuller faces and a slightly calmer nature than their American counterparts, which are regionally often bred as taller, lighter-built dogs. These two types are informal and not codified or standardised; no distinction is made by the AKC or other kennel clubs, but the two types come from different breeding lines. Australian stock also exists; though not seen in the west, they are common in Asia. Other "local minor variants" may also exist in some areas.


The breed tends to shed hair twice annually, or regularly throughout the year in temperate climates.[8] Some labs shed a lot, although individuals vary.[5] Lab hair is usually fairly short and straight, and the tail quite broad and strong. The otter-like tail and webbed toes of the Labrador Retriever make them excellent swimmers. Their interwoven coat is also relatively waterproof, providing more assistance for swimming. The tail acts as a rudder for changing direction. In animals, moulting (Commonwealth English) or molting (American English) is the routine shedding off old feathers in birds, or of old skin in reptiles, or of old hairs in mammals (see also coat (dog)). In arthropods, such as insects, arachnids and crustaceans, moulting describes the shedding of its exoskeleton (which... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... This article is about the carnivorous mammals. ... the feet of a gull showing webbed toes. ...


Show standards

Like any animal, there is a great deal of variety among Labs. These characteristics are typical of the conformation show bred (bench-bred) lines of this breed in the United States, and are based on the AKC standard.[7] Significant differences between US and UK standards are noted. In a conformation show, judges familiar with specific dog breeds evaluate individual dogs for how well they conform to published breed standards. ...

  • Size: Labs are a medium-large but compact breed. They should have an appearance of proportionality. They should be as long from the shoulders back as they are from the floor to the withers. Males should stand 22.5-24.5 inch (55.9-62.5 cm) tall at the withers and weigh 65–80 lb (30–36 kg). Females should stand 21.5–23.5 inch (54.5–60 cm) and weigh 55–70 lb (25–32 kg). By comparison under UK Kennel Club standards, height should be 22–22.5 inch (55.9–57.2 cm) for males, and 21.5–22 inch (54.6–55.9 cm) for bitches.[9]
  • Coat: The Lab's coat should be short and dense, but not wiry. The coat is described as 'water-resistant' or more accurately 'water-repellent' so that the dog does not get cold when taking to water in the winter. That means the dog naturally has a slightly dry, oily coat. Acceptable colours are chocolate, black, and yellow. There is much variance within yellow Labs. Colours should be solid, though varying shades of yellow on the same dog are acceptable in yellow labs. A small white spot on the chest on black labs is the only acceptable variance from a solid colored coat, but it is not ideal.
  • Head: The head should be broad with a pronounced stop and slightly pronounced brow. The eyes should be kind and expressive. Appropriate eye colours are brown and hazel. The lining around the eyes should be black. The ears should hang close to the head and are set slightly above the eyes.
  • Jaws: The jaws should be strong and powerful. The muzzle should be of medium length, and should not be too tapered. The jawls should hang slightly and curve gracefully back.
  • Body: The body should be strong and muscular with a level top line.
Chocolate Labrador
Chocolate Labrador

The tail and coat are designated "distinctive [or distinguishing] features" of the Labrador by both the Kennel Club and AKC.[9][7] The AKC adds that "true Labrador Retriever temperament is as much a hallmark of the breed as the 'otter' tail."[7] The withers is the highest point on an animals back, on the ridge between its shoulder blades. ... Look up bitch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Color

There are three recognised colours for Labs:[7] black (a solid black colour), yellow (anything from light cream to gold to "fox-red"), and chocolate (medium to dark brown).


Puppies of all colours can potentially occur in the same litter. Colour is determined primarily by two genes. The first gene (the B locus) determines the density of the coat's pigment granules: dense granules result in a black coat, sparse ones give a chocolate coat. The second (E) locus determines whether the pigment is produced at all. A dog with the recessive e allele will produce little pigment and will be yellow regardless of its genotype at the B locus.[10] Variations in numerous other genes control the subtler details of the coat's colouration, which in yellow Labs varies from white to light gold to a fox red. Chocolate and black Labs' noses will match the coat colour. A litter of pigs A litter is a group of newly born, young animals from the same mother and usually from one set of parents. ...


Nose and skin pigmentation

Because Lab colouration is controlled by multiple genes, it is possible for recessive genes to emerge some generations later and also there can sometimes be unexpected pigmentation effects to different parts of the body. Pigmentation effects appear in regard to yellow Labs, and sometimes chocolate, and hence the majority of this section covers pigmentation within the yellow Lab. The most common places where pigmentation is visible are the nose, lips, gums, feet,tails, and the rims of the eyes, which may be black, brown, light yellow-brown ("liver", caused by having two genes for chocolate),[11] or several other colours. A Lab can carry genes for a different colour, for example a black Lab can carry recessive chocolate and yellow genes, and a yellow Lab can carry recessive genes for the other two colours. DNA testing can reveal some aspects of these. Less common pigmentations (other than pink) are a fault, not a disqualification, and hence such dogs are still permitted to be shown.[11] For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ... In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ... Genetic fingerprinting or DNA testing is a technique to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. Its invention by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester was announced in 1985. ...


The intensity of black pigment on yellow Labs is controlled by a separate gene independent of the fur colouring.[11] Yellow Labs usually have black noses, which may gradually turn pink with age (called "snow nose" or "winter nose"). This is due to a reduction in the enzyme tyrosinase which indirectly controls the production of melanin, a dark colouring. Tyrosinase is temperature dependent—hence light colouration can be seasonal, due to cold weather—and is less produced with increasing age two years old onwards. As a result, the nose colour of most yellow Labs becomes a somewhat pink shade as they grow older.[11] Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Tyrosinase (monophenol monooxygenase) (EC 1. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ...

A seven-week-old Dudley Labrador Retriever. The nose and lips are pink or flesh-coloured, the defining aspect of Dudley pigmentation, as compared to the more standard brown or black.
A seven-week-old Dudley Labrador Retriever. The nose and lips are pink or flesh-coloured, the defining aspect of Dudley pigmentation, as compared to the more standard brown or black.

A colouration known as "Dudley" is also possible. Dudleys are variously defined as yellow Labs which have no pigmented (pink) noses (LRC), yellow with liver/chocolate pigmentation (AKC), or "flesh coloured" in addition to having the same colour around the rims of the eye, rather than having black or dark brown pigmentation.[11][8] . A yellow Lab with brown or chocolate pigmentation, for example, a brown or chocolate nose, is not necessarily a Dudley, though according to the AKC's current standard it would be if it has chocolate rims around the eyes (or more accurately of the genotype eebb). Breed standards for Labradors considers a true Dudley to be a disqualifying feature in a conformation show Lab, such as one with a thoroughly pink nose or one lacking in any pigment along with flesh coloured rims around the eyes. True Dudley are extremely rare.[11][12] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Breeding in order to correct pigmentation often lacks dependability. Because colour is determined by many genes, some of which are recessive, crossbreeding a pigmentation non-standard yellow Lab to a black Lab may not correct the matter or prevent future generations carrying the same recessive genes. For similar reasons, crossbreeding chocolate to yellow labs is also often avoided.


Variant lines

These chocolate Labs from field-bred stock are typically lighter in build and have a shorter coat than conformation show Labs.
These chocolate Labs from field-bred stock are typically lighter in build and have a shorter coat than conformation show Labs.

Differences in the physical build of the dog have arisen as a result of specialised breeding. Dogs bred for hunting and field-trial work are selected first for working ability, whereas dogs bred to compete in the sport of conformation showing are selected for the characteristics sought by judges in the show ring. There are significant differences between field and trial-bred (sometimes referred to as "American") and show-bred (or "English") lines of Labradors. In general, show-bred Labs are heavier, slightly shorter-bodied, and have a thicker coat and tail. Field Labs are generally longer legged, lighter, and more lithe in build. In the head, show Labs tend to have broader heads, better defined stops, and more powerful necks, while field Labs have lighter and slightly narrower heads with longer muzzles.[13][14] Field-bred Labs are commonly higher energy and more high-strung compared to the Lab bred for conformation showing, and as a consequence may be more suited to working relationships rather than being a "family pet."[13][14] Of course, each individual dog differs. Some breeders, especially those specialising in the field type, feel that breed shows do not adequately recognise their type of dog. There is also occasional debate regarding officially splitting the breed.[15] In the United States, the AKC and the Labrador's breed club have set the breed standard to accommodate the field-bred Labrador somewhat. For instance, the AKC withers-height standards allow conformation dogs to be slightly taller than the equivalent British standard.[16] However, dual champions, or dogs that excel in both the field and the show ring, are becoming more unusual.[17] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In a conformation show, judges familiar with specific dog breeds evaluate individual dogs for how well they conform to published breed standards. ...


Non-variants

Terms such as "golden", "silver", "blue", "white" or "grey" as variants are not recognised. The term "Golden Labrador" has been used both as an incorrect term for yellow labradors of a golden shade,[18] and also for any Labrador-Golden Retriever crossbreed of any colour, including black.[19] White is a light shade of yellow (officially referred to as 'light cream' or 'pale yellow' in the standard),[20][21][22] and silver is either not recognised or registered as chocolate (officially registered by the AKC as chocolate labs with variant colour).[7][20] Claims that some "rare" variants exist or have been verified by DNA testing, or the like, are widely considered to be a 'scam'.[20][23] The Golden Retriever is a large breed of dog, historically developed as a gundog to retrieve shot waterfowl and upland game during hunting. ... A confidence trick, confidence game, or con for short, (also known as a scam) is an attempt to intentionally mislead a person or persons (known as the mark) usually with the goal of financial or other gain. ...


Temperament

A Labrador participating in dog agility
A Labrador participating in dog agility

Labradors are a well-balanced and versatile breed, adaptable to a wide range of functions as well as making very good pets. As a rule they are not excessively prone to being territorial, pining, insecure, aggressive, destructive, hypersensitive, or other difficult traits which sometimes manifest in a variety of breeds, and as the name suggests, they are excellent retrievers. As an extension of this, they instinctively enjoy holding objects and even hands or arms in their mouths, which they can do with great gentleness (a Labrador can carry an egg in its mouth without breaking it)[24]. They are also known to have a very soft feel to the mouth, as a result of being bred to retrieve game such as waterfowl. They are prone to chewing objects (though they can be trained out of this behavior). The Labrador Retriever's coat repels water to some extent, thus facilitating the extensive use of the dog in waterfowl hunting. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 571 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 630 pixel, file size: 125 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A labrador retriever doing the weave poles in dog agility. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 571 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 630 pixel, file size: 125 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A labrador retriever doing the weave poles in dog agility. ... Agility field left side: A competition agility field showing (clockwise from lower left) a tunnel, the dogwalk, the judge standing in front of a winged jump, two additional winged jumps, dog executing the teeter-totter with his handler guiding, and the tire jump. ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... Duck hunters spring from their blind to take a shot at an incoming bird. ...

Labs, like other dogs, may often tend to dig like this 3 month old and are generally very friendly with other dogs, like this German Shepherd.
Labs, like other dogs, may often tend to dig like this 3 month old and are generally very friendly with other dogs, like this German Shepherd.

Labradors have a reputation as a very mellow breed and an excellent family dog (including a good reputation with children of all ages and other animals)[8], but some lines (particularly those that have continued to be bred specifically for their skills at working in the field rather than for their appearance) are particularly fast and athletic. Their fun-loving boisterousness and lack of fear may require training and firm handling at times to ensure it does not get out of hand - an uncontrolled adult can be quite problematic. Females may be slightly more independent than males.[8] Labradors mature at around three years of age; before this time they can have a significant degree of puppyish energy, often mislabeled as being hyperactive.[25][8] Because of their enthusiasm, leash-training early on is suggested to prevent pulling when full-grown.[26] Labs often enjoy retrieving a ball endlessly and other forms of activity (such as agility, frisbee, or flyball). They are considerably "food and fun" oriented, very trainable, and open-minded to new things, and thrive on human attention, affection and interaction, of which they find it difficult to get enough. Reflecting their retrieving bloodlines, almost every Lab loves playing in water or swimming. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 822 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) shot by a wikipedia user. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 822 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) shot by a wikipedia user. ... Country of origin Germany Classification Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC, CKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The German Shepherd Dog (known also as the Alsatian or Schäfer(hund)) is an intelligent breed of dog. ... Hyperactivity can be described as a state in which a person is abnormally easily excitable and exuberant. ... Agility field left side: A competition agility field showing (clockwise from lower left) a tunnel, the dogwalk, the judge standing in front of a winged jump, two additional winged jumps, dog executing the teeter-totter with his handler guiding, and the tire jump. ... A Wham-O Professional Frisbee For the amusement ride, see Frisbee (ride). ... Dogs from two teams race against each other over parallel lines of jumps. ...

This sociable lab pup has become acquainted with a kitten.
This sociable lab pup has become acquainted with a kitten.

Although they will sometimes bark at noise, especially a degree of "alarm barking" when there is noise from unseen sources, Labs are not on the whole noisy[8] or territorial, and are often very easygoing and trusting with strangers, and therefore are not usually suitable as guard dogs.[8] Barking is a noise most commonly produced by dogs. ... Barking is a noise most commonly produced by dogs. ... It has been suggested that intruder be merged into this article or section. ... A guard dog, watch dog, or sentry dog is a dog employed to guard against, or watch for, unwanted or unexpected animals or people. ...


Labradors have a well-known reputation for appetite, and some individuals may be highly indiscriminate, eating digestible and non-food objects alike.[24] They are persuasive and persistent in requesting food. For this reason, the Lab owner must carefully control his/her dog's food intake to avoid obesity and its associated health problems (see below).[24] The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ...


The steady temperament of Labs and their ability to learn make them an ideal breed for search and rescue, detection, and therapy work. Their primary working role in the field continues to be that of a hunting retriever.


Use as working dogs

Labradors are a very popular selection for use as guide dogs.
Labradors are a very popular selection for use as guide dogs.

Labradors are an intelligent breed with a good work ethic and generally good temperaments (breed statistics show that 91.5% of Labradors who were tested passed the American Temperament Test.[27]) Common working roles for Labradors include: hunting, tracking and detection, disabled-assistance, carting, and therapy work.[28] Approximately 60–70% of all guide dogs in the United States are Labradors; other common breeds are Golden Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs.[29] Guide Dog Photography person : MASA Photography day :November, 2002 Photography place :Japanese light house at Osaka City Tsurumi-ku This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Guide Dog Photography person : MASA Photography day :November, 2002 Photography place :Japanese light house at Osaka City Tsurumi-ku This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Labrador Retriever guide dogs resting. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Tracking dogs follow ground scent The use of dogs in search and rescue (SAR) is a valuable component in responding to law enforcement requests for missing persons. ... A detection dog getting ready to search a car for explosives. ... An assistance dog is a dog trained to help a person with a disability. ... Dog cart during Mardi Gras in New Orleans Carting is the dog sport or activity of carting, in which a dog (usually a large breed) pulls a cart filled with supplies, such as farm goods or firewood, but sometimes pulling people. ... Therapy Dog refers to a dog trained to provide affection and comfort to people in hospitals, retirement homes, nursing homes, mental institutions, schools, and stressful situations such as disaster areas. ... A blind man is led by his guide dog in Brasília, Brazil. ... Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC, CKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The Golden Retriever is a relatively modern and very popular breed of dog. ... The German Shepherd Dog or Alsatian (see Breed names), is a popular breed of dog. ...


The high intelligence, initiative and self-direction of Labradors in working roles is evinced by individuals such as Endal, who during a 2001 emergency is believed to be the first dog to have placed an unconscious human being in the recovery position without prior training, then obtaining the human's mobile phone, "thrusting" it by their ear on the ground, then fetching their blanket, before barking at nearby dwellings for assistance.[30] A number of labradors have also taught themselves to assist their owner in removing money and credit cards from ATMs without prior training.[31] It has been suggested that Endal (dog) be merged into this article or section. ... Unconsciousness is the absence of consciousness. ... A form of the recovery position. ... Cash machine redirects here. ...


Health and well-being

Many dogs, including Labs such as this ten year old, show distinct whitening of the coat as they grow older; especially around the muzzle.
Many dogs, including Labs such as this ten year old, show distinct whitening of the coat as they grow older; especially around the muzzle.

Labrador pups should not be brought home before they are 7–10 weeks old. Their life expectancy is generally 12 to 13 years or a few years longer with good medical care[citation needed],[32] and it is a healthy breed with relatively few major problems. Notable issues related to health and wellbeing include: Aging in dogs covers the impact of aging in the domestic dog (Canis Lupus Familiaris), common medical and clinical issues arising, and life expectancy. ...


Inherited disorders

This article is about hip dysplasia, a condition affecting the hip joint, which occurs in humans but is more commonly associated with animals, especially dogs (Canine hip dysplasia). ... Elbow dysplasia is a condition involving multiple developmental abnormalities of the elbow-joint. ... Luxating patella, or trick knee, is a condition in which the patella, or kneecap, dislocates or moves out of its normal location. ... Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a genetic disease of the retina that occurs bilaterally and is seen in certain breeds of dogs. ... Cataract is also used to mean a waterfall or where the flow of a river changes dramatically. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Retinal dysplasia is an eye disease affecting the retina of animals. ... Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ... In medicine, a myopathy is a neuromuscular disease in which the muscle fibers do not function for any one of many reasons, resulting in muscular weakness. ... A muscle fiber (American usage) or muscle fibre (British usage) is a single cell of a muscle. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... This article discusses the way the word deaf is used and how deafness is perceived by hearing and Deaf communities. ...

Other disorders

Labs are sometimes prone to ear infection, because their floppy ears trap warm moist air. This is easy to control, but needs regular checking to ensure that a problem is not building up unseen. A healthy Lab ear should look clean and light pink (almost white) inside. Darker pink (or inflamed red), or brownish deposits, are a symptom of ear infection. The usual treatment is regular cleaning daily or twice daily (being careful not to force dirt into the sensitive inner ear) and sometimes medication (ear drops) for major cases. As a preventative measure, some owners clip the hair carefully around the ear and under the flap, to encourage better air flow. Labradors also get cases of allergic reactions to food or other environmental factors. Pustules, small raw circles or patches in a dogs ear, typical of some kinds of otitis of bacterial infection. ...


Obesity

Labs are often overfed and are allowed to become overweight, due to their blatant enjoyment of treats, hearty appetites, and endearing behavior towards people. Lack of activity is also a contributing factor. A healthy Lab should keep a very slight hourglass waist and be fit and light, rather than fat or heavy-set. Excessive weight is strongly implicated as a risk factor in the later development of hip dysplasia or other joint problems and diabetes, and also can contribute to general reduced health when older. Osteoarthritis is commonplace in older, especially overweight, Labs. This article is about the medical term. ... This article is about hip dysplasia, a condition affecting the hip joint, which occurs in humans but is more commonly associated with animals, especially dogs (Canine hip dysplasia). ... Diabetes mellitus strikes 1 in 400 cats and a similar number of dogs, though recent veterinary studies[1] note that it is becoming more common lately. ... Osteoarthritis (OA, also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease), is a condition in which low-grade inflammation results in pain in the joints, caused by abnormal wearing of the cartilage that covers and acts as a cushion inside joints and destruction or decrease of synovial fluid that lubricates those...


Exploration

Labradors are not especially renowned for escapology. They do not typically jump high fences or dig. Because of their personalities, some Labs climb and/or jump for their own amusement. As a breed they are highly intelligent and capable of intense single-mindedness and focus if motivated or their interest is caught. Therefore, with the right conditions and stimuli, a bored Lab could "turn into an escape artist par excellence".[38][8] Harry Houdini, a famous escapologist and magician. ...


Labradors as a breed are curious, exploratory and love company, following both people and interesting scents for food, attention and novelty value. In this way, they can often "vanish" or otherwise become separated from their owners with little fanfare.[39] They are also popular dogs if found, and at times may be stolen.[40] Because of this a number of dog clubs and rescue organisations (including the UK's Kennel Club) consider it good practice that Labradors are microchipped, with the owner's name and address also on their collar and tags.[41][39] A microchip is an identifying integrated circuit placed under the skin of a dog, cat, or other animal. ...


Significant crossbreeds

The "Labradoodle" is a popular "designer dog" that combines a Labrador with a Poodle, to create a hybrid that is more suited to allergy sufferers. A Labradoodle is a crossbred or hybrid dog created by crossing the Labrador Retriever and the Standard or Miniature Poodle. ... For the political insult see poodle (insult). ... This dog is cross between a pointer and a dalmatian. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ...


Some assistant-dog groups also like using Golden Retriever / Labrador Retriever hybrids (officially called a Golden Labrador Retriever) in hopes of having dogs with fewer genetic problems. Naturally it is important to use dogs from good stocks since crossbreeds are not immune to such problems and since Golden Retrievers and Labradors have some of the same health problems. The Golden Retriever is a large breed of dog, historically developed as a gundog to retrieve shot waterfowl and upland game during hunting. ...


Another significant crossbreed of the Labrador Retriever is the Labradinger, which combines a Labrador with an English Springer Spaniel. This breed is generally smaller and is recognized by the American Canine Hybrid Club The English Springer Spaniel is a breed of gun dog traditionally used for flushing and retrieving game. ...


The assistance dog organisation Mira utilises Labrador-Bernese Mountain Dog crosses ("Labernese") with success.[42] The Mira Foundation (Fondation Mira) is a French-Canadian community-based organization which pursues the following stated objective: to bring greater autonomy to handicapped people and to facilitate their social integration by providing them with [guide and service] dogs that have been fully trained to accommodate each individuals needs... The Bernese Mountain Dog (also called Berner Sennenhund or Bouvier Bernois) is a versatile breed of farm dog originating in the canton of Berne in Switzerland. ...

Further information: Dog hybrids and crossbreeds

This dog is cross between a pointer and a dalmatian. ...

Demography

The Labrador is an exceptionally popular dog. For example as of 2006: This article lists the most popular dog breeds by registrations. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Widely considered the most popular breed in the world.[43][44][3]
  • Most popular dog by ownership in USA (since 1991),[45][46] UK,[47] Australia,[48] New Zealand[49] and Canada.[50]
  • In both the UK and USA, there are well over twice as many Labradors registered as the next most popular breed.[45][47] If the comparison is limited to dog breeds of a similar size, then there are around 3 - 5 times as many Labradors registered in both countries as the next most popular breeds, the German Shepherd and Golden Retriever.[45][47]
  • Most popular breed of assistance dog in the United States, Australia and many other countries, as well as being widely used by police and other official bodies for their detection and working abilities.[4] Approximately 60–70% of all guide dogs in the United States are Labradors (see below).[29]
  • Seven out of 13 of the Australian National Kennel Council "Outstanding Gundogs" Hall of Fame appointees are Labradors (list covers 2000-2005).[51]

There is no global registry of Labradors, nor detailed information on numbers of Labradors living in each country. The countries with the five largest numbers of Labrador registrations as of 2005 are: 1: United States 2: United Kingdom and France (approximately equal), 4: Sweden, 5: Finland.[52][53] Sweden and Finland have far lower populations than the other three countries, suggesting that as of 2005 these two countries have the highest proportion of labs per million people: Country of origin Germany Classification Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC, CKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The German Shepherd Dog (known also as the Alsatian or Schäfer(hund)) is an intelligent breed of dog. ... The Golden Retriever is a large breed of dog, historically developed as a gundog to retrieve shot waterfowl and upland game during hunting. ... An assistance dog is a dog trained to help a person with a disability. ... A blind man is led by his guide dog in Brasília, Brazil. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Country Population
(millions)
Lab
registrations
Registrations per
million pop.
Finland 5.2 2236 426.0
France 60.5 9281 153.4
Sweden 9.0 5158 570.5
United Kingdom 59.7 18554 311.0
USA 298.2 10833 36.3

Yellow and black labs are registered in very similar numbers; chocolate in lesser numbers.[52][53] Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...

Note: number of registrations is not necessarily the same as number of living dogs at any given time.

History

Nell - A St. John's Dog circa 1856.
Nell - A St. John's Dog circa 1856.

The early Labrador originated on the island of Newfoundland, now part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. [54] The breed emerged over time from the St. John's Water Dog, also an ancestor of the Newfoundland dog (to which the Labrador is closely related), through ad-hoc breedings by early settlers in the mid to late 15th century.[54] The original forebears of the St. John's dog have variously been suggested to be crossbreeds of the black St. Hubert's hound from France, working water dogs from Portugal, old European pointer breeds and dogs belonging to the indigenous peoples of the area.[54] From the St. John's Dog, two breeds emerged; the larger was used for hauling, and evolved into the large and gentle Newfoundland dog, likely as a result of breeding with mastiffs brought to the island by the generations of Portuguese fishermen who had been fishing offshore since the 1400s. The smaller short-coat retrievers used for retrieval and pulling in nets from the water were the forebears of the Labrador Retriever. The white chest, feet, chin, and muzzle characteristic of the St. John's Dog often appears in Lab mixes, and will occasionally manifest in Labs as a small white spot on the chest or stray white hairs on the feet or muzzle. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The St. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The St. ... Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC, CKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The Newfoundland is a large, usually black, breed of dog originally used as a working dog in Canada. ... For other uses, see Bloodhound (disambiguation). ... Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC, CKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The Newfoundland is a large, usually black, breed of dog originally used as a working dog in Canada. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... A healthy mixed-breed dog shows hybrid vigor. ...


The St. John's area of Newfoundland was settled mainly by the English and Irish. Local fishermen originally used the St. John's dog to assist in bringing nets to shore; the dog would grab the floating corks on the ends of the nets and pull them to shore. A number of these were brought back to the Poole area of England in the early 1800s,[54] then the hub of the Newfoundland fishing trade, by the gentry, and became prized as sporting and waterfowl hunting dogs.[54] A few kennels breeding these grew up in England; at the same time a combination of sheep protection policy (Newfoundland) and rabies quarantine (England) led to their gradual demise in their country of origin.[55] Nickname: Motto: Avancez (Go forward) Coordinates: , Country Province Established August 5, 1583 by Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I Government  - City Mayor Andy Wells  - Governing body St. ... Poole is a coastal town, port and tourist destination, situated on the shores of the English Channel, in the ceremonial county of Dorset in southern England. ... Duck hunters spring from their blind to take a shot at an incoming bird. ... Australian Sheep Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep, and a subcategory of animal husbandry. ... For other uses see Quarantine (disambiguation) Quarantine is voluntary or compulsory isolation, typically to contain the spread of something considered dangerous, often but not always disease. ... The St. ...

A surviving picture of Buccleuch Avon (b.1885), a foundational dog of most modern Labradors.
A surviving picture of Buccleuch Avon (b.1885), a foundational dog of most modern Labradors.

The first and second Earls of Malmesbury, who bred for duck shooting on his estate,[56] and the 5th and 6th Dukes of Buccleuch, and youngest son Lord George William Montagu-Douglas-Scott,[56] were instrumental in establishing the Labrador breed in nineteenth century England. The dogs Avon ("Buccleuch Avon") and Ned given by Malmesbury to assist the Duke of Buccleuch's breeding program in the 1880s are usually considered the ancestors of all modern Labradors.[8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The title of Earl of Malmesbury was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1800. ... The title of Duke of Buccleuch (IPA ) was created in the Peerage of Scotland on 20 April 1663 for the Duke of Monmouth, eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, who had married Anne Scott, 4th Countess of Buccleuch. ...


Early descriptions

Two early descriptions exist. In 1822, explorer W.E. Cormack crossed the island of Newfoundland by foot. In his journal he wrote "The dogs are admirably trained as retrievers in fowling, and are otherwise useful.....The smooth or short haired dog is preferred because in frosty weather the long haired kind become encumbered with ice on coming out of the water." [57] RickK 05:37, May 23, 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Another early report by a Colonel Hawker described the dog as "by far the best for any kind of shooting. He is generally black and no bigger than a Pointer, very fine in legs, with short, smooth hair and does not carry his tail so much curled as the other; is extremely quick, running, swimming and fighting....and their sense of smell is hardly to be credited...." [57]


Name

There is some confusion in the naming of the early breed; the Labrador Retriever was originally called the St. John's dog (from which it emerged), or lesser Newfoundland, but these were also considered distinct breeds by other sources. Other origins suggested for the name include the Spanish or Portuguese word for rural/agricultural workers, Portuguese "lavradores" or Spanish "labradores," and the village of Castro Laboreiro in Portugal whose herding and guard dogs bear a "striking resemblance" to Labradors.[54] Still others say it was named after the territory of Labrador in Canada in error, or since the name "Newfoundland" was already taken by the larger breed.[citation needed]


Historical landmarks

The first written reference to the breed was in 1814 ("Instructions to Young Sportsmen" by Colonel Peter Hawker),[54] the first painting in 1823 ("Cora. A Labrador Bitch" by Edward Landseer),[54] and the first photograph in 1856 (the Earl of Home's dog "Nell", described both as a Labrador and a St. Johns dog).[55] By 1870 the name Labrador Retriever became common in England.[54] The first yellow lab on record was born in 1899 (Ben of Hyde, kennels of Major C.J. Radclyffe),[54] and the breed was recognised by the Kennel Club in 1903. The first American Kennel Club (AKC) registration was in 1917.[54] The chocolate Labrador emerged in the 1930s,[54] although liver spotted pups were documented being born at the Buccleuch kennels in 1892.[54] The St. John's dog survived until the early 1980s, the last two individuals being photographed in old age around 1981.[55] The title Earl of Home (pronounced Hume) was created in 1605 in the Peerage of Scotland for Alexander Home, who was also the sixth Lord Home. ... © The American Kennel Club (or AKC) is the largest registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States. ... The St. ...


History of subtypes

Ancestral chocolate and butterscotch-yellow colours (sometimes called "liver" or "golden") were noted in the original St. John's dogs as early as 1807, when the Canton shipwrecked carrying a number of St. John's dogs for the Earl of Malmesbury. Two dogs were later found, one black and one chocolate, evidence that chocolate had been a colour in the original St. John's dogs.[55] Yellow and chocolate pups, and occasional black and tan or brindling,[20][58]would occasionally reappear (although often culled), until finally gaining acceptance in the cases of chocolate and yellow or being mostly bred out of the breed in the cases of black-and-tan and brindled, although until the 20th century black was the preferred colour. To cull is to remove from a group of animals those individuals who show signs of weakness. ...


The first recognised yellow lab was Ben of Hyde, born 1899, and chocolate labs became more established in the 1930s. Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ...

Ben of Hyde (b.1899), the first recognised yellow Labrador.
Ben of Hyde (b.1899), the first recognised yellow Labrador.
Yellow (and related shades)

In the early years of the breed through to the mid-20th century, Labradors of a shade we would now call "yellow" were in fact a dark, almost butterscotch, colour (visible in early yellow lab photographs). The shade was known as "Golden" until required to be changed by the UK Kennel Club, on the grounds that "Gold" was not actually a colour. Over the 20th century a preference for far lighter shades of yellow through to cream prevailed, until today most yellow labs are of this shade.[59] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Interest in the darker shades of gold and fox red were re-established by English breeders in the 1980s, and two dogs were instrumental in this change: Balrion King Frost (black, born approx. 1976) who consistently sired "very dark yellow" offspring and is credited as having "the biggest influence in the re-development of the fox red shade",[59] and his great-grandson, the likewise famous Wynfaul Tabasco (b.1986),[60] described as "the father of the modern fox red Labrador", and the only modern fox red Show Champion in the UK. Other dogs, such as Red Alert and Scrimshaw Placido Flamingo, are also credited with greatly passing on the genes into more than one renowned bloodline.[59] The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...

Chocolate labs

Jack Vanderwyk traces the origins of all Chocolate labs listed on the LabradorNet database (some 34,000 labs of all shades) to eight original bloodlines. However the shade was not seen as a distinct colour until the 20th century; before then according to Vanderwyk, such dogs can be traced but were not registered. A degree of crossbreeding with Flatcoat or Chesapeake Bay retrievers was also documented in the early 20th century, prior to recognition. Chocolate labs were also well established in the early 20th century at the kennels of the Earl of Feversham, and Lady Ward of Chiltonfoliat.[61] The term crossbreed or crossbred refers to a hybrid animal of two purebred parents created by means of crossbreeding. ... The Flat-Coated Retriever is a gundog breed from the United Kingdom. ... The Chesapeake Bay Retriever is a breed of dog that was developed along the Chesapeake Bay to hunt waterfowl under adverse weather and water conditions, often having to break ice during the course of many strenuous multiple retrieves. ...


The bloodlines as traced by Vanderwyk each lead back to three black labs in the 1880s—Buccleuch Avon (m), and his sire and dam, Malmesbury Tramp (m), and Malmesbury June (f). Morningtown Tobla is also named as an important intermediary, and according to the studbook of Buccleuch Kennels, the chocolates in that kennel came through FTW Peter of Faskally (1908).[61]


Appearance in other countries

In the United States, the breed gained wider recognition following a 1928 American Kennel Gazette article, "Meet the Labrador Retriever". Before this time, the AKC had only registered 23 Labradors in the country,[55] in part because US and UK hunting styles had different requirements.[62] Labradors acquired popularity as hunting dogs during the 1920s and especially after World War II, as they gained recognition as combining some of the best traits of the two favourite United States breeds as both game finders and water dogs.[62] © The American Kennel Club (or AKC) is the largest registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Outside North America and Western Europe, the Labrador arrived later. For example, the Russian Retriever Club traces the arrival of Labradors to the late 1960s, as household pets of diplomats and others in the foreign ministry.[63] The establishment of the breed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (ex-USSR) was initially hindered by the relatively small numbers of Labradors and great distances involved, leading to difficulty establishing breedings and bloodlines;[63] at the start of the 1980s, home-born dogs were still regularly supplemented by further imports from overseas.[63] Difficulties such as these initially led to Labradors being tacitly cross-bred to other types of retriever.[63] In the 1990s, improved access to overseas shows and bloodlines is said to have helped this situation become regularised.[63] North American redirects here. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... The term crossbreed or crossbred refers to a domestic animal where the breed status of only one parent or grandparent is known. ...


Famous labradors

Main article: List of Labradors

As both the most popular breed by registered ownership and also the most popular breed for assistance dogs in several countries, there have been many notable and famous labradors since the breed was recognised. Image File history File links Clinton_Buddy_120597. ... Image File history File links Clinton_Buddy_120597. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Former president Bill Clinton and Buddy Buddy (born 1997 – died January 2, 2002), a male chocolate-colored Labrador Retriever, was one of two pets owned by Bill Clinton while he was President of the United States. ... A yellow Labrador retriever. ...


A selection of a few of the most famous labradors within various categories includes:

Assistance dogs
  • Endal, a service dog in England. Among other distinctions, "the most decorated dog in the world" (including "Dog of the Millennium"[64] and the PDSA’s Gold Medal for Animal Gallantry and Devotion to Duty),[65] the first dog to ride on the London Eye and the first dog known to work a 'chip and pin' ATM card. As of 2007 some three hundred camera crews from several countries have interviewed Endal and his owner/handler Allen Parton, and a film of a year in his life is in production.[66][67]
Police, military, rescue and detection dogs
  • Jake, a black Labrador who became a national canine hero after burrowing through white-hot, smoking debris in search of survivors in the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks. Also helped search for Hurricane Katrina victims in 2005.
  • Lucky and Flo, twin Black Labrador counterfeit detection dogs who became famous in 2007 for "sniffing out nearly 2 million pirated counterfeit DVDs" on a six-month secondment to Malaysia in 2007.[68] Following the multi-million dollar, 6-arrest Malaysian detection, they became the first dogs to be awarded Malaysia's, "outstanding service award",[69] and software pirates were stated to have put a £30,000 contract out for their lives.[70][71]
  • Several other labradors have either gained fame or awards for lives saved, bombs detected, or (in some cases) have died whilst saving lives.
Field trial dogs
  • NFC-AFC San Joaquin Honcho won the 1976 National Field Trial Championship and accumulated 142 All-age points during his competitive career.[72]
  • NFC AFC Storm's Riptide Star, or "Rascal," was the first chocolate lab to win the National Field Trial Championship, and the 1996 National Field Trial Championas well as a finalist in the 1998 National Open.[73][74]
Pets
Fiction and media
  • Labradors have featured variously as pets and significant characters in sitcoms and other TV shows, as well as other portrayals in the media. Bouncer in Neighbours, and Luath in The Incredible Journey, are two TV examples.
  • Marley is an American Labrador portrayed in Marley & Me, a book by John Grogan in which Grogan recounts his life and times with Marley.
  • The Andrex Puppy is famous Labrador Retriever Puppy.
Mascots and adverts
  • The Memphis Mad Dogs have a Labrador as their mascot, and the Andrex Puppy is a famous Labrador in advertising. Brinkley, a yellow Labrador, has featured in television articles and advertisements in the East Midlands area of the United Kingdom. A Labrador puppy is also currently used as a mascot of sorts for Advantage (Imidacloprid) in TV commercials in the United States.

It has been suggested that Endal (dog) be merged into this article or section. ... A service dog is a type of assistance dog, specifically trained to help people who have disabilities other than visual or hearing impairment. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The PDSA Gold Medal - awarded for animal gallantry and devotion to duty. The PDSA Gold Medal in an animal bravery award that acknowledges the bravery and devotion to duty of animals. ... The London Eye, also known as the Millennium Wheel, is an observation wheel in London, England. ... Chip and PIN is the name of a government-backed initiative in the United Kingdom to implement the EMV standard for secure payments. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Jake (1995 – July 25, 2007) was a well known American black labrador who served as a search and rescue dog following the September 11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... Lucky and Flo are a pair of black Labrador Retrievers, notable for being the first animals trained to detect optical discs by scent. ... The Cathach of St. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A Spaniel Field Trial A field trial is a highly competitive event at which hunting dogs usually compete against one another. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Former president Bill Clinton and Buddy Buddy (born 1997 – died January 2, 2002), a male chocolate-colored Labrador Retriever, was one of two pets owned by Bill Clinton while he was President of the United States. ... The President of Russia (Russian: , President of the Russian Federation, Russian: ) (before December 25, 1991: Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, (Russian: Председатель Правительства Российской Федерации) unofficially called the Prime-Minister (though such term is not present in the Russian Constitution) is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ... John Reeds signature John Jack Silas Reed (October 22, 1887 – October 19, 1920) was an American journalist, poet, and communist activist, famous for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. ... Reds is a 1981 film starring Warren Beatty and Diane Keaton. ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... This article is about the Australian soap opera. ... The hardcover version of The Incredible Journey The Incredible Journey by the renowned Canadian author Sheila Burnford is a childrens book first published by Hodder & Stoughton in London in 1961. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Memphis Mad Dogs were a Canadian football team that played the 1995 season in the Canadian Football League. ... Millie, once mascot of the City of Brampton, is now the Brampton Arts Councils representative. ... Andrex is a company that manufactures toilet roll. ... // Advert redirects here. ... Imidacloprid is an insecticide developed and marketed by Bayer Cropscience (part of the drug and chemical conglomerate Bayer AG) under the trade name Merit ®. It is notable for its relatively low toxicity to most animals other than insects, due to its specificity for the type of synapse which is found...

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  58. ^ B/b, E/e, and Beyond
  59. ^ a b c Robbins, Joyce; Pam Naranjo and Gina Gross. Fox Red Labradors:History of the Shade. Little River Labs. Retrieved on 2007-09-13.
  60. ^ Labrador Genealogy. U.P. Labradors. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  61. ^ a b Template:Cite web .
  62. ^ a b Dollevoet, Lori. Origins of Labrador Retrievers. Lorken Farms. Retrieved on 2007-09-13.
  63. ^ a b c d e Teslenko, Olga. History of Retrievers in Russia. The Russian Retriever Club. Retrieved on 2007-09-13.
  64. ^ Hero dog to the rescue. Petersfield Herald (4 June 2001). “The pair have appeared on television all over the country demonstrating how specially trained dogs can help profoundly disabled people. This week, as they recovered from their ordeal at the Steep home of Canine Partners for Independence, the group who trained Endal, Allen praised his four legged companion: “We’ve given so many demonstrations on how Endal should go into action if I fall out of my wheelchair but last Thursday Endal did it for real” … Endal was voted Dog of the Millennium by Dogs Today readers and Beta Pet Foods, Dog of the Year by the charities Pro Dogs and Pets As Therapy, and was the first ever winner of the Golden Bonio Award.”
  65. ^ Endal, December 2006 (html). Illinois Springer Spaniel Rescue. Retrieved on 2007-06-20.
  66. ^ TV crew making film of partners' year. K9 Perspective Magazine, Issue 27.
  67. ^ Crufts 2006 eventful for Allen and Endal. K9 Perspective Magazine, Issue 27.
  68. ^ "Police Dogs Sniff for Pirated DVDs." ABC News. May 10, 2006. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  69. ^ Blass, Evan. "DVD-sniffing dogs awarded medals, returning to NYC." Engadget. August 20, 2007. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  70. ^ Chan, Sewell. "Fresh Off Malaysian Triumph, DVD-Sniffing Dogs Tackle New York." New York Times. August 28, 2007. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  71. ^ Blass, Evan. "DVD pirates put out hits on Lucky and Flo the crime dogs." Engadget. March 22, 2007. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  72. ^ Working-Retriever.com Hall of Fame [1]
  73. ^ Source: Storm's Riptide Star Article [2]
  74. ^ Storm's Riptide Star Pedigree [3]

Labrador Retriever [4] Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... © The American Kennel Club (or AKC) is the largest registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2016 (MMXVI) will be a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2017 (MMXVII) will be a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dorling Kindersley (DK) is an international publishing company specialising in reference books for adults and children. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stanley Coren is a psychology professor and researcher who has become best known for a series of books regarding the intelligence of dogs. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Petersfield Herald is a paid-for broadsheet newspaper based in Petersfield, Hampshire, and published every Friday. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... K9 Magazine is a British dog magazine published by K9 Media Ltd. ... K9 Magazine is a British dog magazine published by K9 Media Ltd. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Engadget is a popular technology weblog and podcast (on hold as of 31/08/2007) about consumer electronics. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Engadget is a popular technology weblog and podcast (on hold as of 31/08/2007) about consumer electronics. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Labrador Retriever
  • Cunliffe, Juliette (2004). The Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds. Parragon Publishing. ISBN 0-7525-8276-3. 
  • Fergus, Charles (2002). Gun Dog Breeds, a Guide to Spaniels, Retrievers, and Pointing Dogs. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-618-5. 
Guilford is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Look up Origin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Canadian Eskimo Dog, otherwise known as the Qimmiq, is a larger breed of Arctic dog commonly found pulling sleds fortheir Inuit counterparts. ... The Landseer (Continental-European type) is a dog breed. ... A Landseer painting of a Landseer Newfoundland. ... The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever is one of the most unusual breeds of gundog, at least in terms of how the dog works. ... Breed standards (external links) SSSD Breed Std. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Tahltan Bear Dog was a breed of dog that was indigenous to Canada. ... The St. ... Gundogs, also called bird dogs, are a category of dog breeds developed to assist hunters to find and retrieve game, usually birds. ... Pointers pointing stance The Pointer is a group of dog breeds; specifically, they are a type of gundog typically used in hunting birds. ... The English Setter is a breed of dog. ... A Gordon Setter is a medium-sized breed of dog, a member of the setter family that also includes both the better-known red Irish Setter and the normally white with black, brown, tan, or a combination of three of these colours English Spainel as well as the less common... The Irish Red and White Setter is virtually identical in use and temperament to its cousin, the Irish Setter, but is more often found as a working gundog. ... The Irish Setter, also known as the Red Setter, is a breed of gundog and family dog. ... The Pointer, often called the English Pointer, is a breed of dog developed as a gun dog. ... Pointers pointing stance The Pointer is a group of dog breeds; specifically, they are a type of gundog typically used in hunting birds. ... The Ariege Pointer is a breed of dog that descends from a French breed, the Saint-Germain pointer. ... The Blue Picardy Spaniel (or Épagneul Bleu de Picardi) is a breed of dog originating from France. ... The Bracco Italiano is a breed of dog developed in Italy as a versatile gun dog. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Braque dAuvergne is a breed of dog originating in France. ... The Brittany is a breed of gun dog that is primarily bred for bird hunting. ... The Cesky Fousek is a Czech breed of versatile gun dog. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The German Shorthaired Pointer is a breed of dog developed in the 1800s in Germany for hunting. ... Country of origin Germany Classification Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The German Wirehaired Pointer is a breed of dog developed in the 1800s in Germany for hunting. ... The Large Munsterlander (or Grosser Münsterlander) is a breed of gun dog originally from the Münster region in Germany. ... The Old Danish Pointer is a medium-sized breed of dog, white with brown markings, originally used as a pointing dog in Denmark. ... The Blue Picardy Spaniel (or Épagneul Bleu de Picardi) is a breed of dog originating from France. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Breed standard (external link) FCI A Pudelpointer is a versatile hunting dog breed from Germany. ... The Small Munsterlander (SM) is a hunting-pointing-retrieving dog breed that reached its current form in the area around Munster, Germany. ... The Spinone Italiano is an Italian dog breed. ... The Hungarian Vizsla, pronounced VEEZH-luh (zh as in vision), is a dog breed originating in Hungary. ... The Weimaraner is a silver-grey breed of dog developed originally in early 19th century for hunting. ... The Wirehaired Pointing Griffon is a breed of dog. ... A retriever is a type of gundog that retrieves game for a hunter. ... The Chesapeake Bay Retriever is a breed of dog that was developed along the Chesapeake Bay to hunt waterfowl under adverse weather and water conditions, often having to break ice during the course of many strenuous multiple retrieves. ... The Curly Coated Retriever (curly) is an intelligent, friendly breed of dog originally bred for upland bird and waterfowl hunting. ... The Flat-Coated Retriever is a gundog breed from Britain. ... The Golden Retriever is a large breed of dog, historically developed as a gundog to retrieve shot waterfowl and upland game during hunting. ... The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever is one of the most unusual breeds of gundog, at least in terms of how the dog works. ... Most spaniels, like this English Cocker Spaniel, are small-to-medium dogs with drop ears and a longer coat. ... The American Cocker Spaniel is a breed of dog that originated in the United Kingdom and was brought to Canada and the United States in the late 1800s. ... The Boykin Spaniel is a medium sized breed of dog and a member of the Spaniel family. ... The Clumber Spaniel is a gundog breed developed in Britain. ... The English Cocker Spaniel is a breed of gun dog. ... The English Springer Spaniel is a breed of gun dog traditionally used for flushing and retrieving game. ... Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The Field Spaniel is a brown and sometimes black or rowan spaniel, similar to the Springer and Cocker Spaniels. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The German Spaniel, also known as the Deutscher Wachtelhund, is a breed of dog that was developed in Germany, and is used as a gundog. ... The Pont-Audemer Spaniel or Epagneul Pont-Audemer is a breed of gundog which is virtually unknown outside of its native country of France. ... A Russian Spaniel Russian Spaniel was created in Soviet Union after the World War II in 1951 as a result of cross-breeding of various European spaniel breeds. ... The Sussex Spaniel is a breed of dog developed in England. ... The Welsh Springer Spaniel is a breed of dog and a member of the spaniel family. ... The standard poodle is a type of water dog Water dogs are a type of gun dog and count among their number some of the oldest dog breeds. ... The American Water Spaniel is a gundog breed little known outside North America. ... The Barbet is a breed of dog, it is a medium-sized French gun dog. ... Known as the clown of the spaniel family, the Irish Water Spaniel is the largest and one of the oldest breeds of spaniels. ... The Lagotto Romagnolo is a breed of dog that comes from the Romagna sub-region of Italy. ... Portuguese Water Dogs are a dog breed bred by the Portuguese at least 500 years ago to help with fishing. ... The Spanish Water Dog or Perro de Agua Español is a breed of dog developed by the shepherds in Spain as a multi-purpose herder who was also used sometimes as a gundog, as well as an assistant to fishermen. ... The Wetterhoun (plural: Wetterhounen) is a breed of dog also called the Otterhoun or Frisian Water Dog. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
American Kennel Club - Labrador Retriever (0 words)
The most distinguishing characteristics of the Labrador Retriever are its short, dense, weather resistant coat; an "otter" tail; a clean-cut head with broad back skull and moderate stop; powerful jaws; and its "kind," friendly eyes, expressing character, intelligence and good temperament.
Above all, a Labrador Retriever must be well balanced, enabling it to move in the show ring or work in the field with little or no effort.
The Labrador's hindquarters are broad, muscular and well-developed from the hip to the hock with well-turned stifles and strong short hocks.
Labrador Retriever - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2326 words)
The Labrador Retriever ("Labrador" or "Lab" for short), is one of several kinds of retriever, and is the most popular breed of dog (by registered ownership) in both the United States and the United Kingdom.
Labradors are relatively large with males typically weighing 27 to 36 kg (60 to 80 lb) and females 23 to 32 kg (45 to 70 lb).
Labradors have a reputation as a very mellow breed and an excellent family dog (including a good reputation with children of all ages), but some lines (particularly those that have continued to be bred specifically for their skills at working in the field rather than for their appearance) are particularly fast and athletic.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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